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The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff 2022 Lesley University

The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Empirically based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to be less effective in treating more severe trauma presentations such as complex PTSD (CPTSD). Neurobiological investigation provides a framework for examining the physical and psychological effects of trauma on brain and nerve structures and provides insight into how to effectively treat CPTSD. This literature review examined symptomology of CPTSD resulting from complex trauma in childhood, neurobiological effects of trauma and their implications for treatment, and the efficacy of the current treatment models, primarily those of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy (NET), and somatic psychotherapies ...


Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen 2021 University of Toronto

Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Background: 7q11.23 duplication (Dup7) is one of the most frequent recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but based on gold-standard assessments, only 19% of Dup7 carriers have ASD, suggesting that additional genetic factors are necessary to manifest the ASD phenotype. To assess the contribution of additional genetic variants to the Dup7 phenotype, we conducted whole-genome sequencing analysis of 20 Dup7 carriers: nine with ASD (Dup7-ASD) and 11 without ASD (Dup7-non-ASD). Results: We identified three rare variants of potential clinical relevance for ASD: a 1q21.1 microdeletion (Dup7-non-ASD) and two ...


The Giver: Vision & Memory, Alexander J. Dontre 2021 Franklin University

The Giver: Vision & Memory, Alexander J. Dontre

All Faculty and Staff Scholarship

A memory hole is the banishment of problematic thoughts. We exile that which we prefer not to exist. Enter the perilous Memory Hole: The Psychology of Dystopia, to explore a legion of social and psychological themes through the lens of dystopian literature. The crushing fist of 1984 annihilating thoughts from existence as a means of persuasion. The exquisite seduction of addiction as an agent of control in Brave New World. Incineration of the written word to bask in the embers of peace of mind in Fahrenheit 451. Each chapter weaves in and out of the dystopian realms forged by the ...


The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun, Erica E. Hassoun 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun, Erica E. Hassoun

The Cardinal Edge

Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, contributing to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) when effects are the most severe. Key effects of fetal alcohol syndrome are observed in the nervous system. The high prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure necessitates novel treatment and prevention methods. However, ethical issues prevent researching humans in utero. For this reason, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a model organism for studying FAS. Because Drosophila is a small and non-placental organism, its environment can be easily controlled, allowing for specific doses and time periods of ethanol exposure to be studied. This review discusses findings ...


The Motion Aftereffect: Mechanisms And Variants, Erica E. Hassoun 2021 University of Louisville

The Motion Aftereffect: Mechanisms And Variants, Erica E. Hassoun

The Cardinal Edge

The motion aftereffect causes a visual stimulus to undergo apparent motion. An adapting stimulus, which moves in a specific direction, adapts motion-responsive neurons in the middle temporal area (V5) to that direction of motion. Viewing a second stimulus, a test stimulus, produces apparent motion in the direction opposite that of the initial stimulus. Neural networks involved in attention and working memory are also implicated in the motion aftereffect. There is still little known regarding the mechanisms of the motion aftereffect, despite extensive documentation in the literature. This review discusses established knowledge of the motion aftereffect, focusing primarily on the middle ...


Editorial: Roles Of Sleep Disruption And Circadian Rhythm Alterations On Neurodegeneration And Alzheimer's Disease, Marilyn J. Duncan, Sigrid C. Veasey, Phyllis Zee 2021 University of Kentucky

Editorial: Roles Of Sleep Disruption And Circadian Rhythm Alterations On Neurodegeneration And Alzheimer's Disease, Marilyn J. Duncan, Sigrid C. Veasey, Phyllis Zee

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Validation Of A Single Channel Eeg For The Athlete: A Machine Learning Protocol To Accurately Detect Sleep Stages, Kayla Thompson, Kamil Celoch, Frankie Pizzo, Ana I. Fins, Jaime Tartar 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Validation Of A Single Channel Eeg For The Athlete: A Machine Learning Protocol To Accurately Detect Sleep Stages, Kayla Thompson, Kamil Celoch, Frankie Pizzo, Ana I. Fins, Jaime Tartar

NeuroSports

There is a large and growing movement towards the use of wearable technologies for sleep assessment. This trend is largely due to the desire for comfortable, burden free, and inexpensive technology. In tandem, given the competitive nature of professional athletes enduring high training load, sleep is often jeopardized which can result in adverse outcomes. Wearable devices hold the promise of increasing the ease of monitoring sleep in athletes which can inform health and recovery status, as well as aid performance optimization. However, wearable devices typically lack sufficient validity to assess sleep – and especially sleep stages. To address this concern, the ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Psychological Outcomes Of Mobile Guided Resonant Frequency Breathing In Young Adults With Elevated Stress During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Al Amira Safa Shehab 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Psychological Outcomes Of Mobile Guided Resonant Frequency Breathing In Young Adults With Elevated Stress During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Al Amira Safa Shehab

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Deep breathing practices have shown promise in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression in different populations, including young adults. Specifically, resonant frequency breathing can exert an impact on stress response systems through the vagus nerve and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This may induce reductions in stress and improvement in emotion regulation. Young adults, including college students, tend to be at a higher risk for psychological distress, as they face several psychosocial challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed new and unique stressors that resulted in higher levels of stress and emotional symptoms and it has been shown that this may have placed ...


The New Age Of Christian Healing Ministry And Spirituality: A Meta-Synthesis Exploring The Efficacy Of Christian-Adapted Complementary Therapies For Adult Survivors Of Familial Trauma, Amanda Lynne Brees 2021 Liberty University

The New Age Of Christian Healing Ministry And Spirituality: A Meta-Synthesis Exploring The Efficacy Of Christian-Adapted Complementary Therapies For Adult Survivors Of Familial Trauma, Amanda Lynne Brees

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Adult survivors of familial trauma present with many seemingly unrelated psychiatric and relational issues well into adulthood. Developmental and familial trauma is emerging in the research as a subset of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). This specific type of trauma is rooted in attachment and family systems theory. Issues such as divorce, parental substance abuse, mental illness, enmeshment, parentification, abandonment, and abuse get passed down intergenerationally in vicious cycles until someone finds the courage to heal. Pastoral counselors are uniquely equipped to lead the third wave of cognitive-behavioral therapies proving effective in treating complex trauma includes mindfulness and complementary therapies ...


Working Memory Task Performance In Children With Sli: A Behavioral And Erp Study, Megan V. McVeety 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Working Memory Task Performance In Children With Sli: A Behavioral And Erp Study, Megan V. Mcveety

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to language deficits, children with Specific Language Impairment often show deficits in tests of various aspects of working memory, including capacity, updating, and selective attention. The purpose of the present study is to examine the specific drivers of differences in working memory processing in 8–11 year-old children with and without SLI using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Participants completed an n-back task with three working memory load conditions (0-back, 1-back, 2-back), with the addition of distractor trials at the 1-back and 2-back levels. The SLI group performed significantly less accurately across all task conditions. The children with SLI ...


Contributions Of Reward Identity And Time Prediction Errors To Pavlovian Learning, Daniel B. Siegel 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Contributions Of Reward Identity And Time Prediction Errors To Pavlovian Learning, Daniel B. Siegel

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Some models of associative learning attempt to explain effects such as blocking and unblocking as reflecting a prediction error (PE): Associative strength, and thereby learning, are said to be greater when the unconditioned stimulus (US) received following a cue deviates from one’s expectations. Some models of PE-motivated behavior and PE-relevant brain activity represent the US as a single quantitative variable for outcome value, and that learning therefore only occurs when outcome value differs from expectations. There is growing evidence to suggest that changes in other dimensions of reward, such as identity and timing, also contribute to learning. In Experiment ...


Do Environmental Toxins Predict Violent Crimes?, Tyler Stahl 2021 Kennesaw State University

Do Environmental Toxins Predict Violent Crimes?, Tyler Stahl

Symposium of Student Scholars

Do chemical pollutants that persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate in the body affect human health and behavior? Could these Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) chemicals play a role in the cause of violent crimes due to deterioration of mental and cognitive functions? In the past, Mercury, a PBT chemical, has been shown in salmon to be associated with aggression. Could similar aggression occur in humans exposed to mercury through a toxic spill? Two sources of data are utilized in this analysis. The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Annual Toxic Release Inventory publishes data on toxic releases into the environment ...


A Generative-Discriminative Approach To Human Brain Mapping, Deepanshu Wadhwa 2021 The University of Western Ontario

A Generative-Discriminative Approach To Human Brain Mapping, Deepanshu Wadhwa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During everyday behaviours, the brain shows complex spatial patterns of activity. These activity maps are very replicable within an individual, but vary significantly across individuals, even though they are evoked by the same behaviour. It is unknown how differences in these spatial patterns relate to differences in behavior or function. More fundamentally, the structural, developmental, and genetic factors that determine the spatial organisation of these brain maps in each individual are unclear. Here we propose a new quantitative approach for uncovering the basic principles by which functional brain maps are organized. We propose to take an generative-discriminative approach to human ...


Inter-Subject Correlation Using Movie-Driven Fmri In Drug-Resistant Epilepsy, Hana H. Abbas 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Inter-Subject Correlation Using Movie-Driven Fmri In Drug-Resistant Epilepsy, Hana H. Abbas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Treating drug-resistant epilepsy with surgery requires the localization of the epileptic focus. We explored the potential for movie-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to act as a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective tool to identify functionally disturbed networks. We assessed neural synchronization (inter-subject correlation; ISC) between presurgical epilepsy patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 24) as they watched a suspenseful movie clip in the scanner. To optimize denoising, we compared ISC values with and without an automated Independent Components Analysis-based denoising step (ICA-AROMA). We found that denoising with ICA-AROMA elicited augmented correlation values, supporting its use for denoising naturalistic fMRI ...


Potential Sex-Related Differences In Neurophysiology Post-Concussion, Alexandra N. Pauhl 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Potential Sex-Related Differences In Neurophysiology Post-Concussion, Alexandra N. Pauhl

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to examine potential sex-related differences in neurophysiology in concussed and healthy individuals. There was a total of 21(9 F) participants in each group. The concussion (CONC) group reported to the lab within 72 hours, 1- and 2-weeks post-injury. The control (CONT) group followed a similar measurement schedule once recruited. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP) duration was measured in the first dorsal interosseous muscle using transcranial magnetic stimulation. There were no significant differences in MEP amplitude or CSP duration between the CONC and CONT group. As well, there was ...


Learning How To Build A Neural Network Model Of The Tactile Periphery, Vicky Chang 2021 Western University

Learning How To Build A Neural Network Model Of The Tactile Periphery, Vicky Chang

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

First order neurons in the hairless skin of human hands have spatially complex receptive fields that allow for the detection of spatial details. These spatially complex receptive fields arise from the branching of mechanoreceptors, which converge and connect to first order neurons. This arrangement allows us to process our sensory environment through detecting the edge orientation of a touched object for instance, and do things like read braille.

These spatially complex receptive fields can studied by using a feedforward neural network to model the tactile periphery. By understanding the processing at the level of the tactile periphery, we can better ...


Intergenerational Transmission Of Functional Connectivity Profiles In Isolated Reading And Math Networks: A Scoping Review And Study Proposal, Ashini Peiris, Ira Gupta, Lien Peters, Eric D. Wilkey 2021 Western University

Intergenerational Transmission Of Functional Connectivity Profiles In Isolated Reading And Math Networks: A Scoping Review And Study Proposal, Ashini Peiris, Ira Gupta, Lien Peters, Eric D. Wilkey

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The scoping review surveyed the existing literature on the topic of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and mathematical cognition. The review revealed that rsFC is indicative of distinct long-term developmental trends in mathematical processing, alluding to individual differences in math abilities. Though there have been multiple studies that investigate individual differences in functional connectivity patterns related to math development and math learning disorders, no study has directly investigated to what degree these neurobiological factors are heritable. To address this topic, the following intergenerational transmission (IT) study is proposed. IT is the transfer of personal values, abilities, behaviours, and traits, from parents ...


Task-Based And Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Children With Dyscalculia, Ira Gupta 2021 Western University

Task-Based And Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Children With Dyscalculia, Ira Gupta

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) is a unique method in neuroimaging that measures the spontaneous neural activity as the brain is at rest, not actively undergoing any task. It is important in investigating brain patterns that result from brain regions working together throughout an individual’s development. The application of this technique has been limited in the mathematical cognition field, and thus, should be explored further. This preregistration poster focuses on the depth of the literature and studies available in regards to RSFC and math cognition through a scoping review, and then proposes a study in which task-based and resting-state functional ...


Effect Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule 3 (Corm - 3) On Platelet Adhesion To Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Najat S. El-Farra 2021 Western University

Effect Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule 3 (Corm - 3) On Platelet Adhesion To Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Najat S. El-Farra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Sepsis is characterized by the widespread inflammation of the body. Systemic inflammation activates and recruits inflammatory cells (e.g., leukocytes) and platelets to the affected organs.

During these inflammatory conditions, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC) and platelets both upregulate adhesive molecules rendering platelets to adhere to hBMEC.

Although carbon monoxide is thought of as a toxic molecule to many, previous work shows its anti-inflammatory properties. Evidence has shown carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (e.g., CORM-3; that release small, non-toxic amounts of CO) can combat the effects of severe inflammation in several in vivo animal model.

In this current study, we ...


Assessing Reading Comprehension And Memory Recall Of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Jasmeen Mander 2021 Western University

Assessing Reading Comprehension And Memory Recall Of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Jasmeen Mander

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

This project examined the influence of background knowledge on reading comprehension and memory recall of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in comparison to typically developing children. Furthermore, the true or false scores and average story recalls of the two groups of children, ADHD and without ADHD were also compared. The participants varied in ages 9-14 years old and were assigned a self-paced reading task followed by 24 true or false questions and two memory recall questions. For both groups of children, the amount of background knowledge an individual conveyed did not correlate to their reading comprehension and memory recall ...


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