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An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Anorexia nervosa is an enigmatic human condition typified by food-restriction that is often accompanied by extensive exercise. This has been modeled in rats in the wheel-induced feeding-suppression (WIFS) model. In this model, animals are given access to a running-wheel, which induces a volitional drop in food-consumption. Short periods of wheel access have induced a feeding-suppression which is effectively reversed by chlorpromazine administration (Adams et al., 2009). Recent attempts at replicating Adams et al.’s (2009) feeding-suppression have, however, been unsuccessful (Peckham et al., 2013). These attempts raised questions as to whether or not the existing methodology is most effective at ...


Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah DeWolf, Bruno Carneiro 2015 Sacred Heart University

Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah Dewolf, Bruno Carneiro

Biology Faculty Publications

Lead has been utilized throughout history and is widely distributed and mobilized globally. Although lead in the environment has been somewhat mitigated, the nature of lead and its extensive uses in the past prohibit it from being completely absent from our environment and exposure to lead is still a public health concern. Most studies regarding lead toxicity have focused on the brain. However, little is found in the literature on the effects of lead in other tissues. Here, we utilize the zebrafish model system to investigate effects of lead exposure during early developmental time windows at 24, 48 and 72 ...


Cognitive Neurosciene And Its Applications To Contemporary Acting Theory, Ryan Stiffelman 2014 Chapman University

Cognitive Neurosciene And Its Applications To Contemporary Acting Theory, Ryan Stiffelman

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

I personally believe that anyone can be a performer so long as they have the determination, dedication, and refuse to take no for an answer. There are all kinds of training out there designed to help turn hopeful wannabes into the “stars” that we know them as, however, not every “star” we see has had this kind of training. We often hear of young actors like Jennifer Lawrence hailed for their “natural talent”. Does this mean there’s some kind of birth-right, a specific natural inclination or ability that makes someone a potentially great actor from the start? I will ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Smoking and tobacco dependence are serious health concerns in the United States and globally. Reward via the pharmacological effects of nicotine are believed to be the principal motivating factor that drive tobacco dependence. Research reveals differences in sensitivity between males and females to the motivational effects of nicotine in tobacco use. Enhancement of reinforcement value of non-nicotine rewards contributes to overall nicotine reward. Similar value-enhancing effects have been observed by the two most commonly prescribed smoking cessation aids, bupropion and varenicline. The present dissertation investigated the value-enhancing effects of nicotine, bupropion and varenicline in both male and female rats using ...


Pathway-Specific Signaling And Its Impact On Fertility: A Focus On The Kisspeptin Receptor, Kiss1r, Maryse R. Ahow 2014 Western University

Pathway-Specific Signaling And Its Impact On Fertility: A Focus On The Kisspeptin Receptor, Kiss1r, Maryse R. Ahow

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hypothalamic GnRH-releasing hormone (Gnrh) is the master regulator of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis and its secretion is regulated by many Gnrh neuronal-based signaling systems. Among these are Gαq/11-coupled receptors and their ligands.In most cases examined to date, activation of these receptors lead to Gnrh neuronal membrane depolarization and Gnrh secretion. The most potent trigger of Gnrh secretion is kisspeptin (Kp), a ligand for the Kiss1r Gαq/11-coupled receptor. Studies have shown that Kiss1r signaling is essential for attaining and maintaining fertility. We recently demonstrated that in addition to signaling via Gαq/11, Kiss1r ...


Suppression Of Neurodegenerative Symptoms Via Suppressor Of Levy Mutation In Drosophila Melanogaster, William Kaputa 2014 SUNY Buffalo State

Suppression Of Neurodegenerative Symptoms Via Suppressor Of Levy Mutation In Drosophila Melanogaster, William Kaputa

Forensic Science Theses

Mutation of the levy gene on chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster has previously been shown to cause temperature-induced paralysis and neurodegeneration. The Suppressor of levy mutation, Su(levy), also on chromosome 2, modulates the effects of the levy mutation and partly rescues the wild-type phenotype. The goal of this research was to determine if Su(levy) mutation alleviates the effects of neurodegeneration caused by mutations associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases in humans. The mutant genes used were hLRRK2, α-Synuclein, DJ1-α, Pink, Parkin, and Aβ-42. To determine this, flies carrying the above-mentioned mutant genes were crossed ...


Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

American legal realism was committed to examining legal reasoning in terms of the actual experiences of judges. Because the realist project sought to use social science tools to examine human nature, the contemporary rise of cognitive neuroscience provides an occasion for re-examining legal realism’s foundational critique of the law. Realism’s attempt to examine “the actual facts of judicial behavior” and to pursue a “scientific description and prediction of judicial behavior” appears to be a suitable vehicle for considering the relevance of cognitive neuroscience for legal theory. Cognitive neuroscience has provided convincing evidence for rejecting the traditional bifurcation between ...


Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton 2014 Liberty University

Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton

Other Undergraduate Scholarship

Research has shown that changes in gene expression play a critical role in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Our project will evaluate genome-wide RNA expression patterns from brain and blood in an AD mouse model. This analysis will provide insight regarding the mechanisms of AD pathology as well as determine a possible diagnostic tool utilizing RNA expression patterns found in the blood as biomarkers for AD.


The Role Of The Rna-Binding Protein Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor In The Cellular Stress Response, Kevin WH Cheung 2014 Western University

The Role Of The Rna-Binding Protein Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor In The Cellular Stress Response, Kevin Wh Cheung

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease for which the pathological mechanism is heterogeneous and a cure has been elusive. Recent developments have linked specific proteins found in pathological neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) of ALS motor neurons to familial variants of the disease. These proteins, including TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS), and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF) share the common characteristic of being RNA-binding proteins that colocalize within NCIs. RGNEF is unique however in also possessing RhoA activation capacity, suggesting a role in the cell stress response. My ...


Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis 2014 Western University

Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Performing magnetic resonance imaging at high magnetic field strength promises many improvements over low fields that are of direct benefit in functional neuroimaging. This includes the possibility of improved signal-to-noise levels, and increased BOLD functional contrast and spatial specificity. However, human MRI at 7T and above suffers from unique engineering challenges that limit the achievable gains. In this thesis, three technological developments are introduced, all of which address separate issues associated with functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging at very high magnetic field strengths.

First, the image homogeneity problem is addressed by investigating methods of RF shimming — modifying the excitation portion of ...


Multi-Oscillator Structure Of The Circadian Pacemaker, Carolina Aguila 2014 Northeastern University

Multi-Oscillator Structure Of The Circadian Pacemaker, Carolina Aguila

Biology Master's Theses

Circadian rhythms are an important part of the body's physiological processes. Although circadian rhythms are endogenously generated, they are normally entrained by environmental cycles, most commonly the light/dark (LD) cycle. One important issue is how they are regulated and synchronized within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the controlling center in the mammalian brain. Previous studies have shown that mice deficient in an SCN peptide (VIP-/- mice) under constant darkness display disrupted circadian rhythms with a varying phenotype. The extent to which this deficiency affects mice when entrained to LD cycles is less clear. Some effects of the deficiency suggest ...


Mindfulness Meditation Versus Eeg-Alpha Neurofeedback: The Role Of Eeg-Alpha Enhancement In Attentional Control, Theodore Chow 2014 Western University

Mindfulness Meditation Versus Eeg-Alpha Neurofeedback: The Role Of Eeg-Alpha Enhancement In Attentional Control, Theodore Chow

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis directly compared two active interventions known to enhance the EEG-Alpha rhythm, mindfulness meditation (MM) with EEG-Alpha enhancement neurofeedback (NFB), relative to a non-active Sham-NFB control. Seventy-three university students were randomized to one of the three 15-minute single-session interventions. Participants were subsequently compared on their ability to enhance EEG-Alpha amplitude as well as regarding Stroop behavioural performance, EEG event-related potentials, and EEG-Alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) as markers of attentional control. Participants randomized to MM, NFB, and Sham did not differ in their ability to modulate the EEG-Alpha rhythm post-intervention. However, enhancements in EEG-Alpha amplitude were seen within the MM ...


Histamine Impairs Midbrain Dopaminergic Development In Vivo By Activating Histamine Type 1 Receptors, Itzel Escobedo-Avila, Fernanda Vargas-Romero, Anayansi Molina-Hernandez, Rodrigo Lopez-Gonzalez, Daniel Cortes, Juan A. De Carlos, Ivan Velasco 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Histamine Impairs Midbrain Dopaminergic Development In Vivo By Activating Histamine Type 1 Receptors, Itzel Escobedo-Avila, Fernanda Vargas-Romero, Anayansi Molina-Hernandez, Rodrigo Lopez-Gonzalez, Daniel Cortes, Juan A. De Carlos, Ivan Velasco

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA) regulates the sleep-wake cycle, synaptic plasticity and memory in adult mammals. Dopaminergic specification in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) coincides with increased HA brain levels. To study the effect of HA receptor stimulation on dopamine neuron generation, we administered HA to dopamine progenitors, both in vitro and in vivo.

RESULTS: Cultured embryonic day 12 (E12) VM neural stem/progenitor cells expressed transcripts for HA receptors H1R, H2R and H3R. These undifferentiated progenitors increased intracellular calcium upon HA addition. In HA-treated cultures, dopamine neurons significantly decreased after activation of H1R. We performed intrauterine injections in the developing VM ...


Drk/Dos/Sos Converge With Crk/Mbc/Dced-12 To Activate Rac1 During Glial Engulfment Of Axonal Debris, Tsai-yi Lu, Johnna E. Doherty, Marc R. Freeman 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Drk/Dos/Sos Converge With Crk/Mbc/Dced-12 To Activate Rac1 During Glial Engulfment Of Axonal Debris, Tsai-Yi Lu, Johnna E. Doherty, Marc R. Freeman

GSBS Student Publications

Nervous system injury or disease leads to activation of glia, which govern postinjury responses in the nervous system. Axonal injury in Drosophila results in transcriptional up-regulation of the glial engulfment receptor Draper; there is extension of glial membranes to the injury site (termed activation), and then axonal debris is internalized and degraded. Loss of the small GTPase Rac1 from glia completely suppresses glial responses to injury, but upstream activators remain poorly defined. Loss of the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Crk/myoblast city (Mbc)/dCed-12has no effect on glial activation, but blocks internalization and degradation of debris. Here we ...


Mechanisms Of Astrocyte Contribution To Bortezomib-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy, Caleb R. Robinson 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Mechanisms Of Astrocyte Contribution To Bortezomib-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy, Caleb R. Robinson

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor used in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other non-solid malignancies, alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. Like other chemotherapeutic agents, bortezomib treatment is frequently accompanied by chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) that may be dose-limiting, adversely affecting quality of life and prognosis. The mechanisms behind bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) and CIPN overall are largely unknown. Recent findings in other pain models have indicated substantial involvement of glial cells in chronic pain. Although injury models have shown activation of both astrocytes and microglia following insult, research in other CIPN models has shown astrocytic activation ...


Antidepressant Effects Of The Nts1 Agonist Pd149163 In The Forced Swim Test, Lawrence Carey IV 2014 Northern Michigan University

Antidepressant Effects Of The Nts1 Agonist Pd149163 In The Forced Swim Test, Lawrence Carey Iv

NMU Master's Theses

Neurotensin is a neuropeptide that influences monoaminergic neurotransmission in areas of the brain involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The forced swim test is a commonly used screening model for putative antidepressant medications. Drugs that have antidepressant effects in humans reliably decrease the time animals spend in an immobile posture in the forced swim test without increasing general locomotor activity as measured in an open field test. The present study sought to examine the effects of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 and the tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine on immobility in the forced swim test and on locomotor activity ...


The Effect Of Acute Lps--Induced Immune Activation And Brain Insulin Signaling Disruption In A Diabetic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Andrew Scott Murtishaw 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effect Of Acute Lps--Induced Immune Activation And Brain Insulin Signaling Disruption In A Diabetic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Andrew Scott Murtishaw

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by progressive cognitive impairments and pathological hallmarks that include amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Several well-known mutations exist that lead to early-onset familial AD (fAD). However, these cases only account for a small percentage of total AD cases. The vast majority of AD cases are sporadic in origin (sAD) and are less clearly influenced by a single mutation but rather some combination of genetic and environmental risk.

The etiology of sAD remains unclear but numerous risk factors have been identified that increase the chance of developing AD. Among these ...


Investigating The Primate Prefrontal Cortex Correlates Of Cognitive Deficits In The Ketamine Model Of Schizophrenia, Kevin J. Skoblenick 2014 Western University

Investigating The Primate Prefrontal Cortex Correlates Of Cognitive Deficits In The Ketamine Model Of Schizophrenia, Kevin J. Skoblenick

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The World Health Organization has classified schizophrenia as one of the five leading causes of disability worldwide. Afflicting almost 1% of the world’s population, the disease’s greatest impact stems from its reduction in patients’ cognitive faculties. In order to better study these impairments, a pharmacological model has been developed using the NMDA antagonist, ketamine. This disease model successfully recreates the cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia, allowing researchers to search for associated electrophysiological changes.

In this project I examined the behavioural and neurophysiological effects of ketamine on non-human primates performing the anti-saccade task. Success in this task requires a degree ...


Neuroinflammation And Neurodegeneration In Adult Rat Brain From Binge Ethanol Exposure: Abrogation By Docosahexaenoic Acid, Nuzhath Tajuddin, Kwan-Hoon Moon, Simon Alex Marshall, Kimberly Nixon, Edward J. Neafsey, Hee-Yong Kim, Michael A. Collins 2014 University of Kentucky

Neuroinflammation And Neurodegeneration In Adult Rat Brain From Binge Ethanol Exposure: Abrogation By Docosahexaenoic Acid, Nuzhath Tajuddin, Kwan-Hoon Moon, Simon Alex Marshall, Kimberly Nixon, Edward J. Neafsey, Hee-Yong Kim, Michael A. Collins

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼ 9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼ 375 mg/dl; "Majchrowicz" model) significantly increased AQP4, Ca+2-dependent PLA2 ...


Proliferation, Migration, And Survival Of Cells In The Telencephalon Of The Ball Python, Python Regius, Thomas B. Bales 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Proliferation, Migration, And Survival Of Cells In The Telencephalon Of The Ball Python, Python Regius, Thomas B. Bales

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Reptiles exhibit neurogenesis throughout the brain during adulthood. However, very few studies have quantified telencephalon-wide neurogenesis in adulthood, and no studies have performed these investigations in snakes. Quantifying neurogenesis in the adult snake is essential to understanding class-wide adult neurogenesis and providing insight into the evolution of this trait. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to quantify cell proliferation, migration, and survival in the ball python (Python regius). First, to determine the proper dose of BrdU for injection we subcutaneously injected 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, and 250mg/kg into 15 adult male P. regius. We found the 250mg ...


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