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Neuroanatomical Tracing Of The Gut -- Brain Axis, Ricardo P. Torres, Elizabeth A. Davis, Coltan G. Parker, Megan J. Dailey 2017 Waubosee Community College

Neuroanatomical Tracing Of The Gut -- Brain Axis, Ricardo P. Torres, Elizabeth A. Davis, Coltan G. Parker, Megan J. Dailey

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

This poster summarizes a variety of methods to further characterize the gut-brain axis by tracing motor and sensory nerves between the gut and brain and identifying cell bodies in the sensory ganglia. Determines the meth method to trace the sensory and motor nerves was through fluorescence and the best method to identify sensory neuron cell bodies was the Nissi stain.


Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung 2017 Highland Community College

Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

Homeostatic plasticity is the response neurons undergo to regulate changes in excitability levels and bring the cells back to homeostasis. Research on homeostatic plasticity at the molecular level can lead to improved treatments for neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and schizophrenia. The research featured in this poster looks at the response of GIRK (G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium) channels and GABAb (gamma-amniobutyric acid) receptors to neurotoxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX) or bicuculline (BC).

Prolonged activity blockade of 48 hour TTX treatment significantly reduced GABABR1 and GIRK2 expression. This supports the idea that because these two proteins inhibit action potentials, there ...


The Effects Of Ethanol On Diverse Components Of Choice In The Rat: Reward Discrimination, Preference And Relative Valuation, Howard C. Cromwell, Justin J. McGraw, Luke Zona 2017 Bowling Green State University

The Effects Of Ethanol On Diverse Components Of Choice In The Rat: Reward Discrimination, Preference And Relative Valuation, Howard C. Cromwell, Justin J. Mcgraw, Luke Zona

Howard Casey Cromwell

Alcohol consumption impairs judgment and choice. How alcohol alters these crucial processes is primarily unknown. Choice can be fractionated into different components including reward discrimination, preference and relative valuation that can function together or in isolation depending upon diverse factors including choice context. We examined the diverse components and contextual effects by analyzing the effects of alcohol drinking on choice behavior in a task with a reduced level of temporal and spatial constraints. Rats were trained to drink 10% ethanol during 6 weeks of behavior testing using a combined sucrose-fade and two-bottle free-choice procedure. Two different sucrose pellet outcomes (e ...


A Single-Bout Of Aerobic Exercise Improved Executive Control: Evidence From The Antisaccade Task, Ashna Samani 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Single-Bout Of Aerobic Exercise Improved Executive Control: Evidence From The Antisaccade Task, Ashna Samani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A single-bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise increases activity within frontoparietal networks, producing a temporary ‘boost’ to executive-related cognitive control – an effect that is thought to be selective to exercise durations greater than 20 minutes. It is possible that previous tasks evaluating executive control did not provide the requisite resolution to detect executive changes associated with shorter exercise durations. To that end, I had participants perform a 10-minute bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise, examining pre- and post-exercise executive control via the antisaccade task. Extensive literature has shown that antisaccades are mediated via frontoparietal networks, modulated following exercise training. Results showed ...


Effects Of Language Immersion Versus Classroom Exposure On Advanced French Learners: An Erp Study, Alexandra Claire Brito 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Language Immersion Versus Classroom Exposure On Advanced French Learners: An Erp Study, Alexandra Claire Brito

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

University students often report making significant advances in their second language (L2) ability after immersion in a nonnative language through study abroad. The degree to which late L2 learners can become nativelike in terms of L2 performance and brain processing is unclear in second language acquisition research. The link between L2 proficiency and learning context has been characterized in previous research, yet the role of learning experience in attaining nativelike brain processing of L2 remains to be elucidated. This study contrasts learners with advanced French proficiency who have attained this level with no, little, or more immersion experience through study ...


Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard 2017 Abilene Christian University

Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard

Dialogue & Nexus

In light of recent discoveries in neuroscience linking the mind to physical processes, Christian philosophers have resorted to a more materialistic view of the human person, using neuroscience as support for their view that an immaterial soul does not exist. In this essay, I will point out a major flaw in the logic for defending a materialistic view, argue that either a bipartite or tripartite view of the human person is more aligned with Scripture, and hopefully point towards a more reliable means for attaining truth regarding human nature and the soul.


Soluble Factors From Neocortical Astrocytes Enhance Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Rat Hippocampus On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Jisun Oh, Jennifer B. Recknor, Justin C. Recknor, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

Soluble Factors From Neocortical Astrocytes Enhance Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Rat Hippocampus On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Jisun Oh, Jennifer B. Recknor, Justin C. Recknor, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Surya K Mallapragada

Rat adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) are self-renewing, multipotent neural progenitors that have the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia. Previously, we demonstrated that coculture of AHPCs with postnatal day two, type 1 cortical astrocytes on laminin-coated micropatterned polymer substrates facilitates selective neuronal differentiation of the AHPCs 1. Under this condition, multi-dimensional cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix interactions, as well as possible soluble factors released from astrocytes provided spatial and temporal control selectively enhancing neuronal differentiation and neurite alignment on topographically different regions of the same substrate. To investigate the potential role of astrocyte-derived soluble factors as cues involved ...


High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi

Surya K Mallapragada

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are a powerful cellular resource and have been used in numerous studies as potential candidates to develop strategies for treating a variety of diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize MSCs as cellular vehicles engineered for delivery of therapeutic factors as part of a neuroprotective strategy for rescuing the damaged or diseased nervous system. In this study we used mouse MSCs that were genetically modified using lentiviral vectors, which encoded brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), together with green fluorescent protein (GFP).

Before proceeding ...


A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 University of Iowa

A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Surya K Mallapragada

The biological hypothesis that the astrocyte-secreted cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL6), stimulates differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) is considered from a mathematical perspective. The proposed mathematical model includes two different mechanisms for stimulation and is based on mass–action kinetics. Both biological mechanisms involve sequential binding, with one pathway solely utilizing surface receptors while the other pathway also involves soluble receptors. Choosing biologically-reasonable values for parameters, simulations of the mathematical model show good agreement with experimental results. A global sensitivity analysis is also conducted to determine both the most influential and non-influential parameters on cellular differentiation, providing additional insights ...


Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, JoEllyn M. McMillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman 2017 Iowa State University

Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, Joellyn M. Mcmillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman

Surya K Mallapragada

Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can ...


A Naturalistic Paradigm To Probe Conscious Information Processing During Sleep, Max M. Silverbrook 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Naturalistic Paradigm To Probe Conscious Information Processing During Sleep, Max M. Silverbrook

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sleep was long considered a passive mental state. The extent to which external information is integrated in, and consciously processed during sleep remains unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from sleeping participants. First, the stimulus elicited significantly correlated fMRI activity in the auditory and fronto-parietal networks of awake participants. Behavioural testing found individuals to perceive the story’s suspense similarly. Then neural activity related to high-level processing of the story was investigated in 5 individuals who slept through it. Fronto-parietal activity in 1 individual in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep followed that ...


Astrocyte-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Specific Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Hippocampus, Jisun Oh, Michael A. McCloskey, Christopher C. Blong, Lee Bendickson, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

Astrocyte-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Specific Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Hippocampus, Jisun Oh, Michael A. Mccloskey, Christopher C. Blong, Lee Bendickson, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of astrocyte-derived factors to influence neural progenitor cell differentiation. We previously demonstrated that rat adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) immunoreactive for the neuronal marker, class III β-tubulin (TUJ1) were significantly increased in the presence of astrocyte-derived soluble factors under non-contact co-culture conditions. Using whole cell patch clamp analysis, we observed that the co-cultured AHPCs displayed two prominent voltage-gated conductances - tetraethyl ammonium (TEA)- sensitive outward currents and fast transient inward currents. The outward and inward current densities of the co-cultured AHPCs were approximately 2.5-fold and 1.7-fold greater, respectively, than ...


A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 University of Iowa

A Mathematical Model For Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Cory L. Howk, Howard A. Levine, Michael W. Smiley, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

The biological hypothesis that the astrocyte-secreted cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL6), stimulates differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) is considered from a mathematical perspective. The proposed mathematical model includes two different mechanisms for stimulation and is based on mass–action kinetics. Both biological mechanisms involve sequential binding, with one pathway solely utilizing surface receptors while the other pathway also involves soluble receptors. Choosing biologically-reasonable values for parameters, simulations of the mathematical model show good agreement with experimental results. A global sensitivity analysis is also conducted to determine both the most influential and non-influential parameters on cellular differentiation, providing additional insights ...


Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez de León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats 2017 Iowa State University

Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez De León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick. We have developed a heterologous expression system that stably expresses the cattle tick's tyramine receptor with a G-protein chimera, producing a system that is amenable to high-throughput screening ...


Between Speech & Song: Clarifying The Sprechstimme Of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, Sara M. Paar 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Between Speech & Song: Clarifying The Sprechstimme Of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, Sara M. Paar

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since its creation, the technique of Sprechstimme has fascinated the audiences, performers, and composers of twentieth century music. What is it? How is it done? How should it be notated? At the fore of investigations into these questions has been Arnold Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire, the work in which Schoenberg debuted this new technique. Much has been written in regard to Schoenberg’s creation and use of Sprechstimme, as well as his own exploration of the speech/song continuum. Composers, conductors, and performers have all tried to make sense of the notation, instructions, and performances Schoenberg left behind. Despite this ...


Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, JoEllyn M. McMillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman 2017 Iowa State University

Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, Joellyn M. Mcmillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman

Balaji Narasimhan

Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can ...


Psychopathy, Empathic Concern, And Emotional-Sentence Processing: An N400 Erp Study, Farren Larson 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Psychopathy, Empathic Concern, And Emotional-Sentence Processing: An N400 Erp Study, Farren Larson

Student Theses

Using an undergraduate sample, the present study examined how psychopathic traits (assessed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised) and empathic concern (assessed by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index) affect emotional-information processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) and a sentential priming paradigm. Participants had their electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded while they silently read sentences with three types of endings: congruent, incongruent, and emotionally negative. We hypothesized that participants with high levels of psychopathic traits and participants with low levels of empathic concern would find the emotionally negative sentence endings less unexpected and disturbing (yielding a smaller N400), compared to participants with low levels of psychopathic ...


Exogenous Modulation Of Intrinsic Optic Nerve Neuroprotective Activity, Sinisa D. Grozdanic, Tatjana Lazic, Markus H. Kuehn, Matthew M. Harper, Randy H. Kardon, Young H. Kwon, Erin B. Lavik, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

Exogenous Modulation Of Intrinsic Optic Nerve Neuroprotective Activity, Sinisa D. Grozdanic, Tatjana Lazic, Markus H. Kuehn, Matthew M. Harper, Randy H. Kardon, Young H. Kwon, Erin B. Lavik, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Donald Sakaguchi

Background

To characterize the molecular and functional status of the rat retina and optic nerve after acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP).

Methods

Retinal ischemia was induced in rats by increasing the IOP (110 mmHg/60 minutes). Microarray analysis, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize retinal tissue. PLGA microspheres containing neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF, or CNTF) or empty microspheres were injected into the vitreous of operated animals 1 day after elevation of IOP. Pupil light reflex (PLR) parameters and electroretinograms (ERG) were monitored at multiple time points during the 60-day postoperative recovery period.

Results

Molecular analysis showed ...


High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi

Donald Sakaguchi

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are a powerful cellular resource and have been used in numerous studies as potential candidates to develop strategies for treating a variety of diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize MSCs as cellular vehicles engineered for delivery of therapeutic factors as part of a neuroprotective strategy for rescuing the damaged or diseased nervous system. In this study we used mouse MSCs that were genetically modified using lentiviral vectors, which encoded brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), together with green fluorescent protein (GFP).

Before proceeding ...


Multipotent Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells Maintained As Neurospheres Favor Differentiation Toward Glial Lineages, Jisun Oh, Gabrielle J. Daniels, Lawrence S. Chiou, Eun-Ah Ye, Yong-Seob Jeong, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

Multipotent Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells Maintained As Neurospheres Favor Differentiation Toward Glial Lineages, Jisun Oh, Gabrielle J. Daniels, Lawrence S. Chiou, Eun-Ah Ye, Yong-Seob Jeong, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Donald Sakaguchi

Adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) are generally maintained as a dispersed monolayer population of multipotent neural progenitors. To better understand cell-cell interactions among neural progenitors and their influences on cellular characteristics, we generated free-floating cellular aggregates, or neurospheres, from the adherent monolayer population of AHPCs. Results from in vitro analyses demonstrated that both populations of AHPCs were highly proliferative under maintenance conditions, but AHPCs formed in neurospheres favored differentiation along a glial lineage and displayed greater migrational activity, than the traditionally cultured AHPCs. To study the plasticity of AHPCs from both populations in vivo, we transplanted GFP-expressing AHPCs via intraocular ...


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