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Historical Vegetation Of Three Salmon-Bearing Watersheds In The Interior Columbia River Basin, Tyanna Smith 2014 Portland State University

Historical Vegetation Of Three Salmon-Bearing Watersheds In The Interior Columbia River Basin, Tyanna Smith

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Land use practices can be a contributing factor to environmental degradation and have been the focus of many ecological studies. One aspect that is less addressed is land use history and the effects that past practices, such as logging and grazing, can have on the current landscape. This paper describes research and the synthesis of material on the environmental history and watershed characteristics for three watersheds located within spawning and rearing areas for Chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin in Northeast Oregon: upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek, and Minam River. The Grande Ronde Basin is critical spawning ...


Precipitation Variability And Nitrogen Deposition Alter Root Distribution In A Tallgrass Prairie, Emmalyn P. Terracciano, Michael Schuster, Jeffrey Dukes 2014 Purdue University

Precipitation Variability And Nitrogen Deposition Alter Root Distribution In A Tallgrass Prairie, Emmalyn P. Terracciano, Michael Schuster, Jeffrey Dukes

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Climate change and increases in nitrogen deposition impact ecosystems globally. Projected atmospheric warming allows rain to fall in larger events with longer dry periods in between, increasing rainfall variability in many regions. Concurrently, the combustion of fossil fuels and the heavy use of nitrogen fertilizers continue to increase the availability of nitrogen globally. However, not much is known about how these global change factors, increased rainfall variability and nitrogen deposition, interact with each other to affect ecosystem functions, particularly belowground where root production contributes to soil carbon pools- an important component in regulating climate. In order to study these factors ...


Interaction Between Insecticide Exposure And Trematode Infection Across Four Wood Frog Populations, Michael J. Hiatt, Jessica Hua Dr., Vanessa Wuerthner, Jason Hoverman Dr. 2014 Purdue University

Interaction Between Insecticide Exposure And Trematode Infection Across Four Wood Frog Populations, Michael J. Hiatt, Jessica Hua Dr., Vanessa Wuerthner, Jason Hoverman Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Amphibian populations are declining worldwide due to a number of stressors including pesticides and parasites. Conservation of these animals can be complicated because populations can differ dramatically in response to the same stressor. When consistently exposed to pesticides, some populations evolve tolerance through the process of natural selection acting across multiple generations. Alternatively, populations that are intermittently exposed to pesticides induce tolerance within a single generation. To date, however, there have been few studies examining the costs associated with these different stress tolerance mechanisms. In this study, we examined how difference in stress tolerance influence susceptibility to parasitic infections. We ...


Surveys Of Southern Flying Squirrel Activity Following Timber Harvest In Southern Indiana, Joseph W. Eisinger, Elizabeth A. Flaherty, Stephanie E. Trapp 2014 Purdue University

Surveys Of Southern Flying Squirrel Activity Following Timber Harvest In Southern Indiana, Joseph W. Eisinger, Elizabeth A. Flaherty, Stephanie E. Trapp

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) are gliding small mammals that are ecologically important seed dispersers and prey species across their wide range, which extends from southern Canada to Central America. Because of their reliance on forest structure for efficient movement and on forest composition for hard mast production to provide winter food items, habitat use by G. volans may be impacted by timber harvest. Responses of G. volans to timber harvests remains understudied throughout their range, and studies are especially lacking within the Central Hardwoods Region that includes Indiana. Our study in the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in southern Indiana ...


Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons 2014 Occidental College

Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Chorizanthe robusta var. hartwegii (Scotts Valley spineflower, Polygonaceae) is a narrow endemic plant restricted to a specialized microhabitat (exposed bedrock in California prairie) in Santa Cruz County, California. This taxon and the nominate variety were listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1994. Three occurrences of C. robusta hartwegii exist on four properties in a recently urbanized area at the northern edge of the city of Scotts Valley. Ten of 80 known colonies are now likely extirpated. In 2014 the primary threats are habitat alteration due to adjacent land uses and developments, and invasive plant species ...


From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman 2014 Occidental College

From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Blubber progesterone levels were measured in biopsy samples and used to predict the pregnancy status of 507 female common dolphins (204 long-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus capensis, and 303 short-beaked common dolphins, D. delphis). Samples were collected in the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific between central California, USA and the southern end of Baja California, Mexico. The percentage of females pregnant was similar between the two species: 22.1% (n = 45) of D. capensis and 28.1% (n = 85) of D. delphis. For both species we found strong geographic patterns in pregnancy, suggesting that some areas were more conducive ...


Responses Of Small Mammals To Wildfire In A Mixed Conifer Forest In The San Bernardino Mountains, California, Mark I. Borchert 2014 Occidental College

Responses Of Small Mammals To Wildfire In A Mixed Conifer Forest In The San Bernardino Mountains, California, Mark I. Borchert

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Abstract.—Wildfires are becoming more prevalent in montane conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. The effects of fire on stand structure and composition of these forests has been extensively studied but there are far fewer studies on how wildfires affect the fauna. For five years after a wildfire in 2007, we live-trapped small mammals in three burn types: unburned, moderate-severity and high-severity. A primary objective of this study was to document the response of the small mammal community to high-severity fire. Pinyon mice were consistently more abundant in unburned forests and declined by 69-76% between unburned ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Albus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Robert A. Klumb, Sam Stukel 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Albus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Robert A. Klumb, Sam Stukel

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Anthropogenic alterations to the Missouri River have placed the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population in jeopardy and contributed to their listing as an endangered species. Pallid sturgeon were always less common than the sympatric Shovelnose Sturgeon (S. platorynchus); however, Pallid Sturgeon seemed to be more affected by river alterations as the river sturgeon ratio has become more skewed towards Shovelnose Sturgeon. Shortly after listing, population augmentation with hatchery produced Pallid Sturgeon began to supplement the diminishing wild population. Therefore, the objective of this study was to present the current population status of the Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River along ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Platorynchus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Platorynchus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Shovelnose Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus remains the most abundant riverine sturgeon species in North American despite the anthropogenic modifications that have occurred throughout their historic range; however, their populations have declined throughout Nebraska since the construction of Fort Randall and Gavins Point Dams. Therefore, the objective of this study was to present the current status of Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s border. Data was acquired from 2003 to 2012 from all reaches of the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border. Catch rates of Shovelnose Sturgeon increased in a downstream trend and were highest in the ...


Zooplankton Density Increases In An Irrigation Reservoir During Drought Conditions, Brett P. Olds, Brian C. Peterson, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kerri M. Farnsworth-Hoback, W Wyatt Hoback 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Zooplankton Density Increases In An Irrigation Reservoir During Drought Conditions, Brett P. Olds, Brian C. Peterson, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kerri M. Farnsworth-Hoback, W Wyatt Hoback

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Harlan County Reservoir, located in south-central Nebraska, entered a drought in 2003, providing an opportunity to monitor the effects of drought on the zooplankton community in this irrigation reservoir. We sampled the zooplankton community at 15 standardized locations every other week from April through the third week of October from 2003-2011. Total zooplankton densities were higher (131.8 ±13.1 L-1) in drought reservoir conditions (2003-2006) than under normal conditions (66.6 ±9.0 L-1) (2007-2011). The zooplankton community was dominated by copepods throughout the study, with adult and immature (nauplii) copepods contributing 86.5% of the total ...


Annotated Bibliography: Moral & Character Education (1998-2013), Erich Yahner 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Annotated Bibliography: Moral & Character Education (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Humane Education

No abstract provided.


Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe 2014 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe

communication +1

Permaculture design is a concept that aims at transforming not only agriculture, but also city planning, architecture, development, etc. In short it aims to change human habitats. It is part of a new ecological paradigm that is currently spreading in popularity from the urban gardening movement to various other alternative movements such as the slow movement, sustainable architecture, etc. Permaculture design defines itself as building on systems theory (as formulated in particular by Howard Thomas Odum and Christopher Alexander). However I would like to propose that the afterlife of systems theory as expressed in the concept of permaculture, first developed ...


Acceptance Of Evolution By America’S Educators Of Prospective Teachers, Guillermo Paz-y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa 2014 Roger Williams University

Acceptance Of Evolution By America’S Educators Of Prospective Teachers, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa

New England Science Public: Series Evolution

Paz-y-Miño-C G & Espinosa A. 2014. Acceptance of Evolution by America’s Educators of Prospective Teachers. New England Science Public: Series Evolution 2(1): 1-92 (ISSN: 2326-0971). In NESP Series Evolution Vol 2 No 1, Paz-y-Miño-C and Espinosa use the conceptual framework of the Incompatibility Hypothesis (i.e. science/evolution and belief in supernatural causation are incompatible) to document the patterns of acceptance of evolution of 495 Educators of Prospective Teachers affiliated with 281 colleges and universities widely distributed in 4 regions, 9 divisions, and 50 states in the United States. These higher-education professionals (65% PhD-, 22% doctorate-holders) were polled in five areas: (i) their views about evolution, creationism and Intelligent Design, (ii) their understanding of how science and the evolutionary process work, (iii) their position about the hypothetical ‘harmony or compatibility’ between science/evolution and supernatural causation, (iv) their awareness of the age of the Earth, its moon, our solar system and the universe, and the application of the concept of evolution to the cosmos, and (v) their personal convictions concerning the evolution and/or creation of humans in the context of the educators’ religiosity. The authors report that acceptance of evolution among these educators was influenced by their level of understanding the foundations of science/evolution and their beliefs in supernatural causation. In comparison to two other populations, whose acceptance of evolution had already been documented in Paz-y-Miño-C’s and Espinosa’s previous research (i.e. New England research faculty, non-educators, and college students; NESP Ser Evol Vol 1 No 1), the educators had an intermediate level of understanding science/evolution, low acceptance of evolution, and high religiosity, as follows: 59% of the educators accepted evolution openly, 51% thought that evolution is definitely true, and 59% admitted to be religious. Among the New England researchers, 94% accepted evolution openly, 82% thought that evolution is definitely true, and 29% admitted to be religious. Among the students, 63% accepted evolution openly, 58% thought that evolution is definitely true, and 37% admitted to be religious. Educators in each of the four regions of the United ...


The Effects Of Global Climate Change On Canadian Boreal Forest Collembola Communities, Matthew S. Turnbull 2014 Western University

The Effects Of Global Climate Change On Canadian Boreal Forest Collembola Communities, Matthew S. Turnbull

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soil fauna are an integral component of terrestrial ecosystem function. The effects of global environmental change on soil biodiversity are poorly studied, particularly interactions among temperature, atmospheric CO2, precipitation intensity, and nutrient loading. Body size distributions can be used to quantify soil community responses to perturbation and consequences for ecosystem function. I quantified top-down and bottom-up effects of environmental change on the abundance, richness, and size distribution of the soil microarthropod group Collembola. I demonstrated negative effects in a lab experiment of increased precipitation on collembolan density and richness across all size groups. I demonstrated positive effects in a ...


Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona 2014 University of South Florida

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia 2014 University of South Florida

Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Meta menardi and M. bourneti are two species of spiders inhabiting caves and other subterranean habitats. The occurrence of both species within the same cave has never been proved convincingly and several authors hypothesized a complete niche differentiation mainly based on microclimatic conditions.In order to study the apparent niche differentiation of the two species, we studied several populations of M. menardi and M. bourneti occurring in six caves in the Western Italian Alps (NW Italy). A series of squared plots were monitored monthly from March 2012 to February 2013. At each survey, we counted individuals and we collected the ...


Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is a highly clonal marine angiosperm that can also reproduce sexually through flowering and seed formation. In a previous study, Fst values from six microsatellite loci suggested that a perennial San Francisco Bay subpopulation at Point Molate (Richmond, California) was able to recover from a drastic 2006 die-off through seed recruitment from neighboring eelgrass subpopulations, changing its reproductive strategy from clonal to sexual. Although Fst measures continue to be widely used in population genetics, the assumptions under which they operate are not always appropriate given certain circumstances, such small population sizes and/or asymmetrical migration rates. Our ...


Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi 2014 Wayne State University

Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The Rama Amerindians from southern Nicaragua are one of few indigenous populations inhabiting the east coast and lowlands of southern Central America. Early 18th century ethnohistorical accounts depicted the Rama as a mobile hunter-gatherer and horticulturalists group dispersed in household units along southern Nicaraguan rivers. However, during the 19th and 20th centuries, Rama settlement patterns changed to aggregated communities due to increased competition for local resources resulting from non-indigenous immigration. This study’s objective was to discern the degree of relatedness between and within subdivisions of seven of these communities based on patterns of surname variation and genealogical data. We ...


Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte 2014 Wayne State University

Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Previous studies identified a cluster of individuals with an autosomal recessive form of deafness that resides in a small region of mid-Michigan. We hypothesized that affected members from this community descend from a defined founder population. Using public records and personal interviews, we constructed a genealogical database that includes the affected individuals and their extended families as descendants of 461 settlers who emigrated from the Eifel region of Germany between 1836 and 1875. The genealogical database represents a 13-generation pedigree that includes 27,747 descendants of these settlers. Among these descendants, 13,784 are presumed living. Many of the extant ...


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