Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neuroscience and Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

6,199 Full-Text Articles 11,739 Authors 1,920,642 Downloads 262 Institutions

All Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Faceted Search

6,199 full-text articles. Page 1 of 278.

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber 2024 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter produced through the catecholamine synthesis pathway that affects brain activity. Unregulated dopamine levels can lead to various diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Optimization of an immunohistochemistry protocol will allow for the quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase antibody, which indirectly allows for dopamine quantification in dopaminergic regions within the brain. However, the antibody concentration to give the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in IHC varies across studies. Through this experiment, I determined the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) antibody for immunohistochemistry that gave the best signal-to-background noise ratio within several known dopaminergic regions …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national and global public health crisis with no end in sight. While studies from animal models hint at widespread epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of opioid drugs, the molecular consequences of long-term exposure to opioid drugs in human brain is still unclear, and human-centered translational models are necessary to discern the human cell type-specific effects of OUD.

Using postmortem brain Brodmann area 9 (BA9) from the UTHealth Brain Collection for Research on Psychiatric Disorders, I identified angiogenic gene networks perturbed in the RNA and protein of OUD subjects, as well as downregulation of many neuron-correlated …


P300 Event-Related Potential Responses To Self-Relevant Stimuli, Jordan Razzak 2024 East Tennessee State University

P300 Event-Related Potential Responses To Self-Relevant Stimuli, Jordan Razzak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous literature has suggested an apparent P300 sensitivity to self-relevant stimuli. To further explore this relationship, we asked participants to submit 10 photos, each of a particular category (e.g. footwear, plants), to be used as either targets or distractors in a given condition of an oddball task. Furthermore, we attempted to see whether the effect of self-relevance on the P300 could be induced in a participant by allowing them to study a set of unique photos which would then be used as targets. Our analysis suggested that P300 amplitude elicited in response to self-relevant stimuli used as targets was statistically …


Towards Understanding The Function Of An Ets-Like Gene In Nematostella Vectensis: Generation Of A Knockout Mutant Line And A Transgenic Reporter Line, Emily Bullock 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Towards Understanding The Function Of An Ets-Like Gene In Nematostella Vectensis: Generation Of A Knockout Mutant Line And A Transgenic Reporter Line, Emily Bullock

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to their unique phylogenic position as sister to Bilateria, Cnidaria are often credited with the utility of allowing for reconstruction of ancestral biology based on characteristics shared with bilaterians and other animals. This factor makes investigation into the nervous systems of cnidarians critical in understanding early neural evolution. Wamides, a class of neuropeptides, have been shown to play a regulatory role in life cycle transitions across many different species. The cnidarian specific Wamide neuropeptide, GLWamide, has previously been identified to play an accelerator role in the metamorphic timing of a specific species of sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. However, …


Cultivating Excellence: A Literature Review On Harnessing The Power Of The Gut Microbiome For Athletic Performance, Maya Katharine Dean 2024 Bowling Green State University

Cultivating Excellence: A Literature Review On Harnessing The Power Of The Gut Microbiome For Athletic Performance, Maya Katharine Dean

Honors Projects

The interplay between our gut microbiome and health is immense. This literature review analyzes the current research assessing the interplay between gut microbiome and athletic performance. Knowing how to improve gut microbial diversity via nutrition and supplementation can take athletic performance to the next level; namely improvements in immune, mental, and physical health.


Faa Medical Reform, Dana Rose 2024 Bowling Green State University

Faa Medical Reform, Dana Rose

Honors Projects

This project investigates the challenges and implications of obtaining medical certification for pilots with a history of childhood misdiagnoses, focusing on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Misdiagnoses in childhood can lead to significant obstacles in the aviation industry's medical certification process, posing unique hurdles for aspiring pilots. The study examines the current FAA guidelines and procedures for medical certification, particularly the evaluation requirements for individuals with ADHD. It also explores common challenges faced by pilots, the effects of childhood misdiagnoses on their eligibility, and the impact of the FAA's ADHD evaluation process.

Through interviews with Aviation Medical Examiners (AMEs), this project identifies …


The Effect Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Safit, On Acute Stress Reactivity In A Rat Model Of Abusive Head Trauma, Brielle Coe 2024 Tower Health

The Effect Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Safit, On Acute Stress Reactivity In A Rat Model Of Abusive Head Trauma, Brielle Coe

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


In Silico Identification Of Small Molecule Agonist Binding Sites On Kcc2, Kenyon Mitchell, Alfred Amendolara, Ruth Hunter, Jaden Miner, Andrew Payne 2024 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

In Silico Identification Of Small Molecule Agonist Binding Sites On Kcc2, Kenyon Mitchell, Alfred Amendolara, Ruth Hunter, Jaden Miner, Andrew Payne

Annual Research Symposium

Purpose: Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter 2 (KCC2) is a neuronal membrane protein specific to the central nervous system. It is responsible for removing Cl- ions from the intracellular space, maintaining a normal Cl- gradient essential for proper function at inhibitory synapses. Dysregulation causes an upward shift in the Cl- reversal potential resulting in a hyperexcitable state of the postsynaptic neuron. Existing literature indicates that KCC2 may be involved in the addiction pathway of a variety of drugs of abuse, including opioids and alcohol. This makes KCC2 an attractive potential drug target when treating substance use disorders. A novel direct KCC2 agonist, VU0500469, …


Technology To Support Aging In Place: The Perspective Of Caregivers, Sophie Meng 2024 Sheridan College

Technology To Support Aging In Place: The Perspective Of Caregivers, Sophie Meng

Capstone Research Posters

As the world population ages, more older adults prefer to age in a place which offers them better life qualities and autonomy but demands increased commitments of caregivers. The development of technology can be great aid in daily lives yet significant gaps persist in supporting older adults with impaired cognition aging in place. This study aimed to explore the perspective of caregivers on technology when assisting cognition impaired older adults at home. It sought to understand the needs of the caregivers in this context. The study also briefly addressed Artificial Intelligence (AI) in caregiving, considering its growing use. Five caregivers …


Associations Between Early Childhood Sleep, Memory Function, And Brain Development Across The Nap Transition, Sanna Lokhandwala 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Associations Between Early Childhood Sleep, Memory Function, And Brain Development Across The Nap Transition, Sanna Lokhandwala

Doctoral Dissertations

Preschool-age children often distribute their sleep across a midday nap and overnight sleep. Skipping the nap is suggested to increase the duration and depth of deep sleep (i.e., slow wave activity; SWA). Moreover, missing the midday nap has been shown to impair learning processes. This may be because children’s brains at this point in development are immature, necessitating the intervening nap period to strengthen memories before they are forgotten. Nonetheless, at some point during the preschool years, many children begin transitioning naturally out of napping. It is unclear whether the memory benefits of overnight SWA after a skipped nap depend …


Zmp-Induced Activation Of Ampk Enhances Accumbal Dopamine Function, Isabella Roque, Jordan Yorgason, Rachel Campbell, Serin Baker, Jared McFarlane, Oliver Saunders, David Thomson 2024 Brigham Young University - Provo

Zmp-Induced Activation Of Ampk Enhances Accumbal Dopamine Function, Isabella Roque, Jordan Yorgason, Rachel Campbell, Serin Baker, Jared Mcfarlane, Oliver Saunders, David Thomson

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

Oral Presentation Honorable Mention

• Dopamine terminal function is associated with motivation

• Fasting activates AMPK, a cellular sensor that measures intracellular AMP relative to ATP

• AMPK activation is a target of interest for age related cognitive decline, prevention of muscle wasting, etc.

• ZMP is an endogenous nucleotide AMP mimetic that activates AMPK

• The present study examined the novel precursor ZMP compound called P39 using an ex vivo mouse model


Understanding Refractory Status Epilepticus With Novel Hd-Mea Technology, Isaac Stubbs, Ryley Parrish, Melissa Blotter, Max Holmes, Skyler Russell 2024 Brigham Young University - Provo

Understanding Refractory Status Epilepticus With Novel Hd-Mea Technology, Isaac Stubbs, Ryley Parrish, Melissa Blotter, Max Holmes, Skyler Russell

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

3rd Place Oral Presentation

Status Epilepticus (SE) is a severe medical condition marked by continuous seizures lasting over 5 minutes. When SE becomes resistant to anticonvulsant drugs, the condition is known as Refractory Status Epilepticus (RSE), which lacks effective treatments and has a mortality rate of 38%. RSE lacks effective treatments partially due to our limited understanding of the mechanisms that lead to patient antiepileptic drug resistance.


Ivermectin Activates Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons To Enhance Dopamine Release, Tyler Love, Jordan Yorgason, Hillary Wadsworth, Alicia Warnecke, Joshua Barlow, Emma Steimle, Joakim Ronström, Pacen Williams, Christopher Galbraith, Jared Baldridge, Michael Jakowec, Daryl Davies 2024 Brigham Young University - Provo

Ivermectin Activates Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons To Enhance Dopamine Release, Tyler Love, Jordan Yorgason, Hillary Wadsworth, Alicia Warnecke, Joshua Barlow, Emma Steimle, Joakim Ronström, Pacen Williams, Christopher Galbraith, Jared Baldridge, Michael Jakowec, Daryl Davies

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

• The substantia nigra compacta releases dopamine into the dorsal striatum, a brain region associated with movement and motivation

• Cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum can directly cause dopamine release

• IVM is a known positive allosteric modulator of P2X4 receptors as well as nicotinic

• acetylcholine receptors

• Ivermectin is known to affect many dopamine linked behaviors, but no studies have been conducted to determine if Ivermectin is able to modulate dopamine release


Effects Of Predation On Cognition In Brachyrhaphis Rhabdophora, Elizabeth F. Jenkins, Jerry B. Johnson 2024 Brigham Young University - Provo

Effects Of Predation On Cognition In Brachyrhaphis Rhabdophora, Elizabeth F. Jenkins, Jerry B. Johnson

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

RESEARCH QUESTION

Does “predation environment” affect the cognitive abilities of the tropical fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora?


Effects Of Methamphetamine On Microglia Through Reactive Oxygen Species, Chase Seiter, Jordan Yorgason, Nathan Sheets, James Blood, Lydia Hawley, Erin Taylor, Eliza White, Hillary Wadsworth, Jason Hansen 2024 Brigham Young University - Provo

Effects Of Methamphetamine On Microglia Through Reactive Oxygen Species, Chase Seiter, Jordan Yorgason, Nathan Sheets, James Blood, Lydia Hawley, Erin Taylor, Eliza White, Hillary Wadsworth, Jason Hansen

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

▪ Dopamine release in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) underlies motivational behavior for methamphetamine (METH) reward.

▪ ATP is a chemoattractant to microglia and is METH on ATP release and clearance are unknown.

▪ Furthermore, METH is known to produce reactive dopamine terminal function, microglia morphology and METH interactions are unknown.


Adhd Medication Is More Potent And Effective During Ovulation, Laurenf@byu.edu Ford 2024 Brigham Young University - Provo

Adhd Medication Is More Potent And Effective During Ovulation, Laurenf@Byu.Edu Ford

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

• Women escalate psychostimulant abuse more quickly than men. Women who are prescribed psychostimulants for ADHD report fluctuations in drug efficacy that correspond to their menstrual cycle.

• In rodents, females acquire psychostimulant addiction more readily and release more dopamine (DA) in the dorsal striatum, an effect mediated by estrogen.

• However, the impact of the estrous cycle in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a core region for learning and addiction in the ventral striatum, is underexplored.

• Here, we examine cocaine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and methamphetamine (Desoxyn) effects on DA transmission in male and naturally-cycling female mice.


Adapting The Auxin-Inducible Degron (Aid) System To The Zebrafish Model Organism, Dennis Li 2024 Brigham Young University - Provo

Adapting The Auxin-Inducible Degron (Aid) System To The Zebrafish Model Organism, Dennis Li

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

The Auxin Inducible Degron (AID) system is a conditional and reversible protein degradation system naturally occurring in plants. In the presence of the hormone Auxin, the AID tagged proteins are recruited into the plant’s E3 ubiquitin ligase machinery, ubiquitinated, and marked for degradation1. To adapt the AID system to the zebrafish model organism, our lab generated lines co-expressing Arabidopsis Thaliana plant TIR1 protein and GFP tagged with AID (GFP-AID) in superficially-located mechanosensory hair cells (HC) of the lateral line system and in spinal cord neurons found deeper in the body. Upon auxin application, GFP-AID expressed in the superficial HCs was …


The Binding And Mechanism Of A Positive Allosteric Modulator Of Kv3 Channels, Qiansheng Liang, Gamma Chi, Leonardo Cirqueira, Lianteng Zhi, Agostino Marasco, Nadia Pilati, Martin Gunthorpe, Giuseppe Alvaro, Charles Large, David Sauer, Werner Treptow, Manuel Covarrubias 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

The Binding And Mechanism Of A Positive Allosteric Modulator Of Kv3 Channels, Qiansheng Liang, Gamma Chi, Leonardo Cirqueira, Lianteng Zhi, Agostino Marasco, Nadia Pilati, Martin Gunthorpe, Giuseppe Alvaro, Charles Large, David Sauer, Werner Treptow, Manuel Covarrubias

Farber Institute for Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Small-molecule modulators of diverse voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels may help treat a wide range of neurological disorders. However, developing effective modulators requires understanding of their mechanism of action. We apply an orthogonal approach to elucidate the mechanism of action of an imidazolidinedione derivative (AUT5), a highly selective positive allosteric modulator of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels. AUT5 modulation involves positive cooperativity and preferential stabilization of the open state. The cryo-EM structure of the Kv3.1/AUT5 complex at a resolution of 2.5 Å reveals four equivalent AUT5 binding sites at the extracellular inter-subunit interface between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of the …


Exploring Neuroplasticity Changes In Neurotoxin-Induced Parkinson’S Disease: A Preliminary Analysis Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Tomas Gomez Jr., Daniel Salinas, Kelsey Potter-Baker, Nawaz Hack, Ramu Vadukapuram 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine

Exploring Neuroplasticity Changes In Neurotoxin-Induced Parkinson’S Disease: A Preliminary Analysis Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Tomas Gomez Jr., Daniel Salinas, Kelsey Potter-Baker, Nawaz Hack, Ramu Vadukapuram

Research Symposium

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition that affects movement, cognition, gait, and significantly impacts one's quality of life. Studies have suggested that neurotoxin pre-exposure is related to PD pathology and progressive motor/non-motor deficits, though it remains unclear how neurotoxin exposure affects neuroplasticity. The present study aimed to examine neurotoxin–induced PD-associated neuroplasticity changes in relationship to mental acuity and PD motor functionalities.

Methods: 7 voluntary participants experiencing early-stage PD symptoms with self-reported neurotoxin pre-exposure were enrolled in the longitudinal, repeated-measures clinical study; 2 sex-matched, age-matched, and occupation-matched healthy subjects were recruited for controlled comparative analysis (n=9). UTRGV’s Institute …


Does Joint Angle Affect Composite, Inter-Individual, And Intra-Individual Patterns Of Responses For Men During Fatiguing Isometric Forearm Flexion Tasks Anchored To A High Perceptual Intensity?, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Robert W. Smith, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2024 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Does Joint Angle Affect Composite, Inter-Individual, And Intra-Individual Patterns Of Responses For Men During Fatiguing Isometric Forearm Flexion Tasks Anchored To A High Perceptual Intensity?, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Robert W. Smith, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Journal for Sports Neuroscience

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to utilize the Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Clamp Model to examine the effects of joint angle on the composite, inter-, and intra-individual patterns of responses for torque and neuromuscular parameters during fatiguing isometric tasks anchored to RPE of 8 (RPE = 8) at elbow joint angles of 75° (JA75) and 125° (JA125) for men. Methods: Ten men (Mean ± SD: age: 20.7 ± 1.2 yrs; height: 181.6 ± 6.0 cm; body mass: 83.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed 2,3 s forearm flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) with the dominant arm before and …


Digital Commons powered by bepress