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Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner 2018 Arcadia University

Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

The purpose of this study was to see what rats learn about the elements of a compound stimulus (a stimulus composed of two different stimuli), and whether their learning differs if the compound is from the same modality (intra-modal), i.e. both visual, or from different modalities (inter-modal), i.e. visual and auditory. We hypothesized that the rats would respond more to the compound stimuli than to the single stimuli (Pearce and Wilson, 1990), more to the compound modality of inter-modal elements than to the compound modality of intra-modal elements (Miller, 1971 and Gingras, 2009), equally to the intra-modal elements ...


Contextual Fear Learning And Memory In Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Contextual Fear Learning And Memory In Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Animals frequently must overcome stressors, and the ability to encode and recall these salient experiences is essential to an individual’s survival. Across many taxa, studies have documented two alternative stress coping styles (proactive and reactive) that differ in behavior, cognition, stress physiology, and underlying neuromolecular mechanisms. The role of stress in cognitive traits (e.g. learning and memory) has been well documented, however, the influence of an animal’s stress coping style on learning and memory capabilities is only beginning to be understood. Here, we developed a contextual fear learning paradigm to characterize learning and memory differences between proactive ...


Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotion regulation (ER) is a key predictor of positive adjustment throughout the lifespan. Despite decades of research on discrete ER strategy use, ER may be more appropriately measured in terms of the breadth of emotional range, or the degree to which one can flexibly modulate emotional responses. Yet little is known about ER flexibility in childhood. Also, given the crucial role of caregiver support in children’s emotional lives, ER may be most accurately measured in developmentally appropriate and ecologically valid social contexts. Further, few developmental studies have capitalized on the growing evidence base surrounding biological signatures of ER. This ...


Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge 2018 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved. In layer 5 of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex, we tested potential mechanisms of ...


Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley, Thomas C. Burdett, Romina Barria, Lukas J. Neukomm, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers, Marc R. Freeman 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley, Thomas C. Burdett, Romina Barria, Lukas J. Neukomm, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers, Marc R. Freeman

GSBS Student Publications

Genetic studies of Wallerian degeneration have led to the identification of signaling molecules (e.g., dSarm/Sarm1, Axundead, and Highwire) that function locally in axons to drive degeneration. Here we identify a role for the Drosophila C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor Pebbled [Peb, Ras-responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1) in mammals] in axon death. Loss of Peb in Drosophila glutamatergic sensory neurons results in either complete preservation of severed axons, or an axon death phenotype where axons fragment into large, continuous segments, rather than completely disintegrate. Peb is expressed in developing and mature sensory neurons, suggesting it is required to ...


The Brain Correlates Of Personality And Sex Differences, Brittany Fair 2018 University of Vermont

The Brain Correlates Of Personality And Sex Differences, Brittany Fair

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Personality neuroscience is a rapidly expanding field of study fueled by a growing interest in understanding the structural brain correlates of individual differences in personality. Data on the structural brain correlates of personality are especially lacking from large-scale studies, and are nearly nonexistent in the adolescent age group. Furthermore, the role of sex differences in structural brain changes associated with personality are rarely considered. To address this gap in knowledge, this thesis investigates the structural brain correlates of personality and sex differences in structure at age fourteen. A large sample of adolescents (N = 2000) were drawn from the IMAGEN project ...


Testing The Network Reset Hypothesis: Noradrenergic Modulation Of Hippocampal Representations, Stephanie L. Grella 2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

Testing The Network Reset Hypothesis: Noradrenergic Modulation Of Hippocampal Representations, Stephanie L. Grella

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The locus coeruleus (LC) responds to salience cues, including novelty, and sends a major noradrenergic projection to the hippocampal formation (HF). Novelty-associated LC activation may help to sculpt contextual representations in the HF, but modulatory influence of norepinephrine (NE) over HF representations remains poorly understood. One possible mechanism is that NE provides a “reset” signal causing the HF to recruit distinct neural populations, thereby providing a molecular switch to dictate if hippocampal circuits should generate new representations or update existing ones to incorporate novel information. This hypothesis suggests that NE release should cause the HF to recruit a unique population ...


If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford 2018 University of Gloucestershire, England

If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

An evolutionary analysis suggests that selection is unlikely to have tolerated the capacity for intentional self-killing in nonhuman animals. The potential to escape pain by suicide would have presented a recurrent and severe adaptive problem for an animal with a reproductive future to protect. If the potential for suicide arose in the evolutionary past, anti-suicide mechanisms may have co-evolved, as we believe they have in adult humans. Peña-Guzmán’s (2017) argument that some nonhuman animals can suicide is incomplete without an account of the defences that result in the vast majority opting not to.


Effect Of Attentional Capture And Cross-Modal Interference In Multisensory Cognitive Processing, Michael Jennings 2018 Walden University

Effect Of Attentional Capture And Cross-Modal Interference In Multisensory Cognitive Processing, Michael Jennings

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Despite considerable research, the effects of common types of noise on verbal and spatial information processing are still relatively unknown. Three experiments, using convenience sampling were conducted to investigate the effect of auditory interference on the cognitive performance of 24 adult men and women during the Stroop test, perception of object recognition and spatial location tasks, and the perception of object size, shape, and spatial location tasks. The data were analyzed using univariate analysis of variance and 1-way multivariate analysis of variance. The Experiment 1 findings indicated reaction time performance for gender and age group was affected by auditory interference ...


Ccl11 As A Biomarker For The In Vivo Diagnosis Of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Robert Weissenfels 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Ccl11 As A Biomarker For The In Vivo Diagnosis Of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Robert Weissenfels

CMC Senior Theses

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is the neurodegenerative disease that is ascribed to the long term development of cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and motor deficits as a result of the exposure to high amounts of sub concussive traumatic brain injuries. The disease has gained recent popularity in the media for its prevalence in American football as a response to recent research that has suggested the prominence of the disease in nearly every NFL player that is examined post mortem. This has produced a growing concern for the consequences of head impact and participation in contact sports. Despite media attention, little is currently known ...


Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber 2018 University of British Columbia

Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The commentaries by Calvo (2018) and Mallatt & Feinberg (2017) on my 2016 target branch out from a common conceptual node like forks in a road. Calvo criticizes me for not acknowledging that plants too are likely to be sentient and claims I have fallen into the kind of category error of which I accuse others ─ a zoocentric bias that fails to grant consciousness to flora. Mallatt & Feinberg maintain that I've gone too far in granting sentience to any species that lacks a nervous system. Calvo makes some good points but there are other issues concerning plant sentience such as ...


Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti 2018 University of Trieste, Department of Life Sciences

Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The time was ripe for Marino’s review of chickens’ cognitive capacities. The research community, apart from expressing gratitude for Marino’s work, should now use it to increase public awareness of chickens’ abilities. People’s views on many animals are ill-informed. Scientists need to communicate and engage with the public about the relevance and societal implications of their findings.


Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus 2018 University of San Francisco

Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I fully support the continuum proposed in the target article and argue along the same lines that we should be suspicious of drawing any strict borders between human and non-human animals. Since we can say very little with absolute certainty about human intentions regarding suicide, we have no certainty about the intentions of non-human animals. Although I am very sympathetic to Peña-Guzmán’s overall argument, I suggest that time could be taken into consideration as well.


Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger 2018 Kent State University - Tuscarawas Campus

Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Increasing understanding of the impressive cognitive and social capacities of nonhuman animals suggests the possibility that they may sometimes commit suicide. Such notions tend to be dismissed as “anthropomorphism.” That interpretive hazard, I argue, must be weighed against the opposite hazard of “anthropodenial” — “the a priori rejection of shared characteristics between humans and animals” (de Waal 2006). If animals do commit suicide, how often is it motivated precisely by the impact of humans on animal life?


Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, Mary Lee Jensvold 2018 Central Washington University

Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, Mary Lee Jensvold

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Claims are often made about behaviors being unique to humans; the evidence usually shows they are not. Sign language studies on chimpanzees may provide a useful model for comparative studies of suicide. A productive approach to comparative studies is to focus on observable behaviors rather than getting lost in the pitfalls of vague definitions and changing measures.


Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi

Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.


Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley 2018 Western Sydney University

Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Peña-Guzmán’s depiction of the opponent of animal suicide as a conservative is a straw man. It is possible to accept that animals are self-conscious and reflexive yet still reject the view that they have the mental wherewithal to commit run-of-the-mill suicide. That animal behaviour can be positioned on a continuum of self-destructive behaviour does not establish that animals can intentionally kill themselves.


An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, Timothy P. Racine 2018 Simon Fraser University

An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, Timothy P. Racine

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Peña-Guzmán’s discussion of suicide in nonhuman animals has broad implications. In this commentary, I focus on the logical relation between suicide and intention. Proximate cause must be distinguished from ultimate function in explanations of suicide. I briefly discuss two adaptationist accounts of suicidal behavior.


Roots Of Self-Preservation Failure In Animal Behavior, Denys deCatanzaro 2018 McMaster University

Roots Of Self-Preservation Failure In Animal Behavior, Denys Decatanzaro

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Affective variation from euphoria to dysphoria, best understood in humans, is also found in the behavior and neurochemistry of many other mammals. Suicide in humans typically occurs in highly dysphoric and despondent individuals. Self-injurious behavior has been observed in dysphoric and despondent nonhuman primates. In humans, suicide is facilitated by a highly-evolved neocortex giving rise to behavioral flexibility and culture. As Peña-Guzmán indicates, some other mammals also have elaborate neocortices and the capacity for cognitive insight, particularly apes, delphinids, and whales. Suicide is most likely to occur in species where individuals live in stable groups of highly interdependent kin.


High Fructose Corn Syrup Induces Metabolic Dysregulation And Altered Dopamine Signaling In The Absence Of Obesity, Allison M. Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A. Beeler 2017 CUNY Queens College

High Fructose Corn Syrup Induces Metabolic Dysregulation And Altered Dopamine Signaling In The Absence Of Obesity, Allison M. Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A. Beeler

Publications and Research

The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry ...


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