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Love: Its Evolution And Neurobiology, Gerald Ballough PhD 2015 La Salle University

Love: Its Evolution And Neurobiology, Gerald Ballough Phd

Explorer Café

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah DeWolf, Bruno Carneiro 2015 Sacred Heart University

Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah Dewolf, Bruno Carneiro

Biology Faculty Publications

Lead has been utilized throughout history and is widely distributed and mobilized globally. Although lead in the environment has been somewhat mitigated, the nature of lead and its extensive uses in the past prohibit it from being completely absent from our environment and exposure to lead is still a public health concern. Most studies regarding lead toxicity have focused on the brain. However, little is found in the literature on the effects of lead in other tissues. Here, we utilize the zebrafish model system to investigate effects of lead exposure during early developmental time windows at 24, 48 and 72 ...


Quantile Rank Maps: A New Tool For Understanding Individual Brain Development, Huaihou Chen, Clare Kelly, F. Xavier Castellanos, Ye He, Xi-Nian Zuo, Philip T. Reiss 2015 University of Florida

Quantile Rank Maps: A New Tool For Understanding Individual Brain Development, Huaihou Chen, Clare Kelly, F. Xavier Castellanos, Ye He, Xi-Nian Zuo, Philip T. Reiss

Philip T. Reiss

We propose a novel method for neurodevelopmental brain mapping that displays how an individual’s values for a quantity of interest compare with age-specific norms. By estimating smoothly age-varying distributions at a set of brain regions of interest, we derive age-dependent region-wise quantile ranks for a given individual, which can be presented in the form of a brain map. Such quantile rank maps could potentially be used for clinical screening. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals are proposed for the quantile rank estimates. We also propose a recalibrated Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for detecting group differences in the age-varying distribution. This test is shown to ...


An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Anorexia nervosa is an enigmatic human condition typified by food-restriction that is often accompanied by extensive exercise. This has been modeled in rats in the wheel-induced feeding-suppression (WIFS) model. In this model, animals are given access to a running-wheel, which induces a volitional drop in food-consumption. Short periods of wheel access have induced a feeding-suppression which is effectively reversed by chlorpromazine administration (Adams et al., 2009). Recent attempts at replicating Adams et al.’s (2009) feeding-suppression have, however, been unsuccessful (Peckham et al., 2013). These attempts raised questions as to whether or not the existing methodology is most effective at ...


Influence Of Planning Resources On Gait Control In Parkinson’S Disease, Frederico P. Faria 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

Influence Of Planning Resources On Gait Control In Parkinson’S Disease, Frederico P. Faria

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Movement disturbances in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been associated with difficulties to plan complex actions. Performance of simple and complex actions overloads resources for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is unclear if central resources required to plan gait adjustments while walking exacerbate gait disturbances of patients with PD. More specifically, it is unclear how gait impairments, sensory processing, and the dopaminergic system influence the load on processing resources (e.g. cognitive load) during the planning of step modifications. In order to investigate the relative influence of these factors on cognitive load and its impact ...


Hippocampal Volume And Auditory Attention On A Verbal Memory Task With Adult Survivors Of Pediatric Brain Tumor, Reema Jayakar, Tricia Z. King, Robin Morris, Sabrina Na 2015 Georgia State University

Hippocampal Volume And Auditory Attention On A Verbal Memory Task With Adult Survivors Of Pediatric Brain Tumor, Reema Jayakar, Tricia Z. King, Robin Morris, Sabrina Na

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: We examined the nature of verbal memory deficits and the possible hippocampal underpinnings in long-term adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. Method: 35 survivors (M=24.10±4.93 years at testing; 54% female), on average 15 years post-diagnosis, and 59 typically developing adults (M=22.40±4.35 years, 54% female) participated. Automated FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools were used to measure hippocampal, putamen, and whole brain volumes. The California Verbal Learning Test – Second Edition (CVLT-II) was used to assess verbal memory. Results: Hippocampal (F(1,91)=4.06, ηp2=.04), putamen (F(1,91)=11 ...


Relationships Between Specific Health-Related Fitness Components And Standardized Academic Achievement Tests, Tona Wilson 2015 Walden University

Relationships Between Specific Health-Related Fitness Components And Standardized Academic Achievement Tests, Tona Wilson

Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In an attempt to meet monetary-driven mandates to improve student achievement test scores, administrators are replacing physical education activities with subject matter classes in many American schools. This practice negates the positive contributions of physical activity to academic performance and student fitness. Guided by self-efficacy theory, this study assessed the impact of optimal versus minimal physical fitness state on student academic achievement. The study sample included 5,416 9th grade students from the same school district who completed a minimum of 5 of the 6 components of the FITNESSGRAM tests, and who also completed the math and English language arts ...


Cortisol Levels And Voltage Conditions Of College Students, Adriana Steffens 2015 Walden University

Cortisol Levels And Voltage Conditions Of College Students, Adriana Steffens

Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is a limited research base on low voltage brain conditions, which are characterized by electrical activity being measured at below 20 microvolts. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between saliva cortisol levels and voltage using an EGG in a college student population. Illuminating this relationship is important to inform how low voltage conditions can affect daily memory and cognitive functioning of undergraduate college students that may be a result of stress. The college student population may be vulnerable to the low voltage condition because of stress from the transition between teenage and adult life and ...


Characterizing Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach, Stephanie D. Bugden 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach, Stephanie D. Bugden

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disorder of calculation abilities. In the present thesis I report a series behavioural and functional neuroimaging studies to further elucidate the core numerical deficits underlying DD. I recruited a sample of children with DD who demonstrated persistent impairments in arithmetic. In Chapter 2, to validate the selection criteria, I compared the performance of children with and without persistent DD on a test of numerical magnitude processing. The data showed that only children with persistent DD presented with deficits in numerical magnitude processing, while those with inconsistent DD perform at the level of age-matched ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Smoking and tobacco dependence are serious health concerns in the United States and globally. Reward via the pharmacological effects of nicotine are believed to be the principal motivating factor that drive tobacco dependence. Research reveals differences in sensitivity between males and females to the motivational effects of nicotine in tobacco use. Enhancement of reinforcement value of non-nicotine rewards contributes to overall nicotine reward. Similar value-enhancing effects have been observed by the two most commonly prescribed smoking cessation aids, bupropion and varenicline. The present dissertation investigated the value-enhancing effects of nicotine, bupropion and varenicline in both male and female rats using ...


Pathway-Specific Signaling And Its Impact On Fertility: A Focus On The Kisspeptin Receptor, Kiss1r, Maryse R. Ahow 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Pathway-Specific Signaling And Its Impact On Fertility: A Focus On The Kisspeptin Receptor, Kiss1r, Maryse R. Ahow

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hypothalamic GnRH-releasing hormone (Gnrh) is the master regulator of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis and its secretion is regulated by many Gnrh neuronal-based signaling systems. Among these are Gαq/11-coupled receptors and their ligands.In most cases examined to date, activation of these receptors lead to Gnrh neuronal membrane depolarization and Gnrh secretion. The most potent trigger of Gnrh secretion is kisspeptin (Kp), a ligand for the Kiss1r Gαq/11-coupled receptor. Studies have shown that Kiss1r signaling is essential for attaining and maintaining fertility. We recently demonstrated that in addition to signaling via Gαq/11, Kiss1r ...


Suppression Of Neurodegenerative Symptoms Via Suppressor Of Levy Mutation In Drosophila Melanogaster, William Kaputa 2014 State University of New York Buffalo State

Suppression Of Neurodegenerative Symptoms Via Suppressor Of Levy Mutation In Drosophila Melanogaster, William Kaputa

Forensic Science Theses

Mutation of the levy gene on chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster has previously been shown to cause temperature-induced paralysis and neurodegeneration. The Suppressor of levy mutation, Su(levy), also on chromosome 2, modulates the effects of the levy mutation and partly rescues the wild-type phenotype. The goal of this research was to determine if Su(levy) mutation alleviates the effects of neurodegeneration caused by mutations associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases in humans. The mutant genes used were hLRRK2, α-Synuclein, DJ1-α, Pink, Parkin, and Aβ-42. To determine this, flies carrying the above-mentioned mutant genes were crossed ...


An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner 2014 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner

Theses and Dissertations

Direct neural stimulation has recently become a standard therapy for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremors, and Dystonia. Currently, deep brain electro-stimulation and neuro-pharmaceutical treatments are the dominant therapeutic options available to the public. As our understanding of brain function and neurological diseases improves, we are able to develop more advanced neuromodulation techniques. These methods could become viable treatment solutions for treating brain dysfunction. Optogenetics, first introduced by a research team led by Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University, has proved to be a versatile technique with remarkable potential to be used in treatments for brain disorders, dysfunction ...


The Hippocampus And Adult Neurogenesis: A Neural Circuit With A Common Role In Behavioral Flexibility And Detailed Memory, Brian Pochinski 2014 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Hippocampus And Adult Neurogenesis: A Neural Circuit With A Common Role In Behavioral Flexibility And Detailed Memory, Brian Pochinski

Theses and Dissertations

Work with patient H.M. sparked great interest in the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory. Later, the findings that new neurons are born in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) and that they become functionally integrated in neural circuits created new excitement in the field of learning and memory. While there is ample evidence that the hippocampus and adult neurogenesis are involved in learning and memory, similar inconsistencies in both areas have clouded interpretations of their precise role. We propose that studying the role of hippocampus and neurogenesis in the DG must be merged into a more cohesive ...


Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein 2014 Cause of Action Washington, D.C.

Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

American legal realism was committed to examining legal reasoning in terms of the actual experiences of judges. Because the realist project sought to use social science tools to examine human nature, the contemporary rise of cognitive neuroscience provides an occasion for re-examining legal realism’s foundational critique of the law. Realism’s attempt to examine “the actual facts of judicial behavior” and to pursue a “scientific description and prediction of judicial behavior” appears to be a suitable vehicle for considering the relevance of cognitive neuroscience for legal theory. Cognitive neuroscience has provided convincing evidence for rejecting the traditional bifurcation between ...


Pi3k Signaling And Stat92e Converge To Modulate Glial Responsiveness To Axonal Injury, Johnna E. Doherty, Amy E. Sheehan, Rachel Bradshaw, A. Nicole Fox, Tsai-yi Lu, Marc R. Freeman 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pi3k Signaling And Stat92e Converge To Modulate Glial Responsiveness To Axonal Injury, Johnna E. Doherty, Amy E. Sheehan, Rachel Bradshaw, A. Nicole Fox, Tsai-Yi Lu, Marc R. Freeman

Open Access Articles

Glial cells are exquisitely sensitive to neuronal injury but mechanisms by which glia establish competence to respond to injury, continuously gauge neuronal health, and rapidly activate reactive responses remain poorly defined. Here, we show glial PI3K signaling in the uninjured brain regulates baseline levels of Draper, a receptor essential for Drosophila glia to sense and respond to axonal injury. After injury, Draper levels are up-regulated through a Stat92E-modulated, injury-responsive enhancer element within the draper gene. Surprisingly, canonical JAK/STAT signaling does not regulate draper expression. Rather, we find injury-induced draper activation is downstream of the Draper/Src42a/Shark/Rac1 engulfment ...


University Of New England Center For Excellence In Neuroscience K-12 Outreach Program, Alexandria D'Ambruoso, Kelsey Schwarz, Alex Deal, Kristen Erickson, Edward Bilsky, Michael Burman 2014 University of New England

University Of New England Center For Excellence In Neuroscience K-12 Outreach Program, Alexandria D'Ambruoso, Kelsey Schwarz, Alex Deal, Kristen Erickson, Edward Bilsky, Michael Burman

Posters

Research poster describing UNE's Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences (CEN) K-12 outreach program. Founded in 2009 with three main areas of focus—research, scholarship and community outreach—CEN includes over 40 faculty members affiliated with neuroscience research and/or education. The Neuroscience Outreach Program was established in 2009 with the goal of bringing fun, interactive neuroscience lessons to schools to engage students in learning about neuroscience. UNE undergraduate and professional students present the lessons in classrooms with support from UNE faculty and staff.


Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton 2014 Liberty University

Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton

Other Undergraduate Scholarship

Research has shown that changes in gene expression play a critical role in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Our project will evaluate genome-wide RNA expression patterns from brain and blood in an AD mouse model. This analysis will provide insight regarding the mechanisms of AD pathology as well as determine a possible diagnostic tool utilizing RNA expression patterns found in the blood as biomarkers for AD.


Executive Dysfunction And Reward Dysregulation: Interactions In Drug Addiction, Kristen Paula Morie 2014 City University of New York, Graduate Center

Executive Dysfunction And Reward Dysregulation: Interactions In Drug Addiction, Kristen Paula Morie

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

Cocaine addiction is a serious public health hazard, and contributes to disastrous outcomes for individuals who suffer from it. Addiction is accompanied by an inability to control one's own behavior, and a preoccupation with cocaine at the expense of other rewarding pursuits. Previous research has suggested that difficulties with executive function and reward processing may underlie these problems, but the extent to which each contributes to addiction severity, or how these two factors may interact, remains to be elucidated. By using event related potential (ERP) measures in combination with information about self-reported anhedonia over three experiments, we set out ...


Mental Representations, Social Exclusion, And Neurobiological Processes In Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multi-Level Study, Jeffrey K. Erbe 2014 City University of New York, Graduate Center

Mental Representations, Social Exclusion, And Neurobiological Processes In Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multi-Level Study, Jeffrey K. Erbe

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an ongoing public health crisis. Poor developmental quality of differentiation-relatedness of object representations and attachment insecurity have been clinically and empirically demonstrated as core patterns of intrapsychic and interpersonal dysfunction in this particular form of personality pathology. Differentiation-relatedness (D-R), which involves a complementary relationship between intrapsychic autonomy and interpersonal relatedness, has been shown to be a significant aspect of internal psychic experience that relates directly to external relationship patterns, including characteristic response to interpersonal interactions and has been a specific target for treatment of BPD. Specifically, individuals with BPD have shown lower developmental quality of ...


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