Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,788 Full-Text Articles 4,306 Authors 428,325 Downloads 121 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

2,788 full-text articles. Page 1 of 63.

An Evaluation Of The Relative Performance Of Diploid Versus Triploid Brook Trout With Consideration Of The Influence Of Lake Characteristics, Andy Dean 2014 Utah State University

An Evaluation Of The Relative Performance Of Diploid Versus Triploid Brook Trout With Consideration Of The Influence Of Lake Characteristics, Andy Dean

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Triploid (sterile) trout potentially offer a more risk-averse option for stocking popular non-native sport fish; however the relative performance (e.g., survival and growth) of triploid versus diploid fish in natural settings is not well understood. I evaluated the relative performance of triploid versus diploid brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) stocked in high mountain Uinta lakes in response to food availability and lake morphology. I chose a set of 9 lakes that included a range of elevation and lake morphology. I observed no difference in CPUE or relative weight (Wr) of both types of trout in all lakes. Food availability ...


Response Of Large River Fishes To A Prolonged High Water Event In The Missouri River, Nebraska, Nicholas Paul Hogberg 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Response Of Large River Fishes To A Prolonged High Water Event In The Missouri River, Nebraska, Nicholas Paul Hogberg

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Regulation and modification of large rivers to accommodate human uses have been a root cause of freshwater biodiversity declines. The Missouri River is among the most drastically-altered large river systems in North America, with a series of mainstem impoundments in the upper watershed altering flow characteristics downstream, and channelization throughout the lower river homogenizing instream habitat and reducing off-channel habitat. Precipitation events during the winter and spring 2010-2011 caused flooding of the greatest magnitude and duration since reservoir completion. The large magnitude and long duration of this flood made it unlike any flood in recent history and provided a unique ...


Modeling To Improve Vegetation-Based Wetland Biological Assessment, Robin C. Jones 2014 Utah State University

Modeling To Improve Vegetation-Based Wetland Biological Assessment, Robin C. Jones

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act (1972), natural resource managers need to be able to detect biological degradation in wetland ecosystems. Biological indices are commonly used by managers to assess wetland biological condition. The accuracy and precision of wetland condition assessments are directly related to the performance of these indices, and biological index performance is thought to be related to how well an index controls for the effects of environmental attributes on biological assemblages. Many plant-based biological indices control for environmental and biological variation through the use of classification schemes that are based on geographic location and ...


Accuracy Or Precision: Implications Of Sample Design And Methodology On Abundance Estimation, Lucas K. Kowalewski 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Accuracy Or Precision: Implications Of Sample Design And Methodology On Abundance Estimation, Lucas K. Kowalewski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Estimation of population size by spatially replicated counts (point-count method) has been used for many large-scale animal-monitoring programs, yet its application in aquatic environments has been limited. Multiple site-specific estimates of abundance can be averaged and combined with covariate data to predict total abundance across an area of interest. Covariate data also provide an understanding of the relationship between abundance and habitat use, which is a fundamental interest of many animal-population investigations. Design of sampling scenarios for point-count population-estimate surveys can influence the accuracy and precision of the population estimate. The first objective of this study was to examine how ...


The Equitable Contributions Of Environment, Management And Restoration Status On Grassland Diversity And Composition, RaeAnn C. Powers 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Equitable Contributions Of Environment, Management And Restoration Status On Grassland Diversity And Composition, Raeann C. Powers

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Plant composition is controlled by a combination of environmental, biotic, historical and management factors. Although there has been much focus on restoring grassland diversity, it is unclear which factors and/or interactions of factors are constraining diversity in grasslands and the relative influences of different factors. We measured soil fertility, soil texture, grazing intensity, fire frequency and plant cover in 694 plots, located within 33 remnant and restored fields in managed grasslands in the central Great Plains. Using univariate (general linear model) and multivariate (PERMANOVA) analyses, we identified significant factors and their relative contributions to plant richness, evenness, floristic quality ...


Herbivory Strains Resilience In Drought-Prone Aspen Landscapes Of The Western United States, Paul C. Rogers 2014 Utah State University

Herbivory Strains Resilience In Drought-Prone Aspen Landscapes Of The Western United States, Paul C. Rogers

Aspen Bibliography

Aims: Aspen forests around the northern hemisphere provide rich biodiversity compared to surrounding vegetation types. In both North America and Europe, however, aspen are threatened by a variety of human impacts: clear-felling, land development, water diversions, fire suppression, and both wild and domestic ungulate herbivory. We conducted a landscape assessment of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) for the purpose of identifying key components of resilience. Specifically, we strove to test novel measures linking plant-animal interactions, compare crucial functional differences in aspen types, and make appropriate restorative recommendations based on the outcome of these assessments. Location: The Book Cliffs region of eastern ...


Recreating Mesquite Mounds (Nebkas) In The Colorado Desert, David A. Bainbridge 2014 SelectedWorks

Recreating Mesquite Mounds (Nebkas) In The Colorado Desert, David A. Bainbridge

David A Bainbridge

Accretion dunes or mounds (also known as nebkas or nebkhas) are formed when plants capture and then are partially buried in wind-blown sand. In the San Felipe drainage in the western Colorado Desert, mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torrey var. torreyana (L. D. Benson) M. C. Johnston)) forms dunes up to 5 m high. These are ecologically important for both ecosystem structure (primarily habitat) and function (soil accumulation, moisture retention and nutrient cycling). The widening of California state highway 86 damaged and removed several mesquite mounds and the California Department of Transportation asked us to explore techniques for recreating them to reduce ...


Weed Seed Germplasm Collection 1964-2014 Of The Weed Biology Laboratory, Jack Dekker 2014 Iowa State University

Weed Seed Germplasm Collection 1964-2014 Of The Weed Biology Laboratory, Jack Dekker

Jack Dekker

J. Dekker weed seed germplasm collection; including: Lots 1-3974: 1964-2014; main seed library listed by lot numbers. Lots 649-1457: 1989 all-Iowa Setaria transect study. Lots 1762-1812: 1981; Diane Manthey, North Dakota St. Univ., Setaria collection at Bob Anderson's (USDA, Univ. of Minn) 1960's wild oat study sites. Lots 2389-2595: 1992 north temperate world collection (Japan, Russia, Europe) by J. Dekker. Lots 3270-3685: 1993 Brent Reschly transect study of eastern Iowa conventional and Amish farmers. Lots 3786-3962: 2000 J. Dekker 2000 salt-tolerant Setaria of southern Japan collection. All seed in all these collections belong, and were collected and archived ...


Leslie Matrices And Women Population In The United States Of America, Brittney Nelson, Denise T. Reid, Antonija Tangar, Jos´E V´Elez-Marulanda 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Leslie Matrices And Women Population In The United States Of America, Brittney Nelson, Denise T. Reid, Antonija Tangar, Jos´E V´Elez-Marulanda

American Journal of Undergraduate Research

This research tests the accuracy of the Leslie matrix, which is a discrete age-structured method that uses fertility and survival rates, as a tool for predicting women population. Based on available data for the year 2000, we have constructed a Leslie matrix that predicts female population in the United States for every five years from the years 2000 to 2020. To test the accuracy of this method, we compare the aforementioned obtained projected data for the year 2010 with the actual data for women population in the United States obtained by the 2010 U.S. Census.


Northern Saw-Whet Owls: A Descriptive Look At Their Anatomy, Behavior, And Migration, Brandon M. Ray 2014 Liberty University

Northern Saw-Whet Owls: A Descriptive Look At Their Anatomy, Behavior, And Migration, Brandon M. Ray

Senior Honors Theses

The Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) is a small species of migratory owl native to North America. Through an analysis of research conducted at Liberty University’s Camp Hydaway in the Piedmont of Virginia as well as comparison studies at owl netting stations in the mountains and the coastal plain, it was shown that the Northern Saw-whet migrates along consistent routes southward while the timing and frequency of the migration varies by several days based on sex, age, owl population fluctuations, weather, and the owls’ physical health. Several years’ worth of owl capture data were compiled from stations across Virginia ...


Ecosystems Of The Piedmont Watersheds – Natives And Newcomers, Walter Cressler 2014 West Chester University

Ecosystems Of The Piedmont Watersheds – Natives And Newcomers, Walter Cressler

Walt Cressler

No abstract provided.


Molecular Evolution Of Glycoside Hydrolase Genes In The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera), Seong-il Eyun, Haichuan Wang, Yannick Pauchet, Richard H. ffrench-Constant, Andrew K. Benson, Arnubio Valencia-Jimenez, Etsuko Moriyama, Blair Siegfried 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Molecular Evolution Of Glycoside Hydrolase Genes In The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera), Seong-Il Eyun, Haichuan Wang, Yannick Pauchet, Richard H. Ffrench-Constant, Andrew K. Benson, Arnubio Valencia-Jimenez, Etsuko Moriyama, Blair Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Cellulose is an important nutritional resource for a number of insect herbivores. Digestion of cellulose and other polysaccharides in plant-based diets requires several types of enzymes including a number of glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. In a previous study, we showed that a single GH45 gene is present in the midgut tissue of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). However, the presence of multiple enzymes was also suggested by the lack of a significant biological response when the expression of the gene was silenced by RNA interference. In order to clarify the repertoire of cellulose-degrading enzymes and related ...


Influence Of Introgression And Geological Processes On Phylogenetic Relationships Of Western North American Mountain Suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae), Peter J. Unmack, Thomas E. Dowling, Nina J. Laitinen, Carol L. Secor, Richard L. Mayden, Dennis K. Shiozawa, Gerald R. Smith 2014 Wayne State University

Influence Of Introgression And Geological Processes On Phylogenetic Relationships Of Western North American Mountain Suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae), Peter J. Unmack, Thomas E. Dowling, Nina J. Laitinen, Carol L. Secor, Richard L. Mayden, Dennis K. Shiozawa, Gerald R. Smith

Biological Sciences Faculty Research Publications

Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western USA and into northern Mexico. They are typically found in medium gradient, middle-elevation reaches of rivers over rocky substrates. This study (1) compares molecular data ...


Meta-Analysis Reveals Evolution In Invasive Plant Species But Little Support For Evolution Of Increased Competitive Ability (Eica), E Felker-Quinn, J A. Schweitzer, J K. Bailey 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Meta-Analysis Reveals Evolution In Invasive Plant Species But Little Support For Evolution Of Increased Competitive Ability (Eica), E Felker-Quinn, J A. Schweitzer, J K. Bailey

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Publications and Other Works

Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of ...


Utilization Of The Invasive Alga Gracilaria Vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss By The Native Mud Snail Ilyanassa Obsoleta (Say), Michele Guidone, Christine Newton, Carol S. Thornber 2014 Sacred Heart University

Utilization Of The Invasive Alga Gracilaria Vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss By The Native Mud Snail Ilyanassa Obsoleta (Say), Michele Guidone, Christine Newton, Carol S. Thornber

Biology Faculty Publications

The recent invasions of the red alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, to the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans have the potential to significantly alter intertidal and subtidal soft sediment communities. In particular, G. vermiculophylla increases habitat complexity and provides a novel hard substrate in an otherwise two dimensional habitat. Following our observations that the native omnivorous mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta utilizes G. vermiculophylla for egg capsule deposition, our field surveys demonstrated that the in situ abundance of egg capsules on G. vermiculophylla matched abundances on a native alga Ceramium virgatumandwere at least 11–50 times greater than on all other co-occurring macrophytes ...


Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, And Culture, Gábor Náray-Szabó 2014 Purdue University

Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, And Culture, Gábor Náray-Szabó

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In his article "Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, and Culture" Gábor Náray-Szabó argues that evolution is conservative in the sense that throughout the history of the universe old constructs like elementary particles, amino acids, and living cells remained conserved while the world evolved/evolves in complexity. A similar process can be observed in cultural evolution as components of society and culture continue to evolve. Considering the increasing pressure on natural resources by material consumption, a close alliance between past, present, and future generations is unavoidable and thus Náray-Szabó posits that concepts of conservative evolution and sustainability are related. However, in order to ...


From The Inside Out, And Through., Dominique Ovalle 2014 Claremont Colleges

From The Inside Out, And Through., Dominique Ovalle

The STEAM Journal

These photographs describe “Science” born of consumerism, hijacked by me, economically disenfranchised, or rather—temporarily embarrassed, artist. I was putzing around Malibu—my old college stomping ground, looking for free food; maybe a sample of some gourmet $5 chocolate, and all I got were these photographs.


Averting Lemur Extinctions Amid Madagascar's Political Crisis, Christoph Schwitzer, Russell Mittermeier, Steig Johnson, Giuseppe Donati, Mitchell Irwin, Heather Peacock, Jonah Ratsimbazafy, Josia Razafindramanana, Edward E. Louis, Lounes Chikhi, Ian C. Colquhoun, Jennifer Tinsman, Ranier Dolch, Marni LaFleur, Stephen Nash, Erik Patel, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Tove Rasolofoharivelo, Patricia C. Wright 2014 Western University

Averting Lemur Extinctions Amid Madagascar's Political Crisis, Christoph Schwitzer, Russell Mittermeier, Steig Johnson, Giuseppe Donati, Mitchell Irwin, Heather Peacock, Jonah Ratsimbazafy, Josia Razafindramanana, Edward E. Louis, Lounes Chikhi, Ian C. Colquhoun, Jennifer Tinsman, Ranier Dolch, Marni Lafleur, Stephen Nash, Erik Patel, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Tove Rasolofoharivelo, Patricia C. Wright

Anthropology Publications

The most threatened mammal group

on Earth, Madagascar’s five endemic

lemur families (lemurs are found

nowhere else), represent more than 20%

of the world’s primate species and 30% of

family-level diversity. This combination of

diversity and uniqueness is unmatched by

any other country—remarkable considering

that Madagascar is only 1.3 to 2.9% the

size of the Neotropics, Africa, or Asia, the

other three landmasses where nonhuman

primates occur. But lemurs face extinction

risks driven by human disturbance of forest

habitats. We discuss these challenges

and reasons for hope in light of site-specific,

local actions proposed in ...


With Whom Do We Speak? Building Transdisciplinary Collaborations In Rhetoric Of Science, Caroline Gottschalk Druschke 2014 University of Iowa

With Whom Do We Speak? Building Transdisciplinary Collaborations In Rhetoric Of Science, Caroline Gottschalk Druschke

Poroi

There is a necessary and growing preoccupation in rhetoric of science with the real-world consequences of our work and with the mediating role rhetoric should play at the nexus of science-publics-policy. Emerging from these discussions are calls by Gross, Ceccarelli, and Herndl for thoughtful and practical action. This paper builds from this preoccupation with thoughtful praxis, highlighting three funded collaborations that offer a vision for engaged, mutually beneficial, consequential collaborations in rhetoric of science. Taken together, these collaborations constitute an argument for Herndl’s “applied rhetoric of science.” They move beyond transactional models of collaboration and posit a transdisciplinary vision ...


Tribute To Tinbergen: The Place Of Animal Behavior In Biology, Joan E. Strassmann 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Tribute To Tinbergen: The Place Of Animal Behavior In Biology, Joan E. Strassmann

Biology Faculty Publications

Tinbergen is famous for emphasizing behavioral fieldwork and experimentation under natural circumstances, for founding the field of ethology, for getting a Nobel Prize, and for mentoring Richard Dawkins. He is known for dividing behavior studies into physiology, development, natural selection, and evolutionary history. In the decades since Tinbergen was active, some of the best research in animal behavior fuses Tinbergen's questions, connecting genes to behavioral phenotypes, for example. Behavior is the most synthetic of the life sciences, because observing the actions of an organism can tell us what all those physical and physiological traits are for. Insights from behavior ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress