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Cephalopods Are Best Candidates For Invertebrate Consciousness, Jennifer A. Mather, Claudio Carere 2016 Psychology, University of Lethbridge

Cephalopods Are Best Candidates For Invertebrate Consciousness, Jennifer A. Mather, Claudio Carere

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Insects might have been the first invertebrates to evolve sentience, but cephalopods were the first invertebrates to gain scientific recognition for it.


Caterpillars, Consciousness And The Origins Of Mind, Arthur S. Reber 2016 University of British Columbia

Caterpillars, Consciousness And The Origins Of Mind, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

A novel framework for the origins of consciousness and mind, the Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC), is presented. The model is based on a simple, perhaps radical axiom: subjectivity is an inherent feature of particular kinds of organic form. Experiential states, including those denoted as "mind" and "consciousness," are present in the most primitive species. The model has several conceptual and empirical virtues, among them: (a) it (re)solves the problem of how minds are created by brains ─ also known as the "Hard Problem" (Chalmers 1995) ─ by revealing that the apparent difficulty results from a category error, (b) it redirects ...


Why Animals Are Persons, Tony Cheng 2016 University College London

Why Animals Are Persons, Tony Cheng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands’s case for attributing personhood to lower animals is ultimately convincing, but along the way he fails to highlight several distinctions that are crucial for his argument: Personhood vs. personal identity; the first person vs. its mental episodes; and pre-reflective awareness in general vs. one specific case of it.


Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr. 2016 Rockhurst University

Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...


Are Animals Persons?, Mark Rowlands 2016 University of Miami

Are Animals Persons?, Mark Rowlands

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

It is orthodox to suppose that very few, if any, nonhuman animals are persons. The category “person” is restricted to self-aware creatures: humans (above a certain age) and possibly some of the great apes and cetaceans. I argue that this orthodoxy should be rejected, because it rests on a mistaken conception of the kind of self-awareness relevant to personhood. Replacing this with a sense of self-awareness that is relevant requires us to accept that personhood is much more widely distributed through the animal kingdom.


Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

To what degree are non-human animals conscious? We propose that the most meaningful way to approach this question is from the perspective of functional neurobiology. Here we focus on subjective experience, which is a basic awareness of the world without further reflection on that awareness. This is considered the most basic form of consciousness. Tellingly, this capacity is supported by the integrated midbrain and basal ganglia structures, which are among the oldest and most highly conserved brain systems in vertebrates. A reasonable inference is that the capacity for subjective experience is both widespread and evolutionarily old within the vertebrate lineage ...


Cross-Species Mind-Reading, Stevan Harnad 2016 Université du Québec à Montréal & University of Southampton

Cross-Species Mind-Reading, Stevan Harnad

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

We can never be sure anyone else is sentient. But we can be sure enough in the case of other people, nonhuman primates, mammals, birds, fish, lower vertebrates and invertebrates as to make scepticism academic and otiose (not to mention monumentally cruel). The only genuinely uncertain kinds of cases are jellyfish, microbes and plants. The rest is not about whether but what they are feeling.


My Orgasms Cannot Be Traded Off Against Others’ Agony, Stevan Harnad 2016 Université du Québec à Montréal & University of Southampton

My Orgasms Cannot Be Traded Off Against Others’ Agony, Stevan Harnad

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Only I can calculate my own welfare as net pleasure minus pain. No one else can do that calculation for me – nor for a population, and especially not averaging across some individuals’ pleasure and other individuals’ pain. Pain and pleasure are incommensurable and only pain matters morally. To maximize welfare is to minimize pain.


In Praise Of Fishes: Précis Of What A Fish Knows (Balcombe 2016), Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

In Praise Of Fishes: Précis Of What A Fish Knows (Balcombe 2016), Jonathan Balcombe

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Our relationship to fishes in the modern era is deeply problematic. We kill and consume more of them than any other group of vertebrates. At the same time, advances in our knowledge of fishes and their capabilities are gaining speed. Fish species diversity exceeds that of all other vertebrates combined, with a wide range of sensory adaptations, some of them (e.g., geomagnetism, water pressure and movement detection, and communication via electricity) alien to our own sensory experience. The evidence for pain in fishes (despite persistent detractors) is strongly supported by anatomical, physiological and behavioral studies. It is likely that ...


Sentience As Moral Consideration And Disvalue In Nature, Daniel Dorado 2016 Animal Ethics

Sentience As Moral Consideration And Disvalue In Nature, Daniel Dorado

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In recent work Ng assumes that it is good to engage in activities aimed at promoting ecosystem conservation. The only way Ng can derive this from the axiology he assumes (the view that wellbeing is the only intrinsically valuable or disvaluable thing) would be to assume that ecosystem conservation would benefit the individuals involved. This can be so as long as value prevails over disvalue in the target environments. Ng seems to assume this is indeed the case, but he does not explain why, and it is a claim that goes against the conclusions he has argued for previously (Ng ...


Changing Attitudes Towards Animals In The Wild And Speciesism, Oscar Horta 2016 University of Santiago de Compostela

Changing Attitudes Towards Animals In The Wild And Speciesism, Oscar Horta

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I argue that despite Ng’s claim that we should postpone the defense of those animals that live in the wild, we do have reasons to start spreading concern for them now. We can do it by (i) changing public attitude by heightening awareness of speciesism, by which we will also challenge animal exploitation; and (ii) by disseminating information about the situation of animals in the wild.


Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

In sports concussion research, obtaining quality data from a sufficient number of participants to reach statistical power has been a particular problem. In addition, the necessary requirements of accessibility, informed consent, and confidentiality must be met. There is need to develop more efficient and controlled methods for collecting data to answer research questions in this realm, but the ability to collect and store these data in an efficient manner at the local level is limited. By virtue of their training, neuropsychologists can play a key role in improving data collection quality. The purpose of this paper is to describe a ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


Combining Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback Training Of The Dlpfc With N-Back Practice Results In Neuroplastic Effects Confined To The Neurofeedback Target Region, Matthew Sherwood, Michael Patrick Weisend Ph.D., Jessica Kane, Jason G. Parker 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Combining Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback Training Of The Dlpfc With N-Back Practice Results In Neuroplastic Effects Confined To The Neurofeedback Target Region, Matthew Sherwood, Michael Patrick Weisend Ph.D., Jessica Kane, Jason G. Parker

Matthew Sherwood

In traditional fMRI, individuals respond to exogenous stimuli and are naïve to the effects of the stimuli on their neural activity patterns. Changes arising in the fMRI signal are analyzed post-hoc to elucidate the spatial and temporal activation of brain regions associated with the tasks performed. The advent of real-time fMRI has enabled a new method to systematically alter brain activity across space and time using neurofeedback training (NFT), providing a new tool to study internally-driven processes such as neuroplasticity. In this work, we combined n-back practice with fMRI-NFT of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to better understand ...


Pharmacogenetics Of Non-Motor Symptoms In Parkinson's Disease, Brian Robertson 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Pharmacogenetics Of Non-Motor Symptoms In Parkinson's Disease, Brian Robertson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Memory deficits are recognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The nature of these memory deficits is unclear because few studies have both isolated memory encoding and retrieval processes while testing patients on and off their dopamine replacement medication. Previous work suggests encoding depends upon regions innervated by the ventral tegmental area, which is relatively spared in PD, while retrieval depends upon dorsal striatum, which is dopamine deficient even early in PD. We investigated the impact of a dopamine transporter (DAT1), a dopamine reuptake protein, polymorphism (a 40-base-pair variable repeat affecting expression) on encoding and retrieval in healthy, elderly controls as ...


On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore neurophysiological brain responses to prepositional phrases involving concrete and abstract reference nouns (e.g., "plate" and "moment", respectively) after the presentation of objects with varying spatial features. Prepositional phrases were headed by in or on and were either matching (e.g., "in the plate/moment") or mismatching (e.g., "on the plate/moment"). Conjunction phrase matches and fillers were also presented. Before half of the concrete-phrase items, a photographic depiction of the reference noun was presented. In these photographs, objects were displayed in a way that was either more appropriate for in ...


Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller 2016 Lawrence University

Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller

Lawrence University Honors Projects

DAF-19, the only RFX transcription factor found in C. elegans, is required for the formation of neuronal sensory cilia. Four isoforms of the DAF-19 protein have been reported, and the m86 nonsense (null) mutation affecting all four isoforms has been shown to prevent cilia formation. Transcriptome analyses employing microarrays of L1 and adult stage worms were completed using RNA from daf-19(m86) worms and an isogenic wild type strain to identify additional putative DAF-19 target genes. Using transcriptional fusions with GFP, we compared the expression patterns of several potential gene targets using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Expression patterns were characterized in ...


Effect Of Proficiency Level On The Neural Responses Of Students Learning Spanish As A Second Language, Haley West 2016 Augustana College - Rock Island

Effect Of Proficiency Level On The Neural Responses Of Students Learning Spanish As A Second Language, Haley West

Celebration of Learning

This study examines the effect of Second Language proficiency on the hemispheres of the brain. This will tell us if and how the brain processes a second language differently. Comparisons explore English versus Spanish listening tasks, and right versus left hemisphere activation in students with varying proficiencies in the Spanish program at Augustana. This is one of the first experiments to use the new in-house electroencephalography (EEG) technology in the Augustana neuroscience program.


Symmetries Constrain Dynamics In A Family Of Balanced Neural Networks, Andrea Barreiro, J Nathan Kutz, Eli Shlizerman 2016 Southern Methodist University

Symmetries Constrain Dynamics In A Family Of Balanced Neural Networks, Andrea Barreiro, J Nathan Kutz, Eli Shlizerman

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Sex Differences In Cognition, Emotional Reactivity, And Motor Ability In Gonadally-Intact Middle-Aged Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Nichole J. Gervais, Kathryn P. Workman, Matthew LaClair, Agnes Lacreuse 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sex Differences In Cognition, Emotional Reactivity, And Motor Ability In Gonadally-Intact Middle-Aged Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Nichole J. Gervais, Kathryn P. Workman, Matthew Laclair, Agnes Lacreuse

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Sex differences in cognition are well documented. Women outperform men on measures of perceptual speed and verbal abilities, while men outperform women on tests of spatial processing. Robust sex differences also exist in stress responses. However, it is unclear how these sex differences change over time and whether males and females follow different trajectories of age-related cognitive decline. Studies in nonhuman primate models can help resolve this issue. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate with a short lifespan that can perform complex cognitive tasks in computerized settings that are comparable to those used with humans. The ...


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