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On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore neurophysiological brain responses to prepositional phrases involving concrete and abstract reference nouns (e.g., "plate" and "moment", respectively) after the presentation of objects with varying spatial features. Prepositional phrases were headed by in or on and were either matching (e.g., "in the plate/moment") or mismatching (e.g., "on the plate/moment"). Conjunction phrase matches and fillers were also presented. Before half of the concrete-phrase items, a photographic depiction of the reference noun was presented. In these photographs, objects were displayed in a way that was either more appropriate for in ...


Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller 2016 Lawrence University

Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller

Lawrence University Honors Projects

DAF-19, the only RFX transcription factor found in C. elegans, is required for the formation of neuronal sensory cilia. Four isoforms of the DAF-19 protein have been reported, and the m86 nonsense (null) mutation affecting all four isoforms has been shown to prevent cilia formation. Transcriptome analyses employing microarrays of L1 and adult stage worms were completed using RNA from daf-19(m86) worms and an isogenic wild type strain to identify additional putative DAF-19 target genes. Using transcriptional fusions with GFP, we compared the expression patterns of several potential gene targets using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Expression patterns were characterized in ...


Effect Of Proficiency Level On The Neural Responses Of Students Learning Spanish As A Second Language, Haley West 2016 Augustana College - Rock Island

Effect Of Proficiency Level On The Neural Responses Of Students Learning Spanish As A Second Language, Haley West

Celebration of Learning

This study examines the effect of Second Language proficiency on the hemispheres of the brain. This will tell us if and how the brain processes a second language differently. Comparisons explore English versus Spanish listening tasks, and right versus left hemisphere activation in students with varying proficiencies in the Spanish program at Augustana. This is one of the first experiments to use the new in-house electroencephalography (EEG) technology in the Augustana neuroscience program.


Symmetries Constrain Dynamics In A Family Of Balanced Neural Networks, Andrea Barreiro, J Nathan Kutz, Eli Shlizerman 2016 Southern Methodist University

Symmetries Constrain Dynamics In A Family Of Balanced Neural Networks, Andrea Barreiro, J Nathan Kutz, Eli Shlizerman

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Wilson-Cowan Coupled Dynamics In A Model Of The Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical Circuit, Anca R. Radulescu 2016 State University of New York at New Paltz

Wilson-Cowan Coupled Dynamics In A Model Of The Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical Circuit, Anca R. Radulescu

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Neural Changes Associated With Rewards And Punishment Following Ego Depletion Or Boredom, Travis Z. Johnson, Michael Larson, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht 2016 Brigham Young University

Neural Changes Associated With Rewards And Punishment Following Ego Depletion Or Boredom, Travis Z. Johnson, Michael Larson, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht

FHSS Mentored Research Conference

Our brain power is exhaustible. We are constantly trying to find ways to perform at our highest levels. There has been research that has shown that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion of the brain. Many studies have shown the negative effect that depletion has on daily decisions. Depletion can influence our day-to-day choices and actions in a variety of important ways. The neural mechanisms for ego-depletion are relatively unknown so our purpose is to measure the effects of ego-depletion, and then test ways that it can be decreased or reversed, thus finding ...


The Neural And Cognitive Basis Of Cumulative Lifetime Familiarity Assessment, Devin Duke 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Neural And Cognitive Basis Of Cumulative Lifetime Familiarity Assessment, Devin Duke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Perirhinal cortex (PrC) has been implicated as a brain region in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) that critically contributes to familiarity-based recognition memory, a process that allows for recognition to occur independently of contextual recollection. Informed by neurophysiological research in non-human primates, fMRI, as well as behavioural work in humans, the current thesis research tests the novel hypothesis that PrC cortex functioning also underlies the ability to assess cumulative lifetime familiarity with object concepts that are characterized by a lifetime of experiences. In Chapter 2, a patient (NB) with a left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) lesion that included PrC as ...


Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Senior Theses and Projects

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


Superoxide Dismutase 1: Novel Insights On Disease Models And Tissue Specificity In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Matthew James Crisp 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Superoxide Dismutase 1: Novel Insights On Disease Models And Tissue Specificity In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Matthew James Crisp

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are known to cause dominantly-inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rapidly-fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder defined by motor neuron loss and progressive paralysis. In the past twenty years, research into the disorder has been driven by the creation of numerous transgenic animal models that have yielded multiple theories on the pathogenesis of the disease. Patients and animal models with SOD1 mutations express the defective protein in every cell, yet the disease only affects tissues in the neuromuscular axis. In this dissertation, I present original work exploring two aspects of SOD1 ALS. The first details the ...


The Molecular And Cellular Basis For Cold Sensation, Daniel Brenner 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

The Molecular And Cellular Basis For Cold Sensation, Daniel Brenner

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ability to sense changes in temperature is crucial to surviving harsh environments. Over the last decade several ion channels that have been proposed to be cold sensitive have been identified, most notably TRPM8 and TRPA1. Although these molecules have been extensively studied in vitro, their exact roles in cold sensation in vivo are still debated. This uncertainty is in large part due to problems with the standard methods of testing cold sensitivity in vivo, which often rely on subjective measures of cold responsiveness. Experiments using these subjective measures have been repeated by different groups and have yielded conflicting results ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Virtual V1sion: A Collaborative Coding Project, Cheryl Olman 2016 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Virtual V1sion: A Collaborative Coding Project, Cheryl Olman

MODVIS Workshop

Virtual V1sion is a new idea for fostering modeling collaborations and data sharing. While still in its infancy, the ultimate goal is a website that hosts repositories for (1) interchangeable model elements, (2) datasets that can be fit/predicted by those models, and (3) educational modules that explain the background for both the models and the datasets. The scope of the modeling is limited to predictions of V1 responses, although not all computations represented by model elements in Virtual V1sion are required to be V1-intrinsic: a goal of the project is to provide a framework in which predictions for modulation ...


Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd 2016 mrudd@u.washington.edu

Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...


Failure Of Surface Color Cues Under Natural Changes In Lighting, David H. Foster, Iván Marín-Franch 2016 University of Manchester

Failure Of Surface Color Cues Under Natural Changes In Lighting, David H. Foster, Iván Marín-Franch

MODVIS Workshop

Color allows us to effortlessly discriminate and identify surfaces and objects by their reflected light. Although the reflected spectrum changes with the illumination spectrum, cone photoreceptor signals can be transformed to give useful cues for surface color. But what happens when both the spectrum and the geometry of the illumination change, as with lighting from the sun and sky? Is it possible, as a matter of principle, to obtain reliable cues by processing cone signals alone? This question was addressed here by estimating the information provided by cone signals from time-lapse hyperspectral radiance images of five outdoor scenes under natural ...


Modeling The Joint Distribution Of Scene Events At An Edge, James Elder, Ying Li 2016 York University

Modeling The Joint Distribution Of Scene Events At An Edge, James Elder, Ying Li

MODVIS Workshop

Edges in an image arise from discontinuities in scene variables, namely reflectance (R), illumination (I), depth (D) and surface orientation (O). Prior studies on edge classification have viewed it as a binary classification problem: each edge is assumed to arise from one of two disjoint categories (e.g., depth or not depth, shadow or not shadow). Here we suggest an alternate view in which an edge may signal discontinuities in any combination of the scene variables (RIDO). To explore this model, we had 4 trained observers label one randomly selected edge in each of 1,000 randomly selected images drawn ...


Classifying Music Perception And Imagination Using Eeg, Avital Sternin 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Classifying Music Perception And Imagination Using Eeg, Avital Sternin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study explored whether we could accurately classify perceived and imagined musical stimuli from EEG data. Successful EEG-based classification of what an individual is imagining could pave the way for novel communication techniques, such as brain-computer interfaces. We recorded EEG with a 64-channel BioSemi system while participants heard or imagined different musical stimuli. Using principal components analysis, we identified components common to both the perception and imagination conditions however, the time courses of the components did not allow for stimuli classification. We then applied deep learning techniques using a convolutional neural network. This technique enabled us to classify perception of ...


Identifying Falsifiable Predictions Of The Divisive Normalization Model Of V1 Neurons, Tadamasa Sawada, Alexander A. Petrov 2016 School of Psychology, Higher School of Economics

Identifying Falsifiable Predictions Of The Divisive Normalization Model Of V1 Neurons, Tadamasa Sawada, Alexander A. Petrov

MODVIS Workshop

The divisive normalization model (DNM, Heeger, 1992) accounts successfully for a wide range of phenomena observed in single-cell physiological recordings from neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). The DNM has adjustable parameters to accommodate the diversity of V1 neurons, and is quite flexible. At the same time, in order to be falsifiable, the model must be rigid enough to rule out some possible data patterns. In this study, we discuss whether the DNM predicts any physiological result of the V1 neurons based on mathematical analysis and computational simulations. We identified some falsifiable predictions of the DNM. The main idea is ...


Modelling Response Properties Across The Orientation Map In Visual Cortex, Erin M. Koch, Jianzhong Jin, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Qasim Zaidi 2016 SUNY College of Optometry

Modelling Response Properties Across The Orientation Map In Visual Cortex, Erin M. Koch, Jianzhong Jin, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Qasim Zaidi

MODVIS Workshop

Stimulus orientation in the primary visual cortex of primates and carnivores is mapped as iso-orientation domains radiating from pinwheel centers, where orientation preferences of neighboring cells change circularly. Whether this orientation map has a function is debated, because many mammals, such as rodents, do not have such maps. Here we model our physiological results that two fundamental properties of visual cortical responses, contrast saturation and cross-orientation suppression, are stronger within iso-orientation domains than at pinwheel centers. Our model expands on a standard thalamic model of cross orientation suppression, and explains differences between orientation domains by intra-cortical excitation (not normalization) from ...


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