Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neuroscience and Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,232 Full-Text Articles 2,012 Authors 298,636 Downloads 92 Institutions

All Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Faceted Search

1,232 full-text articles. Page 1 of 39.

Drk/Dos/Sos Converge With Crk/Mbc/Dced-12 To Activate Rac1 During Glial Engulfment Of Axonal Debris, Tsai-yi Lu, Johnna E. Doherty, Marc R. Freeman 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Drk/Dos/Sos Converge With Crk/Mbc/Dced-12 To Activate Rac1 During Glial Engulfment Of Axonal Debris, Tsai-Yi Lu, Johnna E. Doherty, Marc R. Freeman

GSBS Student Publications

Nervous system injury or disease leads to activation of glia, which govern postinjury responses in the nervous system. Axonal injury in Drosophila results in transcriptional up-regulation of the glial engulfment receptor Draper; there is extension of glial membranes to the injury site (termed activation), and then axonal debris is internalized and degraded. Loss of the small GTPase Rac1 from glia completely suppresses glial responses to injury, but upstream activators remain poorly defined. Loss of the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Crk/myoblast city (Mbc)/dCed-12has no effect on glial activation, but blocks internalization and degradation of debris. Here we ...


Effects Of Dfo-Induced Hypoxia On Key Signaling Mediators, Jennifer Candelora 2014 Seton Hall University

Effects Of Dfo-Induced Hypoxia On Key Signaling Mediators, Jennifer Candelora

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

While diseases such as cancer and diabetes, or surgery and traumatic injury can cause hypoxia through a decrease in blood circulation to bodily regions or decrease cardiac output they can also associate with hypoxia-induced pain. Clinically, opioids, such as morphine, are used to modulate pain. The mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are one of three main types of opioid receptors and are key mediators in morphine-induced analgesia. Therefore, in this study, the effect of hypoxia on MOR gene expression was examined using human neuronal cells treated with DFO to create a hypoxic-mimic condition. We found that MOR expression was shown to decrease ...


Proliferation, Migration, And Survival Of Cells In The Telencephalon Of The Ball Python, Python Regius, Thomas B. Bales 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Proliferation, Migration, And Survival Of Cells In The Telencephalon Of The Ball Python, Python Regius, Thomas B. Bales

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Reptiles exhibit neurogenesis throughout the brain during adulthood. However, very few studies have quantified telencephalon-wide neurogenesis in adulthood, and no studies have performed these investigations in snakes. Quantifying neurogenesis in the adult snake is essential to understanding class-wide adult neurogenesis and providing insight into the evolution of this trait. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to quantify cell proliferation, migration, and survival in the ball python (Python regius). First, to determine the proper dose of BrdU for injection we subcutaneously injected 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, and 250mg/kg into 15 adult male P. regius. We found the 250mg ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Less-Structured Time In Children's Daily Lives Predicts Self-Directed Executive Functioning, Jane E. Barker, Andrei D. Semenov, Laura Michaelson, Lindsay S. Provan, Hannah R. Snyder, Yuko Munakata 2014 University of Colorado, Boulder

Less-Structured Time In Children's Daily Lives Predicts Self-Directed Executive Functioning, Jane E. Barker, Andrei D. Semenov, Laura Michaelson, Lindsay S. Provan, Hannah R. Snyder, Yuko Munakata

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Executive functions (EFs) in childhood predict important life outcomes. Thus, there is great interest in attempts to improve EFs early in life. Many interventions are led by trained adults, including structured training activities in the lab, and less-structured activities implemented in schools. Such programs have yielded gains in children's externally-driven executive functioning, where they are instructed on what goal-directed actions to carry out and when. However, it is less clear how children's experiences relate to their development of self-directed executive functioning, where they must determine on their own what goal-directed actions to carry out and when. We hypothesized ...


A Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique To Assess Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, Harini Pandithasekera 2014 Western University

A Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique To Assess Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, Harini Pandithasekera

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the entry of compounds between the blood and the brain, thus plays an important role in brain homeostasis. Studies indicate in disease states such as Alzheimer’s the BBB integrity is compromised. The motive of this project is to investigate the sensitivity of the diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling (DW-ASL) technique to detect water exchange. Testing the sensitivity requires a reliable method of opening the barrier at specific locations of the brain. Here, a unique technology named focused ultrasound (FUS) has been used to mimic a compromised BBB environment.

A series of experiments were conducted in ...


Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh 2014 Western University

Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exposure to stressful events during early development has consistently been shown to produce long lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may increase vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. Recently reported genetic association studies indicate that these disorders may be influenced, in part, by gene-environment interactions (GxE) involving polymorphisms within the corticotrophin-releasing hormone and monoaminergic system genes. However, little is known about how genetic variants and life stress work to shape children’s neuroendocrine reactivity and emerging symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to examine main effects of candidate genes and GxE on the neuroendocrine stress response ...


Roles Of Dopamine D1 And D2, Opioid And Glutamate Nmda Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fat- And Glucose-Conditioned Flavor Preferences In Rats And C-Fos Analysis Of The Dopamine Mesotelencephalic And Nigrostriatal Pathways Following Intake Of Sugars And Fats In Rats., Julie Dela Cruz 2014 The Graduate Center, CUNY

Roles Of Dopamine D1 And D2, Opioid And Glutamate Nmda Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fat- And Glucose-Conditioned Flavor Preferences In Rats And C-Fos Analysis Of The Dopamine Mesotelencephalic And Nigrostriatal Pathways Following Intake Of Sugars And Fats In Rats., Julie Dela Cruz

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

Systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA antagonist, MK-801, demonstrated that acquisition, but not expression, were found to affect the orosensory-mediated (flavor/flavor: f/f) fructose-conditioned flavor preference (CFP). The present studies demonstrated a similar outcome when f/f and f/n processes were combined. Fat-CFP and glucose-CFP studies indicated that systemic injections of the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, were able to significantly reduce acquisition, but not expression, of Corn-Oil (CO)-CFP and glucose-CFP. Both studies appear to have mitigated effects on acquisition as compared to the separate orosensory and postingestive CFP studies.

Previous studies found that systemic administration of dopamine (DA ...


Astroglial Boundary Formation And Epha4 Signaling In Neuroblast Migration, Nicholas B. Gallo 2014 University of Connecticut

Astroglial Boundary Formation And Epha4 Signaling In Neuroblast Migration, Nicholas B. Gallo

University Scholar Projects

Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural precursors, is a highly complex process that is limited to two specific areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Despite continued research investigating neurogenesis in these two regions, we still lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neural cell division, migration, differentiation, and integration in the postnatal brain. In particular, the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a cellular migratory route for newly generated neuronal precursors that travel from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb, will provide a useful model ...


Astroglial Boundary Formation And Epha4 Signaling In Neuroblast Migration, Nicholas B. Gallo 2014 University of Connecticut

Astroglial Boundary Formation And Epha4 Signaling In Neuroblast Migration, Nicholas B. Gallo

Honors Scholar Theses

Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural precursors, is a highly complex process that is limited to two specific areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Despite continued research investigating neurogenesis in these two regions, we still lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neural cell division, migration, differentiation, and integration in the postnatal brain. In particular, the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a cellular migratory route for newly generated neuronal precursors that travel from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb, will provide a useful model ...


Determining A Correlation Between Individual Differences In Eye Movements And Working Memory, Mackenzie Sunday 2014 University of South Carolina

Determining A Correlation Between Individual Differences In Eye Movements And Working Memory, Mackenzie Sunday

Senior Theses

This study determined if a relationship exists between individual differences in eye movements and working memory measures. The eye movement system can provide insight into processes that occur in the mind as well as a better understanding of the relationship between quantifiable aspects of eye movements and the more abstract inner workings of the mind. Recently, consistent and reliable individual differences have been found in individuals’ eye movement behaviors. For example, individuals with longer fixation durations for one visual task have longer fixations across all other visual tasks. The eye movements of participants were collected during four different viewing tasks ...


The New Normal: Goodness Judgments Of Non-Invariant Speech, Julia R. Drouin 2014 University of Connecticut

The New Normal: Goodness Judgments Of Non-Invariant Speech, Julia R. Drouin

Honors Scholar Theses

Previous research has found that perceptual learning, or normalizing the idiosyncratic phonemes of speech, causes a shift in speech sound category boundaries. The present study examined if perceptual learning was limited to the boundary or if also caused a shift in internal category structure. Seventeen individuals participated in three behavioral tasks to explicate this question. In the Lexical Decision task, participants were trained in either /s/-biasing or /ʃ/- biasing context. In the Goodness Judgment task, participants rated a continuum of sounds on perceived /s/ goodness using a designated scale. Finally, in the Phoneme Identification task, participants listened to the ...


Characterization Of The Ependymal Barrier Due To Human Aging And Injury In Murine Models, Ye Sun 2014 University of Connecticut

Characterization Of The Ependymal Barrier Due To Human Aging And Injury In Murine Models, Ye Sun

University Scholar Projects

Ventriclulomegaly, or the expansion of the ventricles in the brain, is a phenomenon associated with age and injury to the brain. The ependymal layer that encases the ventricles displays certain degrees of plasticity and regenerative ability due to its associated stem cell niche, the subventricular zone (SVZ). Previous research in the Conover Lab has shown that in the mouse, which maintains an actively proliferating SVZ into adulthood, there is an intact ependymal monolayer throughout normal aging, with maintained lateral ventricle size with some degree of stretching. In contrast, the human SVZ declines in proliferative capacity after infancy, and age-related changes ...


Propagation Of Oligomeric Α-Synuclein And Amyloid-Β: Implications For Parkinson's And Alzheimer's Diseases, Matthew Stephen Planchard 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Propagation Of Oligomeric Α-Synuclein And Amyloid-Β: Implications For Parkinson's And Alzheimer's Diseases, Matthew Stephen Planchard

Master's Theses

The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins is a critical event in the pathology of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The proteins α-synuclein (αS) and amyloid-β (Aβ) are involved in the formation of amyloid lesions observed in PD and AD, respectively. Both PD and AD exhibit a significant amount of co-pathology in clinical settings, and the αS and Aβ proteins have been shown to interact in vitro. Recent experimental consensus has shown oligomeric species to be significant, if not primary, sources of toxicity in these diseases ...


Is Contextual Cue Learning Flexible? An Eye-Movement Study Of The Contextual Cueing Task, Youcai Yang 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Is Contextual Cue Learning Flexible? An Eye-Movement Study Of The Contextual Cueing Task, Youcai Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Visual searching can be facilitated without awareness when the target is repeatedly presented in an invariant context in tasks such as contextual cueing (Chun & Jiang 1998). A behavioral cost (increased reaction time) was observed when the target was moved to a new location but no such cost was observed when the target returned to the initial location. The lack of cost for return suggests two possible explanations: One is that the learning can update the initial learning to acquire both target locations, which suggests the implicit learning is flexible. The other is that the contextual cue leaning cannot update the ...


The Effect Of Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury On Ventricular Volume And Microglial Activation, Lillian Rose Talbot 2014 University of Connecticut

The Effect Of Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury On Ventricular Volume And Microglial Activation, Lillian Rose Talbot

Honors Scholar Theses

As the leading cause of death and disability in individuals under the age of 45-years-old, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a public health crisis that demands the attention of the scientific and medical community [28]. The majority of all TBIs that occur in the United States each year are a non-deadly yet detrimental form of closed brain injury known as mild TBI (mTBI) or concussion [6]. Athletes, young people and military personnel all face a high risk of acquiring mTBI as a result of their environments. In our study we have chosen to model repeated mTBI (rmTBI) in the mouse ...


Bidirectional Influence Of Epinephrine On Hippocampal Ltp Via Β-Adrenergic Receptors, Georgia Christine Buscaglia 2014 Syracuse University

Bidirectional Influence Of Epinephrine On Hippocampal Ltp Via Β-Adrenergic Receptors, Georgia Christine Buscaglia

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The formation and storage of memories within the brain remains a subject that is not well understood. The hippocampus has been identified by many studies as a likely center for memory formation (Lynch, 2004), and further research into this subject has begun to suggest that synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus could be partly responsible for the physical changes in the brain, which underlie memory formation. Long Term Potentiation is a form of synaptic plasticity, and is considered to be a physical increase in the strength of connection between neurons or groups of neurons. Much like memories, the duration of a ...


Neuromodulation Therapy Mitigates Heart Failure Induced Hippocampal Damage, Timothy P. DiPeri 2014 East Tennessee State University

Neuromodulation Therapy Mitigates Heart Failure Induced Hippocampal Damage, Timothy P. Diperi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Nearly half of the people diagnosed with heart failure (HF) die within 5 years of diagnosis. Brain abnormalities secondary to CVD have been observed in many discrete regions, including the hippocampus. Nearly 25% of patients with CVD also have major depressive disorder (MDD), and hippocampal dysfunction is a characteristic of both diseases. In this study, the hippocampus and an area of the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus (DG), were studied in a canine model of HF. Using this canine HF model previously, we have determined that myocardial ...


Development Of A System For Analysis Of Muscle Contraction Pattern During Drosophila Melanogaster Crawling Behavior, Mary Catherine Decker 2014 College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University

Development Of A System For Analysis Of Muscle Contraction Pattern During Drosophila Melanogaster Crawling Behavior, Mary Catherine Decker

Celebrating Scholarship & Creativity Day

The aim of this study was to attain footage of the crawling Drosophila larva from 360° angles in order to visualize the pattern of individual muscle contractions. A GAL4-UAS system was used to drive homozygous GCAMP expression, causing the muscles of the Drosophila larva to fluoresce when contracting. A stand was designed in order to place a live, crawling larva in a glass capillary tube under a fluorescent microscope and then rotate the tube completely for 360° video footage. Through the combination of the GCAMP expression and the rotatable stand, video of the individual muscle contraction pattern of a crawling ...


Role Of Gluk1 Kainate Receptors In Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, And Epileptogenesis, Brita Fritsch, Janine Reis, Maciej Gasior, Rafal M. Kaminski, Michael A. Rogawski 2014 SelectedWorks

Role Of Gluk1 Kainate Receptors In Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, And Epileptogenesis, Brita Fritsch, Janine Reis, Maciej Gasior, Rafal M. Kaminski, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit have an impact on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are relevant to seizures and epilepsy. Here we used 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a potent and selective agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling epileptogenesis. We found that systemic ATPA, acting specifically via GluK1 kainate receptors, causes locomotor arrest and forelimb extension (a unique behavioral characteristic of ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress