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Neuroprediction And Criminal Law, Fritz Allhoff 2016 Western Michigan University

Neuroprediction And Criminal Law, Fritz Allhoff

Spring Convocation

No abstract provided.


Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William D. Kearns, James L. Fozard, Vilis O. Nams 2016

Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William D. Kearns, James L. Fozard, Vilis O. Nams

William D. Kearns, PhD

Ambulation is defined by duration, distance traversed, number and size of directional changes and the interval separating successive movement episodes; more complex measures of ambulation can be created by aggregating these features. This review article of published findings defines random changes in direction during movement as “movement path tortuosity”, and relates tortuosity to the understanding of cognitive impairments of persons of all ages. Path tortuosity is quantified by subjecting tracking data to fractal analysis, specifically Fractal Dimension (Fractal D), which ranges from a value of 1 when the movement path is perfectly straight to a value of 2 when the ...


Going Mainstream Or Just A Passing Fad? The Future Of The Ancestral Health Movement, Hamilton M. Stapell 2016 SUNY New Paltz

Going Mainstream Or Just A Passing Fad? The Future Of The Ancestral Health Movement, Hamilton M. Stapell

Journal of Evolution and Health

The current ancestral health (“paleo”) movement is often thought to be on the verge of going mainstream. Many within the movement believe this would lead to positive health and financial outcomes for both individuals and society as a whole. However, the transition from a small, highly-devoted group of adherents to a mass following will be far more difficult than commonly assumed. This paper argues there are three main obstacles to it becoming a mass phenomenon in the United States. First, Neolithic foods are tightly woven into the fabric of our culture (for example, bread within the Christian tradition). Second, refined ...


Why Fish Do Not Feel Pain, Brian Key 2016 The University of Queensland

Why Fish Do Not Feel Pain, Brian Key

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Abstract: Only humans can report feeling pain. In contrast, pain in animals is typically inferred on the basis of nonverbal behaviour. Unfortunately, these behavioural data can be problematic when the reliability and validity of the behavioural tests are questionable. The thesis proposed here is based on the bioengineering principle that structure determines function. Basic functional homologies can be mapped to structural homologies across a broad spectrum of vertebrate species. For example, olfaction depends on olfactory glomeruli in the olfactory bulbs of the forebrain, visual orientation responses depend on the laminated optic tectum in the midbrain, and locomotion depends on pattern ...


Pain And Other Feelings In Humans And Animals, Antonio Damasio, Hanna Damasio 2016 University of Southern California

Pain And Other Feelings In Humans And Animals, Antonio Damasio, Hanna Damasio

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evidence from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology suggests that the experience of feelings in humans does not depend exclusively on structures of the cerebral cortex. It does not seem warranted to deny the possibility of feeling in animals on the grounds that their cerebral cortices are not comparable to those of humans.


Could Fish Feel Pain? A Wider Perspective, Yew-Kwang Ng 2016 Nanyang Technological University

Could Fish Feel Pain? A Wider Perspective, Yew-Kwang Ng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key’s (2016) target article provides some strong arguments but also makes some logical mistakes. The arguments are not sufficient to support a definite conclusion that fish cannot feel pain. A multi-faceted perspective taking into account brain structure, chemical secretion in brain, animal behavior, and evolutionary biology may be useful and appears, at least in some aspects, to suggest the opposite conclusion from that of the target article.



Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach 2016 University of Liverpool

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not reflect ...


Why Human Pain Can’T Tell Us Whether Fish Feel Pain, Victoria A. Braithwaite, Paula Droege 2016 The Pennsylvania State University

Why Human Pain Can’T Tell Us Whether Fish Feel Pain, Victoria A. Braithwaite, Paula Droege

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In his target article, Key (2016) reviews the neuroanatomy of human pain and uses what is known about human pain to argue that fish cannot experience pain. We provide three reasons why the conclusions reached by Key are unsupported. They consider (i) why it is not sufficient to conclude that only human neural structures can process conscious pain, (ii) why an understanding of pain in humans and non-human animals needs to be based within a framework of consciousness, and (iii) evidence already exists that fish treated with noxious stimuli lose the ability to perform normal behaviours: This was a behavioral ...


Falsifying The Null Hypothesis That “Fish Do Not Feel Pain", Brian Key 2016 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Falsifying The Null Hypothesis That “Fish Do Not Feel Pain", Brian Key

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The reader of Animal Sentience may surmise that because the weight of the commentaries on my target article, “Why fish do not feel pain,” is leaning towards not supporting my argument, it follows that the premise "fish do not feel pain" is incorrect. However, science does not prevail by popular opinion. History is plagued with numerous (and often widely accepted) examples of biological phenomena being explained by mysterious forces. In the absence of a mechanistic understanding, the many different guises of vitalism (the principle that life involves a vital energy) are often invoked to explain the unknown. Spurious assumptions tend ...


Going Beyond Just-So Stories, Brian Key 2016 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Going Beyond Just-So Stories, Brian Key

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Colloquial arguments for fish feeling pain are deeply rooted in anthropometric tendencies that confuse escape responses to noxious stimuli with evidence for consciousness. More developed arguments often rely on just-so stories of fish displaying complex behaviours as proof of consciousness. In response to commentaries on the idea that fish do not feel pain, I raise the need to go beyond just-so stories and to rigorously analyse the neural circuitry responsible for specific behaviours using new and emerging technologies in neuroscience. By deciphering the causal relationship between neural information processing and conscious behaviour, it should be possible to assess cogently the ...


Nonverbal Indicators Of Pain, Simon Van Rysewyk 2016 University of Tasmania

Nonverbal Indicators Of Pain, Simon Van Rysewyk

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In discussing fish pain, Key (2016) privileges pain in humans — “the only species able to directly report on its feelings.” Human experience of pain is not necessarily best reflected by verbal self-report, however. Neural responses to noxious stimuli are influenced by individual differences and by context. Nonverbal pain displays such as facial expressions reflect part of the neural response to noxious stimuli. Most mammals have a specific facial grimace reflecting pain. If fish have a somatic expression of pain, the development of a reliable and accurate somatic pain scale specific to fish could make a contribution to the debate about ...


Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown 2016 Macquarie University

Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Arguments against the fact that fish feel pain repeatedly appear even in the face of growing evidence that they do. The standards used to judge pain perception keep moving as the hurdles are repeatedly cleared by novel research findings. There is undoubtedly a vested commercial interest in proving that fish do not feel pain, so the topic has a half-life well past its due date. Key (2016) reiterates previous perspectives on this topic characterised by a black-or-white view that is based on the proposed role of the human cortex in pain perception. I argue that this is incongruent with our ...


On The Sentience Of Fish, Pentti O. Haikonen 2016 University of Illinois at Springfield

On The Sentience Of Fish, Pentti O. Haikonen

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key’s (2016) target article, “Why fish do not feel pain,” is based on a moralistic fallacy where conclusions about natural conditions are drawn not from research and experiments, but from subjective moral views on how things should be. Moreover, the neurobiological findings purporting to show that fish do not feel pain are insufficient for drawing this conclusion.


Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart 2016 University of Leicester

Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Even though Key (2016) has done a very thorough job of assembling evidence showing that fish are unlikely to have the neurological capacity to be conscious and feel pain, there will still be a significant number of behavioural biologists who want to continue maintaining that fish do have consciousness and suffer from pain. In this commentary the reasons for people resisting the conclusions of the evidence are discussed. The reasons revolve around three aspects of the debate: the overblown respect humans have for the powers of consciousness in our day-to-day behaviour, the often used assumption that the possession of complex ...


No Evidence That Pain Is Painful Neural Process, Riccardo Manzotti 2016 IULM University

No Evidence That Pain Is Painful Neural Process, Riccardo Manzotti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key (2016) claims that fish do not feel pain because they lack the neural structures that have a contingent causal role in generating and feeling pain in mammals. I counterargue that no conclusive evidence supports the sufficiency of any mammalian neural structure to produce pain. We cannot move from contingent necessity in mammals to necessity in every organism.


Should Fish Feel Pain? A Plant Perspective, František Baluška 2016 University of Bonn

Should Fish Feel Pain? A Plant Perspective, František Baluška

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key (2016) claims fish that fish do not feel pain because they lack the necessary neuronal architecture: their responses to noxious stimuli, according to Key, are executed automatically without any feelings. However, as pointed out by many of his commentators, this conclusion is not convincing. Plants might provide some clues. Plants are not usually thought to be very active behaviorally, but the evidence suggests otherwise. Moreover, in stressful situations, plants produce numerous chemicals that have painkilling and anesthetic properties. Finally, plants, when treated with anesthetics, cannot execute active behaviors such as touch-induced leaf movements or rapid trap closures after localizing ...


Fish Lack The Brains And The Psychology For Pain, Stuart W.G. Derbyshire 2016 National University of Singapore

Fish Lack The Brains And The Psychology For Pain, Stuart W.G. Derbyshire

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Debate about the possibility of fish pain focuses largely on the fish’s lack of the cortex considered necessary for generating pain. That view is appealing because it avoids relatively abstract debate about the nature of pain experience and subjectivity. Unfortunately, however, that debate cannot be entirely avoided. Subcortical circuits in the fish might support an immediate, raw, “pain” experience. The necessity of the cortex only becomes obvious when considering pain as an explicitly felt subjective experience. Attributing pain to fish only seems absurd when pain is considered as a state of explicit knowing.


A Single Strand Of Argument With Unfounded Conclusion, Robert W. Elwood 2016 Queen’s University, Belfast

A Single Strand Of Argument With Unfounded Conclusion, Robert W. Elwood

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key (2016) describes the neural system involved in human pain experience in an excellent fashion but then suggests that only that complete system can generate the experience of pain. Thus animals without all components will not feel pain. This argument has been refuted in the past by analogy to vision where it is clear that a broad range of taxa, vertebrate and invertebrate, have good visual abilities albeit with completely different central nervous systems and receptors. This known counterargument to Key’s main idea is not mentioned in the target article. Further criteria that might indicate pain and studies examining ...


Pain In Parallel, Peter Godfrey-Smith 2016 CUNY Graduate Center & University of Sydney

Pain In Parallel, Peter Godfrey-Smith

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key's (2016) arguments against the view that fish feel pain can be shown to be fallacious by considering some damage-related behaviors in invertebrates. Pain may have different neural bases in different organisms, so the absence in fish of the cortical structures that might underlie pain in mammals does not settle the question of fish pain.


Brain Processes For “Good” And “Bad” Feelings: How Far Back In Evolution?, Jaak Panksepp 2016 University of Washington

Brain Processes For “Good” And “Bad” Feelings: How Far Back In Evolution?, Jaak Panksepp

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The question of whether fish can experience pain or any other feelings can only be resolved by neurobiologically targeted experiments. This commentary summarizes why this is essential for resolving scientific debates about consciousness in other animals, and offers specific experiments that need to be done: (i) those that evaluate the rewarding and punishing effects of specific brain regions and systems (for instance, with deep-brain stimulation); (ii) those that evaluate the capacity of animals to regulate their affective states; and (iii) those that have direct implications for human affective feelings, with specific predictions — for instance, the development of new treatments for ...


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