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Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Cortical Iron Disrupts Functional Connectivity Networks Supporting Working Memory Performance In Older Adults, Valentinos Zachariou, Christopher E. Bauer, Elayna R. Seago, Flavius D. Raslau, David K. Powell, Brian T. Gold 2020 University of Kentucky

Cortical Iron Disrupts Functional Connectivity Networks Supporting Working Memory Performance In Older Adults, Valentinos Zachariou, Christopher E. Bauer, Elayna R. Seago, Flavius D. Raslau, David K. Powell, Brian T. Gold

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Excessive brain iron negatively affects working memory and related processes but the impact of cortical iron on task-relevant, cortical brain networks is unknown. We hypothesized that high cortical iron concentration may disrupt functional circuitry within cortical networks supporting working memory performance. Fifty-five healthy older adults completed an N-Back working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Participants also underwent quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) imaging for assessment of non-heme brain iron concentration. Additionally, pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling scans were obtained to control for potential contributions of cerebral blood volume and structural brain images were used to control ...


Ethical Implications Of The Legal Definition Of Brain Death In Light Of Modern Technological Advancements, Jordyn E. Fullaway 2020 Saint Michael's College

Ethical Implications Of The Legal Definition Of Brain Death In Light Of Modern Technological Advancements, Jordyn E. Fullaway

The Macksey Journal

Modern medical advancements in resuscitation and life support shifted the idea of death from a cardio-respiratory view to that of a neurocentric view. As a result, the definition of brain death (BD) emerged, which is the irreversible loss of brain function in both the brainstem and cerebral cortex. Consequentially, guidelines for determining BD were defined under law, and it is now legal to remove a patient from life support if they are diagnosed as brain dead. According to policy, one is considered brain dead if they have no brainstem reflexes, a lack of cerebral blood flow, and an absence of ...


Tonic And Phasic Amperometric Monitoring Of Dopamine Using Microelectrode Arrays In Rat Striatum, Martin Lundblad, David A. Price, Jason J. Burmeister, Jorge E. Quintero, Peter Huettl, Francois Pomerleau, Nancy R. Zahniser, Greg A. Gerhardt 2020 University of Kentucky

Tonic And Phasic Amperometric Monitoring Of Dopamine Using Microelectrode Arrays In Rat Striatum, Martin Lundblad, David A. Price, Jason J. Burmeister, Jorge E. Quintero, Peter Huettl, Francois Pomerleau, Nancy R. Zahniser, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Here we report a novel microelectrode array recording approach to measure tonic (resting) and phasic release of dopamine (DA) in DA-rich areas such as the rat striatum and nucleus accumbens. The resulting method is tested in intact central nervous system (CNS) and in animals with extensive loss of the DA pathway using the neurotoxin, 6-hydroxyDA (6-OHDA). The self-referencing amperometric recording method employs Nafion-coated with and without m-phenylenediamine recording sites that through real-time subtraction allow for simultaneous measures of tonic DA levels and transient changes due to depolarization and amphetamine-induced release. The recording method achieves low-level measures of both tonic and ...


Winning In Weight-Loss: The Interaction Of Conscientiousness And Perceived Autonomy, Jason M. Curtis, Marc Lochbaum 2020 Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions

Winning In Weight-Loss: The Interaction Of Conscientiousness And Perceived Autonomy, Jason M. Curtis, Marc Lochbaum

NeuroSports

ABSTRACT

Background

Understanding determinants for weight-loss is a national priority. Obesity is an epidemic with serious health consequences. Most of today’s obesity and overweight problems are being attributed to poor diets and not enough physical activity. These problems show no signs of slowing down with the behaviors of most Americans. The phenomenon of “The Biggest Loser” (different variants of weight-loss programs that consist of group exercise participation and nutrition therapy to elicit weight-loss, and hopefully behavior change) has spawned many variants in commercial health clubs. This prospectus study examined the direct and interactive or moderated effects of known determinants ...


Regulation Of Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine By Olfactory Neurons, Kyle J. Foster 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine By Olfactory Neurons, Kyle J. Foster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The intestinal epithelium represents one of the first lines of defense against pathogenic bacteria. Immune regulation at this critical barrier is necessary to maintain organismal fitness, and mis-regulation here has been linked to numerous debilitating diseases. Functional relationships between the nervous system and immune system have been found to be critical in the proper coordination of immune defenses at barrier surfaces, however the precise mechanisms underlying theses interactions remains unclear.

Through conducting a forward genetic screen utilizing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we uncovered a surprising requirement for the olfactory neuron gene olrn-1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial immunity ...


Optimizing Preprocessing Of Fmri Data To Maximize Correspondence Of Functional Anatomy Across Individuals, Nargess Ghazaleh 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Optimizing Preprocessing Of Fmri Data To Maximize Correspondence Of Functional Anatomy Across Individuals, Nargess Ghazaleh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In movie-activation fMRI, intersubject correlation (ISC) indicates a functional correspondence across viewers. Brains differ in shape; spatial normalization and smoothing enhance inter-subject functional overlap. We compare 3 normalization methods (SPM12, DARTEL and ANTS) and 6 smoothing levels to discover which method yields the best functional overlap, indexed by ISC. This is key to optimizing data analysis in clinical studies using movie-activation fMRI in future. In a 3T scanner, 44 healthy subjects watched an 8-min movie. Both normalization and smoothing affected the strength and extent of the ISC. ISC values were more robust for ANTs and DARTEL than for SPM12 and ...


Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Exposure to traumatic stress and adversity during the formative years of development can have adverse effects on mental health, neuroendocrine stress system function, and the brain, that persist into adulthood. One candidate mechanism that might confer vulnerability to enduring adverse outcomes of early life trauma is disruption of normal brain maturation. As the brain matures, functional interactions among brain regions change until the functional brain architecture (i.e., the functional connectome) reaches a mature state in adulthood. Given that different neural circuits have distinct developmental trajectories and sensitive periods, traumatic stress at a given point in development might have ...


Structural And Functional Brain Markers Of Trauma-Related Symptoms, Glenn Blessington 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Structural And Functional Brain Markers Of Trauma-Related Symptoms, Glenn Blessington

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The neurocircuitry model of posttraumatic stress disorder suggests an association between trauma-related symptoms and abnormalities in the structure and function of limbic and prefrontal brain regions. Evidence also suggests that these structural and functional abnormalities are related. We tested the relation between whole brain white matter integrity, resting-state functional connectivity of a fronto-limbic network, and trauma-related symptoms in 22 trauma-exposed women. We hypothesized that components of whole brain white matter would correlate with components of resting connectivity within a fronto-limbic network. We used parallel independent component analysis (pICA) to test the associations between whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and ...


Functions Of Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factor 2 In Excitable Tissues, Christopher Marra 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Functions Of Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factor 2 In Excitable Tissues, Christopher Marra

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Purpose: Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factors (FHFs) are a group of proteins known to associate with and modulate voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in excitable cells. The four FHF genes are differentially expressed in specific cell-types, with FHF2 expressed prominently in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, heart and dorsal root ganglia. Due to previous unavailability of an Fhf2 knockout mouse, this gene’s functions have been understudied in comparison to other those encoding other FHFs. The purpose of this research has been to better understand the normal physiological functions of FHF2 at the cellular and system levels in the heart, sensory ...


The Cognitive Thalamus: Source Analysis Of Scene Working Memory Delay Activity, Bernard A. Gomes 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Cognitive Thalamus: Source Analysis Of Scene Working Memory Delay Activity, Bernard A. Gomes

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Working Memory represents a limited-capacity store for maintaining information and manipulating the store's contents over a short period for the guidance of goal-directed behavior. Working Memory is an essential component of executive functions that are intricately associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC has been implicated in maintaining task-related information online for brief periods in the absence of relevant information. This active maintenance phase is called the delay period that occurs between encoding and retrieval of the stimulus. Previous studies have attempted to understand the relationship between working memory and the PFC, especially during the delay or maintenance ...


Investigating The Role Of Phox2b-Expressing Glutamatergic Parafacial Zone Neurons In Sleep Wake Control, Evelyn T. M. Erickson 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating The Role Of Phox2b-Expressing Glutamatergic Parafacial Zone Neurons In Sleep Wake Control, Evelyn T. M. Erickson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Inhibitory GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZGABA) are essential for slow wave sleep (SWS). Since existing literature about the heterogenous population of PZ neurons is lacking, questions remain regarding the non-GABAergic sleep active PZ neurons. This study seeks to determine if glutamatergic PZ neurons expressing the transcription factor Phox2B (PZPhox2B) participate in sleep-wake control. Phox2B-IRES-Cre mice received injections of adeno-associated virus containing Cre-dependent diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) DNA into the PZ (PZPhox2B-DTA). Analysis of injection sites revealed transfection covering the PZ and the locus coeruleus, also known to express Phox2B. We recorded the ...


Methylmercury Cytotoxicity On Developing Neuronal Lineages And Differences In Susceptibility Based On Media Type, Madeline Henley 2020 Purdue University

Methylmercury Cytotoxicity On Developing Neuronal Lineages And Differences In Susceptibility Based On Media Type, Madeline Henley

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger 2020 Purdue University

Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Adolescent Chronic Mild Stress: In Female Wistar-Kyoto Rats, Anna Hallowell 2020 Purdue University

The Effects Of Adolescent Chronic Mild Stress: In Female Wistar-Kyoto Rats, Anna Hallowell

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Despite years of research to understand under-lying mechanisms and develop more effective treatment approaches for mood disorders, numerous challenges exist. Many chronic stress models are used to study mood disorders, how-ever the majority have been established with adult males. This is problematic considering that affective disorders are more common in women, and generally develop during late adolescence. Studies have indicated fundamental behavioral, physiological, and neural differences between males and females in response to the same external stressors, furthering a need to develop sex-specific paradigms to accurately model the etiology of mood disorders in females. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is ...


Investigating Microglia-Vascular Interactions In The Developing And Adult Central Nervous System, Erica Mondo 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating Microglia-Vascular Interactions In The Developing And Adult Central Nervous System, Erica Mondo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), are dynamic cells, constantly extending and retracting their processes as they contact and functionally regulate neurons and other glial cells. There is far less known about how microglia interact with the CNS vasculature, particularly under healthy steady-state conditions. Here, I provide the first extensive characterization of juxtavascular microglia in the healthy, postnatal brain and identify a molecular mechanism regulating the timing of these interactions during development. Using the mouse cerebral cortex, I show that microglia are intimately associated with the vasculature in the CNS, directly contacting the basal lamina in ...


The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) composed of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and neurofilaments is considered to be ALS’s neuropathological hallmark. RGNEF has been previously shown to interact with TDP-43 and to have a regulatory effect on the expression levels of NEFL mRNA and NFL protein in vitro. Here, I examined the mechanism of the RGNEF N-terminus, leucine-rich domain (LeuR) domain’s interaction with TDP-43. I observed that the minimal domain required is 110 amino acids (LeuR110), that the Ankyrin domain adjacent to LeuR110 does not participate, and that LeuR110 forms of a high molecular weight complex with TDP-43 ...


Methods For Detecting Per2::Luciferase Bioluminescence Rhythms In Freely Moving Mice, B. Martin-Burgos, W. Wang, I. William, S. Tir, I. Mohammad, R. Javed, Smith College, Y. Cui, Ciearra B. Smith, V. van der Vinne, P.C. Molyneux, Stephen C. Miller, David R. Weaver, T.L. Leise, M.E. Harrington 2020 Smith College

Methods For Detecting Per2::Luciferase Bioluminescence Rhythms In Freely Moving Mice, B. Martin-Burgos, W. Wang, I. William, S. Tir, I. Mohammad, R. Javed, Smith College, Y. Cui, Ciearra B. Smith, V. Van Der Vinne, P.C. Molyneux, Stephen C. Miller, David R. Weaver, T.L. Leise, M.E. Harrington

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Circadian rhythms are driven by daily oscillations of gene expression. An important tool for studying cellular and tissue rhythms is the use of a gene reporter, such as bioluminescence from the reporter gene luciferase controlled by a rhythmically expressed gene of interest. Here we describe methods that allow measurement of bioluminescence from a freely-moving mouse housed in a standard cage. Using a LumiCycle In Vivo (Actimetrics), we determined conditions that allow detection of circadian rhythms of bioluminescence from the PER2 reporter, PER2::LUC, in freely behaving mice. We tested delivery of D-luciferin via a subcutaneous minipump and in the drinking ...


Feeling-Of-Knowing Experiences Breed Curiosity, Gregory Brooks 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Feeling-Of-Knowing Experiences Breed Curiosity, Gregory Brooks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is well-established that curiosity has benefits for learning. Less is known about potential links between curiosity and memory retrieval. In theoretical work on metacognition it has been argued that retrieval experiences that occur during memory search can exert control over behaviour. States of curiosity, which can be defined as behavioural tendencies to seek out information, may play a critical role in this control function. We conducted two experiments to address this idea, focusing on links between feeling-of knowing (FOK) experiences, memory-search duration, and subsequent information-seeking behaviour. We administered an episodic FOK paradigm that probed memory for previously studied arbitrary ...


The Impact Of Multiliteracies And Multimodality On Esl Learners: Using Neuroimaging Technologies, Wenyu Huang 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Multiliteracies And Multimodality On Esl Learners: Using Neuroimaging Technologies, Wenyu Huang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Educational neuroscience has become an important role in understanding education and the association with brain development. However, few previous studies have applied neuroimaging techniques to multiliteracies research, which is an important literacy pedagogy addressing multimodal learning and cultural and linguistic diversity. This study used functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the association of multiliteracies learning on adult English Second Language (ESL) students’ performance through multimodal tasks.

Students’ multimodality background was collected through a technology questionnaire. Behavioural and fNIRS data were collected before and after multiliteracies learning. Results showed that there was no significance change in behavioural responses while the ...


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