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Developing A Contrast Agent For The In Vivo Detection Of Apoptosis, Mary R. Cobb 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Contrast Agent For The In Vivo Detection Of Apoptosis, Mary R. Cobb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Currently, there is no way to assess apoptotic cell death in living organisms. We have developed a novel contrast agent targeted toward the detection of caspase-3 activity, the key enzymatic mediator of apoptosis. Our contrast agent consists of a dual magnetic resonance imaging/fluorescent probe coupled to a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) sequence by a peptide backbone containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. The CPP allows the agent to cross cell membranes and the blood brain barrier. In cells undergoing apoptosis, activated caspase-3 will cleave the agent removing the CPP and trapping the imaging probes inside the cell.

The purpose of ...


Hierarchical Organization In Auditory Cortex Of The Cat Using High-Field Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Amee J. Hall 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Hierarchical Organization In Auditory Cortex Of The Cat Using High-Field Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Amee J. Hall

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sensory localization within cortex is a widely accepted and documented principle. Within cortices dedicated to specific sensory information there is further organization. For example, in visual cortices a more detailed functional division and hierarchical organization has been recorded in detail. This organization starts with areas dedicated to analysis of simple visual stimuli. Areas higher in the organization are specialized for processing of progressively more complex stimuli. A similar hierarchical organization has been proposed within auditory cortex and a wealth of evidence supports this hypothesis. In the cat, the initial processing of simple auditory stimuli, such as pure tones, has been ...


Muscarinic Attenuation Of Mnemonic Rule Representation In Macaque Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex During A Pro- And Anti-Saccade Task, Alex J. Major 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Muscarinic Attenuation Of Mnemonic Rule Representation In Macaque Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex During A Pro- And Anti-Saccade Task, Alex J. Major

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maintenance of context is necessary for execution of appropriate responses to diverse environmental stimuli. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a pivotal role in executive function, including working memory and representation of abstract rules, and is modulated by the ascending cholinergic system through nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors’ effect on local primate DLPFC neural activity in vivo during cognitive tasks remains poorly understood. Here we examined the effects of muscarinic receptor blockade on rule-related activity in the macaque prefrontal cortex by combining iontophoretic application of the general muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine with single-unit recordings while monkeys performed a rule-guided ...


The Concept Of Qailulah (Midday Napping) From Neuroscientific And Islamic Perspectives, Mohd Amzari Tumiran 2015 University of Malaya

The Concept Of Qailulah (Midday Napping) From Neuroscientific And Islamic Perspectives, Mohd Amzari Tumiran

Mohd Amzari Tumiran

Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement of alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review are to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic ...


Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers 2015 University of Maine - Main

Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Early embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated orchestra of instructive cues that collectively guide naïve stem cells towards progressively more specialized fates. In the neural tube, the precursor structure to the brain and spinal cord, these signals emanate from ‘organizing centers’ surrounding the neural tube. These organizing centers send out soluble cues or morphogens that diffuse tens to hundreds of microns to recipient cells residing in the neural tube. Re-creating this dynamic landscape of cues in vitro is impossible using standard cell culture tools and techniques. However, microfluidics is perfectly suited to fill this gap, allowing precise control ...


An Analysis Of The Interaction Of Methylphenidate And Nicotine In Adolescent Rats: Effects On Bdnf, Elizabeth D. Freeman 2015 East Tennessee State University

An Analysis Of The Interaction Of Methylphenidate And Nicotine In Adolescent Rats: Effects On Bdnf, Elizabeth D. Freeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This investigation was an analysis of the interaction of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPH; trade name: Ritalin) on nicotine sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) in a rodent model and underlying mechanisms of this effect. Animals were treated IP with 1 mg/kg MPH or saline using a ―school day‖ regimen of five days on, two days off, from postnatal day (P) 28-50. During the final two weeks of MPH treatment, animals were either behaviorally sensitized to nicotine (0.5 mg/kg free base) or saline for 10 days, or conditioned to nicotine or saline using the CPP behavioral paradigm ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Systematic Stn-Dbs Programming On Rest And Postural Tremor In Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Patients, Kristina Ognjanovic 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Quantifying The Effects Of Systematic Stn-Dbs Programming On Rest And Postural Tremor In Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Patients, Kristina Ognjanovic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that encompasses both motor and non-motor symptoms. These symptoms and their severity are typically assessed by scale based measures in a clinical setting. Scale- based assessments of PD patients undergoing bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgery (STN-DBS) such as the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) are commonly used in a clinical setting to assess symptom severity and progression. However, the subjective nature of these and other clinical scales call into question both the sensitivity and accuracy of patient assessment over time. An objective quantification of rest and postural tremor ...


Concussion Awareness And Educational Outreach Through A Website And Mobile Application, Daniel J. Brogan 2015 Ursinus College

Concussion Awareness And Educational Outreach Through A Website And Mobile Application, Daniel J. Brogan

Neuroscience Summer Fellows

In recent years concussions have become a more apparent problem in youth and adolescent sports. 1 in 5 high school students will sustain a concussion during the season. Due to medical and scientific advances, the diagnosis of concussions is becoming much simpler with key markers that are signs for an injury. Returning to play too soon before an athlete is fully recovered increases the likelihood that serious and irreversible neurological deficits can occur. Symptoms for concussions are necessary to track in order for an athlete to properly report their recovery to a physician. Doctors primarily rely on a patient’s ...


Contribution Of The Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex To Attentional And Mnemonic Processes In Visual Search, Brandon Belbeck 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Contribution Of The Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex To Attentional And Mnemonic Processes In Visual Search, Brandon Belbeck

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A key characteristic of selective visual attention is that it may be deployed on the basis of our knowledge or goals of the task at hand. Here, we used cryogenic deactivation to investigate the contribution of the dorsolateral PFC to cognitive flexibility and working memory, as well as their relation to the deployment of attention. Macaque monkeys performed visual search tasks requiring them to foveate a target in an array of stimuli. These included a feature search, a constant-target conjunction search, a variable-target search and variable-target with delay search task, with each being more cognitively demanding than the last. Bilateral ...


Senile Dementia From Neuroscientific And Islamic Perspectives, Mohd Amzari Tumiran 2015 University of Malaya

Senile Dementia From Neuroscientific And Islamic Perspectives, Mohd Amzari Tumiran

Mohd Amzari Tumiran

Diseases involving the nervous system drastically change lives of victims and commonly increase dependency on others. This paper focuses on Senile Dementia (SD) from both the neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives, with special emphasis on the integration of ideas between the two different disciplines. This would enable effective implementation of strategies to address issues involving this disease across different cultures, especially among the world-wide Muslim communities. In addition, certain incongruence ideas on similar issues can be understood better. The former perspective is molded according to conventional modern science while the latter on the analysis of various texts including the holy Qur ...


Glypican Is A Modulator Of Netrin-Mediated Axon Guidance, Cassandra Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Andrea Thackeray, Claire Y. Benard 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Glypican Is A Modulator Of Netrin-Mediated Axon Guidance, Cassandra Blanchette, Paola N. Perrat, Andrea Thackeray, Claire Y. Benard

Open Access Articles

Netrin is a key axon guidance cue that orients axon growth during neural circuit formation. However, the mechanisms regulating netrin and its receptors in the extracellular milieu are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, LON-2/glypican, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, modulates UNC-6/netrin signaling and may do this through interactions with the UNC-40/DCC receptor. We show that developing axons misorient in the absence of LON-2/glypican when the SLT-1/slit guidance pathway is compromised and that LON-2/glypican functions in both the attractive and repulsive UNC-6/netrin pathways. We find that the core LON-2/glypican protein ...


Characterization Of St14a Cells For Studying Modulation Of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels, Mandy L. Roberts-Crowley, Ann R. Rittenhouse 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Characterization Of St14a Cells For Studying Modulation Of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels, Mandy L. Roberts-Crowley, Ann R. Rittenhouse

Open Access Articles

In medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum, dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) specifically inhibit the Cav1.3 subtype of L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCs). MSNs are heterogeneous in their expression of dopamine receptors making the study of D2R pathways difficult in primary neurons. Here, we employed the ST14A cell line, derived from embryonic striatum and characterized to have properties of MSNs, to study Cav1.3 current and its modulation by neurotransmitters. Round, undifferentiated ST14A cells exhibited little to no endogenous Ca2+ current while differentiated ST14A cells expressed endogenous Ca2+ current. Transfection with LTC subunits produced functional Cav1.3 current from round ...


Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies The Cost Of Visual Information Processing, Levente L. Orbán, Sylvain Chartier 2015 Kwantlen Polytechnic University

Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies The Cost Of Visual Information Processing, Levente L. Orbán, Sylvain Chartier

All Faculty Scholarship

Untrained, “flower-naïve” bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees’ unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the ...


A Kinematic Analysis Of Visual And Haptic Contributions To Precision Grasping In A Patient With Visual Form Agnosia And In Normally-Sighted Populations, Robert Whitwell 2015 The University of Western Ontario

A Kinematic Analysis Of Visual And Haptic Contributions To Precision Grasping In A Patient With Visual Form Agnosia And In Normally-Sighted Populations, Robert Whitwell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Skilled arm and hand movments designed to obtain and manipulate objects (prehension) is one of the defining features of primates. According to the two visual system hypothesis (TVSH) vision can be parsed into two systems: (1) the ventral ‘stream’ of the occipital and inferotemporal cortex which services visual perception and other cognitive functions and (2) the ‘dorsal stream’ of the occipital and posterior parietal cortex which services skilled, goal-directed actions such as prehension. A cornerstone of the TVSH is the ‘perception-action’ dissociation observed in patient DF who suffers from visual form agnosia following bilateral damage to her ventral stream. DF ...


Connecting Circadian Genes To Neurodegenerative Pathways In Fruit Flies, Patrick Emery 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Connecting Circadian Genes To Neurodegenerative Pathways In Fruit Flies, Patrick Emery

Open Access Articles

Article introduction: Life expectancy has dramatically increased in recent human history. As a result, neurodegenerative diseases have become a primary health issue. Circadian clocks are found in all mammalian tissues, including neurons and glia, and are, thus, likely to have an impact on the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the link between circadian clocks and neurodegeneration is poorly understood. ...


The Effects Of Arginine Vasopressin On Maternal Behavior And Aggression In Peromyscus Californicus Mothers, Nathaniel Ng 2015 Seattle Pacific University

The Effects Of Arginine Vasopressin On Maternal Behavior And Aggression In Peromyscus Californicus Mothers, Nathaniel Ng

Honors Projects

Research studies since the 1950s have shown that a chemical within the brain called arginine vasopressin (AVP) is associated with the modulation of many different social behaviors in mammals. Some of these behaviors are related to parenting, such as parental care initiation, aggression, social recognition, depression and anxiety. Understanding the physiology behind AVP regulation could allow for the creation of new therapies for treating human social disorders, such as using an AVP receptor antagonist to attenuate anxiety. This project examines how neural injections of AVP and an AVP receptor antagonist affect both maternal care and aggression in female Peromyscus californicus ...


Neural Correlates Of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study, Kristin Prehn, Marc Korczykowski, Hengyi Rao, Zhuo Fang, John A. Detre, Diana C. Robertson 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Neural Correlates Of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study, Kristin Prehn, Marc Korczykowski, Hengyi Rao, Zhuo Fang, John A. Detre, Diana C. Robertson

Neuroethics Publications

Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master ...


Mesoscopic Patterns Of Neural Activity Support Songbird Cortical Sequences, Jeffrey E. Markowitz, William A. Liberti III, Grigori Guitchounts, Tarciso Velho, Carlos Lois, Timothy J. Gardner 2015 Boston University

Mesoscopic Patterns Of Neural Activity Support Songbird Cortical Sequences, Jeffrey E. Markowitz, William A. Liberti Iii, Grigori Guitchounts, Tarciso Velho, Carlos Lois, Timothy J. Gardner

Open Access Articles

Time-locked sequences of neural activity can be found throughout the vertebrate forebrain in various species and behavioral contexts. From "time cells" in the hippocampus of rodents to cortical activity controlling movement, temporal sequence generation is integral to many forms of learned behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence generation are not well known. Here, we describe a spatial and temporal organization of the songbird premotor cortical microcircuit that supports sparse sequences of neural activity. Multi-channel electrophysiology and calcium imaging reveal that neural activity in premotor cortex is correlated with a length scale of 100 microm. Within this length scale, basal-ganglia-projecting excitatory ...


Wavelet-Domain Regression And Predictive Inference In Psychiatric Neuroimaging, Philip T. Reiss, Lan Huo, Yihong Zhao, Clare Kelly, R. Todd Ogden 2015 New York University School of Medicine

Wavelet-Domain Regression And Predictive Inference In Psychiatric Neuroimaging, Philip T. Reiss, Lan Huo, Yihong Zhao, Clare Kelly, R. Todd Ogden

Philip T. Reiss

An increasingly important goal of psychiatry is the use of brain imaging data to develop predictive models. Here we present two contributions to statistical methodology for this purpose. First, we propose and compare a set of wavelet-domain procedures for fitting generalized linear models with scalar responses and image predictors: sparse variants of principal component regression and of partial least squares, and the elastic net. Second, we consider assessing the contribution of image predictors over and above available scalar predictors, in particular via permutation tests and an extension of the idea of confounding to the case of functional or image predictors ...


The Origin, Development And Molecular Diversity Of Rodent Olfactory Bulb Glutamatergic Neurons Distinguished By Expression Of Transcription Factor Neurod1, Laurent Roybon, Teresa L. Mastracci, Joyce Li, Simon R. W. Stott, Andrew B. Leiter, Lori Sussel, Patrik Brundin, Jia-Yi Li 2015 Lund University

The Origin, Development And Molecular Diversity Of Rodent Olfactory Bulb Glutamatergic Neurons Distinguished By Expression Of Transcription Factor Neurod1, Laurent Roybon, Teresa L. Mastracci, Joyce Li, Simon R. W. Stott, Andrew B. Leiter, Lori Sussel, Patrik Brundin, Jia-Yi Li

Open Access Articles

Production of olfactory bulb neurons occurs continuously in the rodent brain. Little is known, however, about cellular diversity in the glutamatergic neuron subpopulation. In the central nervous system, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 (ND1) is commonly associated with glutamatergic neuron development. In this study, we utilized ND1 to identify the different subpopulations of olfactory bulb glutamategic neurons and their progenitors, both in the embryo and postnatally. Using knock-in mice, transgenic mice and retroviral transgene delivery, we demonstrate the existence of several different populations of glutamatergic olfactory bulb neurons, the progenitors of which are ND1+ and ND1- lineage-restricted, and are ...


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