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Effects Of Repeated Aripiprazole Treatment On The Camp And Akt Pathways In The Dorsal Striatum Of Preadolescent And Adult Rats, Megan Leigh Becker 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Effects Of Repeated Aripiprazole Treatment On The Camp And Akt Pathways In The Dorsal Striatum Of Preadolescent And Adult Rats, Megan Leigh Becker

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The positive symptoms of schizophrenia primarily result from an excess of high affinity D2-like receptors (i.e. D2High receptors). First-generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, are D2-like antagonists that can cause severe extrapyramidal effects. Aripiprazole, a dopamine and serotonin partial agonist, has fewer side effects, making it tolerable for adults and children. Extrapyramidal effects (e.g. Parkinsonism, dystonia, and akathisia) are among the most problematic side effects produced by antipsychotic compounds, which likely result from an excess of D2-like receptors in the dorsal striatum. In order to examine the effects of repeated antipsychotic treatment on dopamine system functioning, this thesis ...


Insect Consciousness: Commitments, Conflicts And Consequences, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insect Consciousness: Commitments, Conflicts And Consequences, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Our target article, “Insects have the capacity for subjective experience,” has provoked a diverse range of commentaries. In this response we have collated what we see as the major themes of the discussion. It is clear that we differ from some commentators in our commitments to what subjective experience is and what the midbrain is capable of. Here we clarify where we stand on those points and how our view differs from some other influential perspectives. The commentaries have highlighted the most lively areas of disagreement. We revisit here the debates surrounding whether the cortex is essential for any form ...


Consciousness And Evolutionary Biology, Yew-Kwang Ng 2016 Nanyang Technological University

Consciousness And Evolutionary Biology, Yew-Kwang Ng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber’s axiom: “Any organism with flexible cell walls, a sensitivity to its surrounds and the capacity for locomotion will possess the biological foundations of mind and consciousness” does not seem to be supported by things we know and the logic of evolutionary biology. The latter leads to the conclusion that conscious species are flexible in their behavior (rather than in their cell walls), as argued in Ng (1995, 2016). Locomotion may be completely hard-wired and need not involve consciousness. It is hard enough to explain how consciousness could emerge in a sophisticated brain: Isn’t it a harder problem ...


The Difference Between Conscious And Unconscious Brain Circuits, Ezequiel Morsella, Zaviera Reyes 2016 San Francisco State University

The Difference Between Conscious And Unconscious Brain Circuits, Ezequiel Morsella, Zaviera Reyes

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Theoretical frameworks in which consciousness is an inherent property of the neuron must account for the contrast between conscious and unconscious processes in the brain and address how neural events can ever be unconscious if consciousness is a property of all neurons. Other approaches have sought answers regarding consciousness by contrasting conscious and unconscious processes and through investigating the complex interactions between the two kinds of processes, as occurs most notably in human voluntary action. In voluntary action, consciousness is associated most, not with motor control or low-level perceptual processing, but with the stage of processing known as action selection.



Resolving The Hard Problem And Calling For A Small Miracle, Arthur S. Reber 2016 University of British Columbia

Resolving The Hard Problem And Calling For A Small Miracle, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

With the exception of the commentary by Key, the commentaries on Reber have a common feature: the commenters feel, with varying levels of enthusiasm, that there is at least some virtue in the core assumption of the Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC) theory that consciousness (or subjectivity or sentience) accompanies the earliest forms of life. The model has two important entailments: (a) it resolves the (in)famous Hard Problem by redirecting the search for the biochemical foundations of sentience away from human consciousness; and (b) it reduces the need for an emergentist miracle to a far simpler scale than is ...


No Help On The Hard Problem, Derek Ball 2016 University of St Andrews

No Help On The Hard Problem, Derek Ball

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The hard problem of consciousness is to explain why certain physical states are conscious: why do they feel the way they do, rather than some other way or no way at all? Arthur Reber (2016) claims to solve the hard problem. But he does not: even if we grant that amoebae are conscious, we can ask why such organisms feel the way they do, and Reber’s theory provides no answer. Still, Reber’s theory may be methodologically useful: we do not yet have a satisfactory theory of consciousness, but perhaps the study of simple minds is a way to ...


Unconscious Higher-Order Thoughts (Hots) As Pre-Reflective Self-Awareness?, Rocco J. Gennaro 2016 The University of Southern Indiana

Unconscious Higher-Order Thoughts (Hots) As Pre-Reflective Self-Awareness?, Rocco J. Gennaro

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands argues that many nonhuman animals are “persons,” contrary to the prevailing orthodoxy which rests on a mistaken conception of the kind of self-awareness relevant to personhood. He argues that self-awareness bifurcates into two importantly different forms — reflective self-awareness and pre-reflective self-awareness — and that many animals can have the latter, which is sufficient for personhood. I agree that there is good reason to think that many animals can have pre-reflective self-awareness, but I think Rowlands is mistaken about its nature. His account runs the risk of leading to an infinite regress objection, and his notion of pre-reflective self-awareness actually sounds ...


The Psychological Concept Of “Person”, Kristin Andrews 2016 York University Animal Sentience

The Psychological Concept Of “Person”, Kristin Andrews

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reluctance to overextend personhood seems to drive many of the skeptical responses in the first round of commentaries on Rowlands's target article. Despite Rowlands’s straightforward Response that we already accept some nonhumans as persons, there is still hesitation to accept that other nonhuman animals are persons. Rowlands's argument is sound but the skeptics don’t accept the Lockean notion of person. The metaphysical sense of person is a psychological one, however, and psychological properties grant one moral status according to many ethical theories.


Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day 2016 Iowa State University

Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day

Michael J. Kimber

The blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicuminflict immense suffering as agents of human schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have found the nervous systems of these worms contain abundant immunoreactivity to antisera targeting invertebrate neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) as well as structurally similar neuropeptides of the mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) family. Here, cDNAs encoding NPF in these worms were identified, and the mature neuropeptides from the two species differed by only a single amino acid. Both neuropeptides feature the characteristics common among NPFs; they are 36 amino acids long with a carboxyl-terminal Gly-Arg-X-Arg-Phe-amide and Tyr residues at positions 10 and 17 from the ...


Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stress increases the frequency by which epileptic seizures occur. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stress. This thesis sought to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CRF regulates the activity of neural circuits in the piriform cortex (PC) in normal and epileptic states. The PC is richly innervated by CRF and 5-HT containing axons arising from the central amygdala and raphe nucleus. CRFR1 and 5-HT2A/CRs have been shown to interact in a manner where CRFR activation subsequently potentiates the activity of 5-HT2A/CRs. The first purpose of this ...


Single-Cell Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Novel Neuronal Phenotypes And Interaction Networks Involved In The Central Circadian Clock, James Park, Haisun Zhu, Sean O'Sullivan, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, David R. Weaver, James S. Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

Single-Cell Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Novel Neuronal Phenotypes And Interaction Networks Involved In The Central Circadian Clock, James Park, Haisun Zhu, Sean O'Sullivan, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, David R. Weaver, James S. Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Single-cell heterogeneity confounds efforts to understand how a population of cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function. This complexity is prominent in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Here, individual neurons exhibit a remarkable amount of asynchronous behavior and transcriptional heterogeneity. However, SCN neurons are able to generate precisely coordinated synaptic and molecular outputs that synchronize the body to a common circadian cycle by organizing into cellular networks. To understand this emergent cellular network property, it is important to reconcile single-neuron heterogeneity with network organization. In light of recent studies suggesting that transcriptionally heterogeneous cells organize into distinct cellular ...


The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Ezana Assefa 2016 Nova Southeastern University

The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Ezana Assefa

Trick to the Treat of Internships and Research

This program is a 10-week internship designed for undergraduates interested in the scientific field to engage in current research. Students have the option of requesting to work under three mentors, one of which they will be paired. Students will work in the lab with the principal investigator and other members of the lab. Along with working in the lab, students in the program will also attend bi-weekly talks/lectures from researchers, grad students, and professionals at TSRI as well as participating in two presentations and a final poster or oral presentation.


Corrigendum: Fib/Sem Technology And High-Throughput 3d Reconstruction Of Dendritic Spines And Synapses In Gfp-Labeled Adult-Generated Neurons, Carles Bosch, Albert Martinez, Nuria Masachs, Catia M. Teixeira, Isabel Fernaud, Fausto Ulloa, Esther Perez-Martinez, Carlos Lois, Joan X. Comella, Javier DeFelipe, Angel Merchan-Perez, Eduardo Soriano 2016 University of Barcelona

Corrigendum: Fib/Sem Technology And High-Throughput 3d Reconstruction Of Dendritic Spines And Synapses In Gfp-Labeled Adult-Generated Neurons, Carles Bosch, Albert Martinez, Nuria Masachs, Catia M. Teixeira, Isabel Fernaud, Fausto Ulloa, Esther Perez-Martinez, Carlos Lois, Joan X. Comella, Javier Defelipe, Angel Merchan-Perez, Eduardo Soriano

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

[This corrects the article on p. 60 in vol. 9, PMID: 26052271.].


Zombies, Predatory Wasps And Consciousness, James K. Peterson 2016 Clemson University

Zombies, Predatory Wasps And Consciousness, James K. Peterson

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Synchronization Of Coupled Neurons Via Robust Feedback, Hector Puebla, Ricardo Aguilar-Lopez, Priti Kumar Roy 2016 Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana

Synchronization Of Coupled Neurons Via Robust Feedback, Hector Puebla, Ricardo Aguilar-Lopez, Priti Kumar Roy

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Consciousness And The Unity Of Mind, Mark Rowlands 2016 University of Miami

Consciousness And The Unity Of Mind, Mark Rowlands

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Several types of objection have been raised against the arguments I presented in my target article, “Are animals persons?” Among the objections are the following: (1) the claim that animals are persons is of little significance, (2) my use of the Lockean conception of the person is questionable, (3) whether a creature qualifies as a person is a matter of social construction rather than objective fact, (4) reflective consciousness is more important than I realize, (5) my reliance on implicit self-awareness in the account of personhood is ill-advised, (6) my account entails that too many creatures qualify as persons, and ...


Insects: Still Looking Like Zombies, Christopher S. Hill 2016 Brown University

Insects: Still Looking Like Zombies, Christopher S. Hill

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In arguing that insect brains are capable of sentience, Klein & Barron rely heavily on Bjorn Merker’s claim that activity in the human mid-brain is sufficient for conscious experience. I criticize Merker’s claim by pointing out that the behaviors supported by midbrain activity are much more primitive than the ones that appear to depend on consciousness. I raise a similar objection to Klein & Barron’s contention that insect behaviors are similar to behaviors that manifest consciousness in human beings. The similarity is weak. I also respond to the related view that integrative activity in mid-brain structures is sufficient to ...


Cromwell Relative Reward Striatal Activity.Pdf, Howard C. Cromwell, Emily S. Webber, David E. Mankin 2016 Bowling Green State University

Cromwell Relative Reward Striatal Activity.Pdf, Howard C. Cromwell, Emily S. Webber, David E. Mankin

Howard Casey Cromwell

The striatum is a key brain region involved in reward processing. Striatal activity has been linked to encoding rewardmagnitude and integrating diverse reward outcome information. Recent work has supported the involvement ofstriatum in the valuation of outcomes. The present work extends this idea by examining striatal activity during dynamicshifts in value that include different levels and directions of magnitude disparity. A novel task was used to produce
diverse relative reward effects on a chain of instrumental action. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were trained to respond to
cues associated with specific outcomes varying by food pellet magnitude. Animals were exposed to single-outcomesessions ...


Adult Neurogenesis In Avian Auditory Cortex, Caudomedial Nidopallium (Ncm): Lateralization And Effects Of Statins, Shuk C. Tsoi 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Adult Neurogenesis In Avian Auditory Cortex, Caudomedial Nidopallium (Ncm): Lateralization And Effects Of Statins, Shuk C. Tsoi

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the first part of this paper, we investigated the basic relationship between learning, memory and adult neurogenesis using zebra finches. We found that in the auditory cortex, the left hemisphere had more new neurons than the right hemisphere. This lateralization was correlated with song learning and memory. In the second part, we used juvenile zebra finches as a model organism to study the effects of Lipitor on learning, memory and neurogenesis. We found that Lipitor impaired song learning and memory storage. Lipitor treatments also changed the morphology of new neurons and size of old neurons, suggesting statins may affect ...


Cognitive Dissonance Or Contrast?, Thomas R. Zentall 2016 University of Kentucky

Cognitive Dissonance Or Contrast?, Thomas R. Zentall

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Festinger (1957), cognitive dissonance occurs when one’s behavior or belief is inconsistent with another belief and one modifies one of the beliefs in an attempt to reduce the dissonance. In nonhuman animals, we have examined a version of human cognitive dissonance theory called justification of effort, according to which the value of reward following more difficult tasks increases, presumably to justify (to oneself or to others) performing the more difficult task. We have examined the justification of effort effect in animals and found a pattern similar to the one in humans but we propose a simpler underlying ...


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