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Potential Applications Of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) To Organizational Research: A Primer And Sample Study, Allen I. Huffcutt, Wen-Ching Liu, Lori A. Russell-Chapin 2018 Bradley University

Potential Applications Of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) To Organizational Research: A Primer And Sample Study, Allen I. Huffcutt, Wen-Ching Liu, Lori A. Russell-Chapin

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

The first purpose of this manuscript is to provide a primer for organizational researchers on both fMRI and brain physiology because few are likely to have encountered an in-depth treatment of either previously. The second purpose is to present the results of an actual fMRI study on an organizational topic (structured employment interviews) as a sample to help illustrate the potential of this type of research. Results of the sample study enhanced understanding of the brain processes behind responding to situational (SI) and behavior description (BDI) interviews, and offered several promising directions for follow-up research. To illustrate the latter, there ...


Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax 2018 Duquesne University

Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain and major depressive disorder are widespread conditions in the world. Interestingly, these conditions often occur comorbidly, with each individual disease amplifying the symptoms of the other. A significant amount of preclinical research in pain and depression focuses on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), implying that GPCRs may be useful in treating this comorbidity. Our efforts have sought to characterize several poorly understood GPCRs, including the serotonin receptor subtypes 2C and 7 (5-HT2CR and 5-HT7R) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), along with more well-known GPCRs such as the mu opioid receptor (MOR), and the role that they play in ...


Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse

Open Access Articles

Group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) mediates GPCR-stimulated arachidonic acid (AA) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) located in plasma membranes. We previously found in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons that PLA2 activity is required for voltage-independent N-type Ca2+ (N-) current inhibition by M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs). These findings are at odds with an alternative model, previously observed for M-current inhibition, where PIP2 dissociation from channels and subsequent metabolism by phospholipase C suffices for current inhibition. To resolve cPLA2alpha's importance, we have investigated its role in mediating voltage-independent N-current inhibition (~40%) that follows application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M ...


Investigating Multiple Streams Of Consciousness: Using Descriptive Experience Sampling To Explore Internally And Externally Directed Streams Of Thought, Charles Fernyhough, Ben Alderson-Day, Russel T. Hurlburt, Simone Kühn 2018 Durham University

Investigating Multiple Streams Of Consciousness: Using Descriptive Experience Sampling To Explore Internally And Externally Directed Streams Of Thought, Charles Fernyhough, Ben Alderson-Day, Russel T. Hurlburt, Simone Kühn

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research into resting-state cognition has often struggled with the challenge of assessing inner experience in the resting state. We employed Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES), a method aimed at generating detailed and high-fidelity descriptions of experience, to investigate how experience in the resting state can vary between internal, external, and multiple simultaneous streams. Using a large body of experiential and brain activation data acquired from five DES participants, independent raters classified sampled moments of experience according to whether they were internally directed, externally directed, or contained elements of both at the same time. In line with existing models, comparison of internal ...


Differentiation Of Neurons And Glia For Use In Cellular Connectomics, Jacob T. Brettin 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Differentiation Of Neurons And Glia For Use In Cellular Connectomics, Jacob T. Brettin

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Feeding results from the integration of both nutritional and affective states, and is guided by complex neural circuitry in the brain. The hypothalamus is a critical center controlling feeding and motivated behaviors. We found that targeted photostimulation of projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in mice elicited voracious feeding and repetitive self-grooming behavior. GABA neurotransmission in the LH->PVH circuit mediated the evoked feeding behavior, and elicited behavioral approach, whereas glutamate release promoted repetitive self-grooming, which was stress-related in nature. Optogenetic inhibition of LHGABA ->PVH circuit reduced feeding after fasting, whereas photostimulation abruptly stopped ...


Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger 2018 Missouri State University

Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger

MSU Graduate Theses

Fetal serotonin levels are involved in the development of the serotonergic system in an autoregulatory manner as well as the organization and connectivity of non-serotonergic neurons. Insufficient serotonin levels during development result in improper neuronal maturation and decreased synaptogenesis. Conversely, excess developmental serotonin levels can alter the progression of serotonergic neurons, ultimately resulting in a chronic decrease of serotonin in the developed brain via a negative feedback mechanism. There is a known correlation between autistic patients and chronically decreased brain serotonin concentrations; this is potentially implicated in the impaired development of the autistic brain. Incomplete or delayed development of motor ...


The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment to alleviate the appendicular motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Current steering during DBS allows the unequal fractionation of current between two electrodes on the lead, resulting in a non-spherical electrical field. It is hypothesized that the way the electrical field is shaped will affect a patient’s upper limb symptom alleviation. Seven PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS were tested over four weeks post-operation. 16 current fractionation settings were tested each week at an amplitude that increased weekly. Optimal setting was defined as the setting that provided the ...


Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman 2018 DePaul University

Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...


Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller 2018 Brigham Young University

Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

Pornography use has exponentially increased in the past 10 years. Most believe pornography use is largely a harmless behavior. Although sexuality is innate, hyper-sexual behavior, such as pornography use, has become increasingly commonplace. Addiction research has found that long-term substance addiction contributes to changes in brain volume (Hong et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2011). Recent studies have shown that behavioral addictions also have similar volume loss as substance abuse (Hong et al., 2013). Research has shown that the particular area most affected is the prefrontal cortex (Hong et al., 2013). The prefrontal cortex, which oversees regulating self-control, decreases in ...


Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Magnetophosphenes are among the most reliably reported effects resulting from magnetic induction. The frequency dependence of the perception threshold is crucial, as guideline agencies use this information to set exposure limits whose purpose is to protect public and workers.

Objective:Establish the magnetophosphene perception thresholds throughout the extremely low frequency range (0-300 Hz) and evaluate the use of EEG as a biomarker.

Hypothesis:Perception thresholds will be lowest at ~30 Hz. EEG occipital alpha power will decrease upon perception.

Methods:60 participants were exposed to homogenous magnetic fields up to 300 Hz, and 70 mT. EEG alpha power was ...


Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich 2018 University of New Mexico

Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich

Shared Knowledge Conference

Proactive preparation for an upcoming goal differs from last-minute reactive adaptation, but it is unclear how preparatory mechanisms change based on when in the future a goal needs to be executed. To assess how timing information is integrated into preparatory control, we designed a novel variant of the Dot Pattern Expectancy task, where each cue signaled both task rule and delay duration (known short, known long, or unknown) between cue and probe. We recorded EEG while healthy young adult participants (n=36) performed this task, and found that delay demands elicited distinct prefrontal preparatory activities. Medial prefrontal amplitude was sensitive ...


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy 2018 University of New Mexico

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, Lot Snijders Blok, Inderneel Sahai, Philippe M. Campeau 2018 Radboud University Medical Center

Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, Lot Snijders Blok, Inderneel Sahai, Philippe M. Campeau

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates ...


11 - The Impact Of Obesity On Ingestion-Induced Hippocampal Arc Expression In Male Rats, Karan Sharma 2018 Georgia State University

11 - The Impact Of Obesity On Ingestion-Induced Hippocampal Arc Expression In Male Rats, Karan Sharma

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Obesity is a chronic disease that affects more than 33% of American adults and roughly 13% of adults worldwide. Obesity has many peripheral impacts, such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, and arthritis. Obesity also influences the functioning of the brain. In particular, obesity and overeating impair the function of the hippocampus, which is vital for memory. In humans, impairing the memory of a meal increases subsequent intake. In rats, our lab has shown that sucrose ingestion activates molecules necessary for hippocampal memory formation, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc). We hypothesize that obesity disrupts hippocampal-dependent memory formation ...


Rapid Visuomotor Integration As A Window Into Multisensory Processing, Margaret Schrayer 2018 University of Georgia

Rapid Visuomotor Integration As A Window Into Multisensory Processing, Margaret Schrayer

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Introduction: Neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s Disease (PD) cause changes in the subcortical and cortical structures of the brain, affecting interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual streams. The dorsal stream processes the location of objects in the visual workspace while the ventral stream identifies those objects. We expect that, in individuals with PD, motor deficits will occur as a result of disruptions in online interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams.

Purpose: In the experiment, participants identify object shape while shapes are either moving or stationary, and make accurate reaching movements to the objects. Our hypothesis is that ...


Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, Caroline Ripp, Julia Loth, Iveta Petrova, Karen Linnemannstons, Monique Ulepic, Lee G. Fradkin, Jasprien Noordermeer, Andreas Wodarz 2018 Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology

Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, Caroline Ripp, Julia Loth, Iveta Petrova, Karen Linnemannstons, Monique Ulepic, Lee G. Fradkin, Jasprien Noordermeer, Andreas Wodarz

Open Access Articles

Wnt ligands are secreted glycoproteins that control many developmental processes and are crucial for homeostasis of numerous tissues in the adult organism. Signal transduction of Wnts involves the binding of Wnts to receptor complexes at the surface of target cells. These receptor complexes are commonly formed between a member of the Frizzled family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins and a co-receptor, which is usually a single-pass transmembrane protein. Among these co-receptors are several with structural homology to receptor tyrosine kinases, including Ror, PTK7, Ryk and MUSK. In vertebrates, Ror-2 and PTK7 are important regulators of planar cell polarity (PCP). By contrast ...


Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway: Poster Presentation, Shubha Verma '19 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway: Poster Presentation, Shubha Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway: Presentation, Shubhi Verma '19 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway: Presentation, Shubhi Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


Are Different Actions Mediated By Distinct Systems Of Knowledge In Infancy?, Peter Vishton 2018 College of William and Mary

Are Different Actions Mediated By Distinct Systems Of Knowledge In Infancy?, Peter Vishton

Peter Vishton

This chapter considers why studies of infant looking and reaching often suggest different patterns of cognitive and perceptual development. In some cases, convergent results have emerged from studies of infant looking and reaching, but differences are common. The most typical results suggest less adult-like perception and cognition in studies of reaching than in studies of looking. Several reaching studies, however, do not fit this pattern, suggesting that reaching actions may be mediated by distinct systems of knowledge and information processing. Comparisons of research on other behaviors, such as crawling and walking, also suggest that infant knowledge systems vary across actions ...


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