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Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inflammation plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating how specific mediators of inflammation contribute to neurodegeneration in AD is crucial. Our studies focused on cyclooxygenases, which are key enzymes in inflammation and highly relevant to AD. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1, constitutive; COX-2, inducible) have emerged as important determinants of AD pathogenesis and progression. COX-2 is highly induced in AD, correlating with AD severity, and COX-1 is also involved in AD. Cyclooxygenases are the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), the principal mediators of CNS neuroinflammation.

The overall GOAL of these studies was to address the ...


The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states. This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the expression of conditioned approach. Rats were tested in a conditioned approach protocol that consisted of 7 consecutive conditioning sessions (light presentations and food were paired), one ...


The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino 2017 Animal Studies Repository

The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Original Abstract: Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. Some birds are now known to be on a par with many mammals in their intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet views of chickens have largely remained unrevised in light of this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the data on cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals ...


C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura Miller Conrad, Miri VanHoven 2017 San Jose State University

C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura Miller Conrad, Miri Vanhoven

Faculty Publications, Chemistry

Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator–prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced cues. Avoidance requires a predicted G-protein-coupled receptor, SRB-6, which is expressed in five types of amphid and phasmid chemosensory neurons. We establish that species of Streptomyces secrete dodecanoic ...


C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen T. O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Y. Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl K. Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura C. Miller Conrad, Miri VanHoven 2017 San Jose State University

C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen T. O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Y. Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl K. Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura C. Miller Conrad, Miri Vanhoven

Daryl K. Eggers

Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator–prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced cues. Avoidance requires a predicted G-protein-coupled receptor, SRB-6, which is expressed in five types of amphid and phasmid chemosensory neurons. We establish that species of Streptomyces secrete dodecanoic ...


The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) continues to be redefined with newly acquired data on neurochemical mechanisms mediating the learning and performance of behavior. Previous empirical data showed that dopamine transmission at the D1 receptor (D1R) plays a transient role in the expression of learned Pavlovian approach behavior. Here we show that, prior to overtraining, dopamine activity at D1Rs specifically within the NAc core is critical for the performance of approach behavior elicited by the recently-acquired reward-paired cue. Blockade of D1Rs in the NAc core, but not the dorsomedial striatum or NAc shell, disrupted approach responses during ...


Song Rhythm Development In Zebra Finches, Julia Hyland Bruno 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Song Rhythm Development In Zebra Finches, Julia Hyland Bruno

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigates song-rhythm learning in songbirds. Songbirds have been studied extensively in mechanistic investigations into the sensorimotor underpinnings of the cultural transmission of learned vocalizations. While several studies identified forebrain song-system neurons that generate rhythmic song patterns, we know little about how song rhythms are learned. The first part of the dissertation describes methods for detecting and analyzing birdsong rhythm patterns, and demonstrates their utility for identifying the role of song rhythms in social interactions. Results suggest that rhythm plasticity in zebra finch song may provide a potential vehicle for communication. Controlled song-learning experiments further found that developing zebra ...


Morphogenesis And Growth Driven By Selection Of Dynamical Properties, Yuri Cantor 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Morphogenesis And Growth Driven By Selection Of Dynamical Properties, Yuri Cantor

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Organisms are understood to be complex adaptive systems that evolved to thrive in hostile environments. Though widely studied, the phenomena of organism development and growth, and their relationship to organism dynamics is not well understood. Indeed, the large number of components, their interconnectivity, and complex system interactions all obscure our ability to see, describe, and understand the functioning of biological organisms.

Here we take a synthetic and computational approach to the problem, abstracting the organism as a cellular automaton. Such systems are discrete digital models of real-world environments, making them more accessible and easier to study then their physical world ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Science Of Learning Network Of Schools: The Science Of Communities Of Practice, Andrew Jones, Frank Vetere 2017 University of Melbourne

Science Of Learning Network Of Schools: The Science Of Communities Of Practice, Andrew Jones, Frank Vetere

2009 - 2017 ACER Research Conferences

Frameworks referencing synthesised bodies of prominent research adorn education improvement policy like curiously named pieces of Ikea furniture—peculiar in their assemblage, ostensibly contemporary, and striking in their modular convenience. Amid this, most pundits still agree that we have an education advancement issue in this country. Despite significant increases in funding from successive federal and state governments, we simply haven’t been able to shift the needle. What we can ascertain is that compliance-based improvement approaches don’t work. They are unable to influence the cognitive maps, beliefs and understandings of the educator to the extent necessary to effectively improve ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examined the effects of neonatal acute immune activation with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal days 3 and 5 on adolescent anxiety-like behaviour in rats before and after a stress period. Previous research has shown that adults rats exposed to LPS during the neonatal stage show anxiety-like behaviour following a period of stress. This thesis investigated this effect in adolescence. The present results showed significantly higher anxiety-like behaviour in saline controls, and a potential neuroprotective effect of low dose LPS (15 µg/kg) contrary to what was reported in adult rats. As well, a phase of stressful, aversive ...


Movie-Driven Fmri Reveals Network Asynchrony And Connectivity Alterations In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Alenka Bullen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Movie-Driven Fmri Reveals Network Asynchrony And Connectivity Alterations In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Alenka Bullen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy and is often resistant to medication. Recent studies have noted brain-wide disruptions to several neural networks in so-called “focal” epilepsy, notably TLE, leading to it being recognized as a network disease. We aimed to assess the integrity of functional networks while they were simultaneously activated in an ecologically valid manner, using an actively engaging, richly stimulating audio-visual film clip. This stimulus elicits widespread, dynamic patterns of time-locked brain activity, measurable using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirteen persons with drug-resistant TLE (persons with epilepsy; PWE) and 10 demographically ...


The Effects Of Dance Therapy On Patients With Parkinson’S Disease: An Integrative Literature Review, Jennifer Pence 2017 DePaul University

The Effects Of Dance Therapy On Patients With Parkinson’S Disease: An Integrative Literature Review, Jennifer Pence

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the nervous system that affects more than one million Americans. Individuals who have PD generally exhibit bradykinesia, postural instability, shuffling steps and freezing during gait. These impairments in motor function cannot be fully addressed with pharmacological treatment and can eventually become unresponsive to this form of treatment. Dance therapy, on the other hand, is one non-pharmacological method that may prove beneficial for PD. It utilizes motor planning skills, which can lead to an improvement in muscle flexibility and balance. The purpose of the systematic integrative literature review was ...


Mechanisms Involved In The Assessment Of Cumulative Long-Term Familiarity Of Object Concepts: An Erp Study, Haopei Yang 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Involved In The Assessment Of Cumulative Long-Term Familiarity Of Object Concepts: An Erp Study, Haopei Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We investigated the sensitivity of ERP components implicated in recognition memory to degree of experimentally controlled and lifetime cumulative exposures during explicit memory judgements. A parietally distributed ERP component spanning both the FN400/N400 and the LPC time windows tracked both types of judgements. This effect appears to be an LPC effect with an early onset, and differs from previously reported effects of repetition linked to implicit memory. Based on recent evidence, we interpreted it as response-related evidence accumulation processes that are in line with both single-process models and continuous dual-process models. We also observed more positive ERPs in the ...


Decoding Mental States After Severe Brain Injury, Raechelle M. Gibson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Decoding Mental States After Severe Brain Injury, Raechelle M. Gibson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some patients with disorders of consciousness retain sensory and cognitive abilities that are not apparent from their outward behaviour. It is crucial to identify and characterise these covert abilities for diagnosis, prognosis, and medical ethics. This thesis uses neuroimaging techniques to investigate cognitive preservation and awareness in patients who are behaviourally non-responsive due to acquired brain injuries. In the first chapter, a large sample of healthy volunteers, including experienced athletes and musicians, imagined actions of varying complexity and familiarity. Motor imagery involving certain complex, familiar actions correlated with a more robust sensorimotor rhythm. In the second chapter, several patients with ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Comparing The Influence Of Music Enjoyment And Beat Perception Ability On Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters Among Healthy Young And Older Adults, Brittany S. Roberts 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Comparing The Influence Of Music Enjoyment And Beat Perception Ability On Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters Among Healthy Young And Older Adults, Brittany S. Roberts

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) involves synchronizing footsteps to music or a metronome thereby eliciting gait improvements in speed and stability among patients with Parkinson’s Disease. However, gait responses are inconsistent (Dalla Bella et al., 2017). Music enjoyment may influence gait responses, but exactly how it may do this has never been assessed. Moreover, individual differences in beat perception ability are likely to influence gait responses to music, particularly if instructed to synchronize to the beat. Here, we investigated whether music enjoyment influences gait, comparing responses based on beat perception ability (good vs poor) and instruction type (“walk freely” vs ...


A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor thalamo-cortico-cerebellar fibre path integrity and overt responsiveness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Additionally, we investigated the potential of imaging these motor tracts at ultra-high fields. Study I and II aimed to map the white matter connections of motor execution fibres in DOC patients. Our results showed significant reductions in motor fibre path integrity across DOC diagnostic categories. Study III and IV aimed to develop a 7T MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) sequence. We optimized this sequence to image motor fibre paths in DOC patients. We concluded that, in healthy controls, probabilistic ...


Predictive Power And Validity Of Connectome Predictive Modeling: A Replication And Extension, Michael Wang, Joaquin Goni, Enrico Amico 2017 Purdue University

Predictive Power And Validity Of Connectome Predictive Modeling: A Replication And Extension, Michael Wang, Joaquin Goni, Enrico Amico

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Neuroimaging, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is a rapidly growing research area and has applications ranging from disease classification to understanding neural development. With new advancements in imaging technology, researchers must employ new techniques to accommodate the influx of high resolution data sets. Here, we replicate a new technique: connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM), which constructs a linear predictive model of brain connectivity and behavior. CPM’s advantages over classic machine learning techniques include its relative ease of implementation and transparency compared to “black box” opaqueness and complexity. Is this method efficient, powerful, and reliable in the prediction of behavioral ...


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