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Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah DeWolf, Bruno Carneiro 2015 Sacred Heart University

Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah Dewolf, Bruno Carneiro

Biology Faculty Publications

Lead has been utilized throughout history and is widely distributed and mobilized globally. Although lead in the environment has been somewhat mitigated, the nature of lead and its extensive uses in the past prohibit it from being completely absent from our environment and exposure to lead is still a public health concern. Most studies regarding lead toxicity have focused on the brain. However, little is found in the literature on the effects of lead in other tissues. Here, we utilize the zebrafish model system to investigate effects of lead exposure during early developmental time windows at 24, 48 and 72 ...


Quantile Rank Maps: A New Tool For Understanding Individual Brain Development, Huaihou Chen, Clare Kelly, F. Xavier Castellanos, Ye He, Xi-Nian Zuo, Philip T. Reiss 2015 University of Florida

Quantile Rank Maps: A New Tool For Understanding Individual Brain Development, Huaihou Chen, Clare Kelly, F. Xavier Castellanos, Ye He, Xi-Nian Zuo, Philip T. Reiss

Philip T. Reiss

We propose a novel method for neurodevelopmental brain mapping that displays how an individual’s values for a quantity of interest compare with age-specific norms. By estimating smoothly age-varying distributions at a set of brain regions of interest, we derive age-dependent region-wise quantile ranks for a given individual, which can be presented in the form of a brain map. Such quantile rank maps could potentially be used for clinical screening. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals are proposed for the quantile rank estimates. We also propose a recalibrated Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for detecting group differences in the age-varying distribution. This test is shown to ...


An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Anorexia nervosa is an enigmatic human condition typified by food-restriction that is often accompanied by extensive exercise. This has been modeled in rats in the wheel-induced feeding-suppression (WIFS) model. In this model, animals are given access to a running-wheel, which induces a volitional drop in food-consumption. Short periods of wheel access have induced a feeding-suppression which is effectively reversed by chlorpromazine administration (Adams et al., 2009). Recent attempts at replicating Adams et al.’s (2009) feeding-suppression have, however, been unsuccessful (Peckham et al., 2013). These attempts raised questions as to whether or not the existing methodology is most effective at ...


Influence Of Planning Resources On Gait Control In Parkinson’S Disease, Frederico P. Faria 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

Influence Of Planning Resources On Gait Control In Parkinson’S Disease, Frederico P. Faria

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Movement disturbances in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been associated with difficulties to plan complex actions. Performance of simple and complex actions overloads resources for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is unclear if central resources required to plan gait adjustments while walking exacerbate gait disturbances of patients with PD. More specifically, it is unclear how gait impairments, sensory processing, and the dopaminergic system influence the load on processing resources (e.g. cognitive load) during the planning of step modifications. In order to investigate the relative influence of these factors on cognitive load and its impact ...


Hippocampal Volume And Auditory Attention On A Verbal Memory Task With Adult Survivors Of Pediatric Brain Tumor, Reema Jayakar, Tricia Z. King, Robin Morris, Sabrina Na 2015 Georgia State University

Hippocampal Volume And Auditory Attention On A Verbal Memory Task With Adult Survivors Of Pediatric Brain Tumor, Reema Jayakar, Tricia Z. King, Robin Morris, Sabrina Na

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: We examined the nature of verbal memory deficits and the possible hippocampal underpinnings in long-term adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. Method: 35 survivors (M=24.10±4.93 years at testing; 54% female), on average 15 years post-diagnosis, and 59 typically developing adults (M=22.40±4.35 years, 54% female) participated. Automated FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools were used to measure hippocampal, putamen, and whole brain volumes. The California Verbal Learning Test – Second Edition (CVLT-II) was used to assess verbal memory. Results: Hippocampal (F(1,91)=4.06, ηp2=.04), putamen (F(1,91)=11 ...


Characterizing Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach, Stephanie D. Bugden 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing Persistent Developmental Dyscalculia: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach, Stephanie D. Bugden

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disorder of calculation abilities. In the present thesis I report a series behavioural and functional neuroimaging studies to further elucidate the core numerical deficits underlying DD. I recruited a sample of children with DD who demonstrated persistent impairments in arithmetic. In Chapter 2, to validate the selection criteria, I compared the performance of children with and without persistent DD on a test of numerical magnitude processing. The data showed that only children with persistent DD presented with deficits in numerical magnitude processing, while those with inconsistent DD perform at the level of age-matched ...


Cognitive Neurosciene And Its Applications To Contemporary Acting Theory, Ryan Stiffelman 2014 Chapman University

Cognitive Neurosciene And Its Applications To Contemporary Acting Theory, Ryan Stiffelman

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

I personally believe that anyone can be a performer so long as they have the determination, dedication, and refuse to take no for an answer. There are all kinds of training out there designed to help turn hopeful wannabes into the “stars” that we know them as, however, not every “star” we see has had this kind of training. We often hear of young actors like Jennifer Lawrence hailed for their “natural talent”. Does this mean there’s some kind of birth-right, a specific natural inclination or ability that makes someone a potentially great actor from the start? I will ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Smoking and tobacco dependence are serious health concerns in the United States and globally. Reward via the pharmacological effects of nicotine are believed to be the principal motivating factor that drive tobacco dependence. Research reveals differences in sensitivity between males and females to the motivational effects of nicotine in tobacco use. Enhancement of reinforcement value of non-nicotine rewards contributes to overall nicotine reward. Similar value-enhancing effects have been observed by the two most commonly prescribed smoking cessation aids, bupropion and varenicline. The present dissertation investigated the value-enhancing effects of nicotine, bupropion and varenicline in both male and female rats using ...


Pathway-Specific Signaling And Its Impact On Fertility: A Focus On The Kisspeptin Receptor, Kiss1r, Maryse R. Ahow 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Pathway-Specific Signaling And Its Impact On Fertility: A Focus On The Kisspeptin Receptor, Kiss1r, Maryse R. Ahow

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hypothalamic GnRH-releasing hormone (Gnrh) is the master regulator of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis and its secretion is regulated by many Gnrh neuronal-based signaling systems. Among these are Gαq/11-coupled receptors and their ligands.In most cases examined to date, activation of these receptors lead to Gnrh neuronal membrane depolarization and Gnrh secretion. The most potent trigger of Gnrh secretion is kisspeptin (Kp), a ligand for the Kiss1r Gαq/11-coupled receptor. Studies have shown that Kiss1r signaling is essential for attaining and maintaining fertility. We recently demonstrated that in addition to signaling via Gαq/11, Kiss1r ...


Suppression Of Neurodegenerative Symptoms Via Suppressor Of Levy Mutation In Drosophila Melanogaster, William Kaputa 2014 State University of New York Buffalo State

Suppression Of Neurodegenerative Symptoms Via Suppressor Of Levy Mutation In Drosophila Melanogaster, William Kaputa

Forensic Science Theses

Mutation of the levy gene on chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster has previously been shown to cause temperature-induced paralysis and neurodegeneration. The Suppressor of levy mutation, Su(levy), also on chromosome 2, modulates the effects of the levy mutation and partly rescues the wild-type phenotype. The goal of this research was to determine if Su(levy) mutation alleviates the effects of neurodegeneration caused by mutations associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases in humans. The mutant genes used were hLRRK2, α-Synuclein, DJ1-α, Pink, Parkin, and Aβ-42. To determine this, flies carrying the above-mentioned mutant genes were crossed ...


Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein 2014 Cause of Action Washington, D.C.

Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

American legal realism was committed to examining legal reasoning in terms of the actual experiences of judges. Because the realist project sought to use social science tools to examine human nature, the contemporary rise of cognitive neuroscience provides an occasion for re-examining legal realism’s foundational critique of the law. Realism’s attempt to examine “the actual facts of judicial behavior” and to pursue a “scientific description and prediction of judicial behavior” appears to be a suitable vehicle for considering the relevance of cognitive neuroscience for legal theory. Cognitive neuroscience has provided convincing evidence for rejecting the traditional bifurcation between ...


University Of New England Center For Excellence In Neuroscience K-12 Outreach Program, Alexandria D'Ambruoso, Kelsey Schwarz, Alex Deal, Kristen Erickson, Edward Bilsky, Michael Burman 2014 University of New England

University Of New England Center For Excellence In Neuroscience K-12 Outreach Program, Alexandria D'Ambruoso, Kelsey Schwarz, Alex Deal, Kristen Erickson, Edward Bilsky, Michael Burman

Posters

Research poster describing UNE's Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences (CEN) K-12 outreach program. Founded in 2009 with three main areas of focus—research, scholarship and community outreach—CEN includes over 40 faculty members affiliated with neuroscience research and/or education. The Neuroscience Outreach Program was established in 2009 with the goal of bringing fun, interactive neuroscience lessons to schools to engage students in learning about neuroscience. UNE undergraduate and professional students present the lessons in classrooms with support from UNE faculty and staff.


Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton 2014 Liberty University

Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton

Other Undergraduate Scholarship

Research has shown that changes in gene expression play a critical role in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Our project will evaluate genome-wide RNA expression patterns from brain and blood in an AD mouse model. This analysis will provide insight regarding the mechanisms of AD pathology as well as determine a possible diagnostic tool utilizing RNA expression patterns found in the blood as biomarkers for AD.


Executive Dysfunction And Reward Dysregulation: Interactions In Drug Addiction, Kristen Paula Morie 2014 City University of New York, Graduate Center

Executive Dysfunction And Reward Dysregulation: Interactions In Drug Addiction, Kristen Paula Morie

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

Cocaine addiction is a serious public health hazard, and contributes to disastrous outcomes for individuals who suffer from it. Addiction is accompanied by an inability to control one's own behavior, and a preoccupation with cocaine at the expense of other rewarding pursuits. Previous research has suggested that difficulties with executive function and reward processing may underlie these problems, but the extent to which each contributes to addiction severity, or how these two factors may interact, remains to be elucidated. By using event related potential (ERP) measures in combination with information about self-reported anhedonia over three experiments, we set out ...


A Behavioral And Biopsychological Investigation Of The Role Of The Illusion Of Control And Perseverative Chasing Between Problem And Non-Problem Gamblers, Brett Evan Bauchner 2014 City University of New York, Graduate Center

A Behavioral And Biopsychological Investigation Of The Role Of The Illusion Of Control And Perseverative Chasing Between Problem And Non-Problem Gamblers, Brett Evan Bauchner

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

The illusion of control is associated with problem gambling. The perception that one is in control of a random event, when in reality there is no control, can facilitate problem gambling behaviors. The degree or extent of control may activate physiological mechanism of increased excitation and reward that reinforce gambling. In the studies presented here, performance on simulated gambling tasks that provided varying levels gambling participation were compared to physiological measures of behavioral activation in problem gambler and nongamblers. Participants watched video clips of three horseraces scenarios that permitted different degrees of participation and control over wagering. Concurrently saliva samples ...


Mental Representations, Social Exclusion, And Neurobiological Processes In Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multi-Level Study, Jeffrey K. Erbe 2014 City University of New York, Graduate Center

Mental Representations, Social Exclusion, And Neurobiological Processes In Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multi-Level Study, Jeffrey K. Erbe

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an ongoing public health crisis. Poor developmental quality of differentiation-relatedness of object representations and attachment insecurity have been clinically and empirically demonstrated as core patterns of intrapsychic and interpersonal dysfunction in this particular form of personality pathology. Differentiation-relatedness (D-R), which involves a complementary relationship between intrapsychic autonomy and interpersonal relatedness, has been shown to be a significant aspect of internal psychic experience that relates directly to external relationship patterns, including characteristic response to interpersonal interactions and has been a specific target for treatment of BPD. Specifically, individuals with BPD have shown lower developmental quality of ...


The Function Of The Phospholipid Flippase Atp8a1 In Neurotransmission, Brain Development And Autistic Behavior, Daniel Joseph Kerr 2014 City University of New York, Graduate Center

The Function Of The Phospholipid Flippase Atp8a1 In Neurotransmission, Brain Development And Autistic Behavior, Daniel Joseph Kerr

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

The function of the phospholipid flippase Atp8a1 in neurotransmission, brain development, and autistic behavior

By

Daniel J. Kerr

The plasma membrane consists of lipids and proteins. Among the integral membrane proteins are P-type ATPases, widely expressed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which use ATP to translocate ions across a plasma membrane. Type IV enzymes are putative aminophospholipid translocases (APLTs) and catalyze phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer into the cytosolic leaflet of a lipid bilayer. Previously, our group showed pronounced PS externalization in Atp8a1 (-/-) mice but not wild type (WT). Subsequent behavioral testing demonstrated that these Atp8a1 (-/-) mice display significant deficiency in spatial ...


The Role Of The Rna-Binding Protein Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor In The Cellular Stress Response, Kevin WH Cheung 2014 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of The Rna-Binding Protein Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor In The Cellular Stress Response, Kevin Wh Cheung

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease for which the pathological mechanism is heterogeneous and a cure has been elusive. Recent developments have linked specific proteins found in pathological neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) of ALS motor neurons to familial variants of the disease. These proteins, including TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS), and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF) share the common characteristic of being RNA-binding proteins that colocalize within NCIs. RGNEF is unique however in also possessing RhoA activation capacity, suggesting a role in the cell stress response. My ...


Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Performing magnetic resonance imaging at high magnetic field strength promises many improvements over low fields that are of direct benefit in functional neuroimaging. This includes the possibility of improved signal-to-noise levels, and increased BOLD functional contrast and spatial specificity. However, human MRI at 7T and above suffers from unique engineering challenges that limit the achievable gains. In this thesis, three technological developments are introduced, all of which address separate issues associated with functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging at very high magnetic field strengths.

First, the image homogeneity problem is addressed by investigating methods of RF shimming — modifying the excitation portion of ...


Multi-Oscillator Structure Of The Circadian Pacemaker, Carolina Aguila 2014 Northeastern University

Multi-Oscillator Structure Of The Circadian Pacemaker, Carolina Aguila

Biology Master's Theses

Circadian rhythms are an important part of the body's physiological processes. Although circadian rhythms are endogenously generated, they are normally entrained by environmental cycles, most commonly the light/dark (LD) cycle. One important issue is how they are regulated and synchronized within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the controlling center in the mammalian brain. Previous studies have shown that mice deficient in an SCN peptide (VIP-/- mice) under constant darkness display disrupted circadian rhythms with a varying phenotype. The extent to which this deficiency affects mice when entrained to LD cycles is less clear. Some effects of the deficiency suggest ...


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