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The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...


Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Dorr And Fielder 2017 Dcco Too Much Of A Good Thing Fsh.Pdf, Brian S. Dorr, David G. Fielder 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Dorr And Fielder 2017 Dcco Too Much Of A Good Thing Fsh.Pdf, Brian S. Dorr, David G. Fielder

Brian S Dorr

For centuries, people have viewed double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus negatively, and human persecution coupled with environmental contamination severely reduced numbers of cormorants throughout North America. Shifts in paradigms for management of our natural resources resulted in reductions in environmental contaminants and regulatory protection of cormorants, allowing for an amazing population resurgence of this adaptable fish-eating bird. However, for cormorants, as with some other native wildlife species the populations of which have rebounded due to conservation efforts, there have been cormorant–societal conflicts with respect to commercial and natural resources such as aquaculture and sport fisheries. Increasing resource conflicts caused cormorants ...


Characterizing The Scent And Chemical Composition Of Panthera Leo Marking Fluid Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 Iowa State University

Characterizing The Scent And Chemical Composition Of Panthera Leo Marking Fluid Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel

Simone B. Soso

Lions (Panthera leo) use chemical signaling to indicate health, reproductive status, and territorial ownership. To date, no study has reported on both scent and composition of marking fluid (MF) from P. leo. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a novel method for simultaneous chemical and scent identification of lion MF in its totality (urine + MF), 2) identify characteristic odorants responsible for the overall scent of MF as perceived by human panelists, and 3) compare the existing library of known odorous compounds characterized as eliciting behaviors in animals in order to understand potential functionality in lion behavior. Solid-phase ...


Desert Pool {If Every Desert Was Once A Sea}, Karen Miranda Abel 2017 York University

Desert Pool {If Every Desert Was Once A Sea}, Karen Miranda Abel

The Goose

Desert Pool {If every desert was once a sea} is a site-specific art project by Canadian artist Karen Miranda Abel completed in 2016 while artist-in-residence at Joya: arte + ecología, an arts-led research centre situated in an alpine desert within a national park in southern Spain. The elemental installation represents an envisioning of the ancient sea that occupied the Sierra de María-Los Vélez Natural Park millions of years before the current desert ecology, a time when its highest mountain peaks may have been islands.


Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On The Adult Butterfly Assemblage Of A Coastal Grassland, J. Nicole DeSha, Joseph Colbert, Kimberly M. Andrews, Scott Coleman, C. Tate Holbrook 2017 College of Coastal Georgia

Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On The Adult Butterfly Assemblage Of A Coastal Grassland, J. Nicole Desha, Joseph Colbert, Kimberly M. Andrews, Scott Coleman, C. Tate Holbrook

Georgia Journal of Science

Coastal grasslands are globally threatened by development and natural succession. In the southeastern United States, these increasingly rare ecosystems are being managed using prescribed fire, but ecological responses to fire management are largely unknown, particularly among nontargeted species. We tested for short-term effects of controlled burning on the abundance and species richness of adult butterflies, which utilize coastal grasslands for nectaring resources and as migratory stopover sites. In February 2015, four plots of coastal grassland on Little St. Simons Island, GA were burned and paired with unburned (control) plots of equal size. Throughout the following summer-fall flight season, we conducted ...


Bacterial Diversity Impacts As A Result Of Combined Sewer Overflow In A Polluted Waterway, Olga Calderón, Holly Porter-Morgan, Joby Jacob, Willis Elkins 2017 CUNY LaGuardia Community College

Bacterial Diversity Impacts As A Result Of Combined Sewer Overflow In A Polluted Waterway, Olga Calderón, Holly Porter-Morgan, Joby Jacob, Willis Elkins

Publications and Research

Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive ...


European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, Figure 1) are an invasive species in the United States. The first recorded release of the birds was in 1890 in New York City’s Central Park. Because starlings easily adapt to a variety of habitats, nest sites and food sources, the birds spread quickly across the country. Today, there are about 150 million starlings in North America. Conflicts between people and starlings occur mostly in agricultural settings. Conflicts can occur during winter in urban and suburban environments, especially in business districts.

Starlings damage apples, blueberries, cherries, figs, grapes, peaches, and strawberries. Besides causing direct losses ...


Comparative Phylogeographic, Population Genomic, And Selection Inference With Development Of Hierarchical Co-Demographic Models, Alexander Xue 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Comparative Phylogeographic, Population Genomic, And Selection Inference With Development Of Hierarchical Co-Demographic Models, Alexander Xue

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Comparing demographic histories across assemblages of populations, species, and sister pairs has been a focus in phylogeography since its inception. Initial approaches utilized organelle genetic data and involved qualitative comparisons of genetic patterns for evaluating hypotheses of shared evolutionary responses to past environmental changes. This endeavor has progressed with coalescent model-based statistical techniques and advances in next-generation sequencing, yet there remains a need for methods that can analyze aggregated genomic-scale data from non-model organisms within a unified framework that considers individual taxon uncertainty and variance. To this end, the aggregate site frequency spectrum (aSFS), an expansion of the site frequency ...


Climate Matching Drives Spread Rate But Not Establishment Success In Recent Unintentional Bird Introductions, Pedro Abellán, José L. Tella, Martina Carrete, Laura Cardador, José D. Anadón 2017 CUNY Queens College

Climate Matching Drives Spread Rate But Not Establishment Success In Recent Unintentional Bird Introductions, Pedro Abellán, José L. Tella, Martina Carrete, Laura Cardador, José D. Anadón

Publications and Research

Understanding factors driving successful invasions is one of the cornerstones of invasion biology. Bird invasions have been frequently used as study models, and the foundation of current knowledge largely relies on species purposefully introduced during the 19th and early 20th centuries in countries colonized by Europeans. However, the profile of exotic bird species has changed radically in the last decades, as birds are now mostly introduced into the invasion process through unplanned releases from the worldwide pet and avicultural trade. Here we assessed the role of the three main drivers of invasion success (i.e., event-, species-, and location-level factors ...


Modelling Walleye Population And Its Cannibalism Effect, Quan Zhou 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Modelling Walleye Population And Its Cannibalism Effect, Quan Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Walleye is a very common recreational fish in Canada with a strong cannibalism tendency, such that walleyes with larger sizes will consume their smaller counterparts when food sources are limited or a surplus of adults is present. Cannibalism may be a factor promoting population oscillation. As fish reach a certain age or biological stage (i.e. biological maturity), the number of fish achieving that stage is known as fish recruitment. The objective of this thesis is to model the walleye population with its recruitment and cannibalism effect. A matrix population model has been introduced to characterize the walleye population into ...


The Scorpion Fauna Of Mona Island, Puerto Rico (Scorpiones: Buthidae, Scorpionidae), Rolando Teruel, Mel J. Rivera, Alejandro J. Sánchez 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

The Scorpion Fauna Of Mona Island, Puerto Rico (Scorpiones: Buthidae, Scorpionidae), Rolando Teruel, Mel J. Rivera, Alejandro J. Sánchez

Euscorpius

The scorpion fauna of the small Mona Island (= Isla de Mona), located roughly midway between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico and administratively belonging to the latter, is herein revised. Three species are confirmed to occur: the buthids Centruroides bani Armas et Marcano Fondeur, 1987 and Heteroctenus abudi (Armas et Marcano Fondeur, 1987), plus the diplocentrine scorpionid Cazierius garridoi Armas, 2005. The previously recorded Heteronebo sp. is reexamined and deemed a mislabeled specimen of Heteronebo portoricensis Francke, 1978 from adjacent Puerto Rico. Also, Centruroides mariaorum Santiago-Blay, 2009 is demonstrated to be a junior synonym of C. bani (implying the first demonstrable records ...


Investigating The Role Of Fruitless In Behavioural Isolation Between Drosophila Melanogaster And Drosophila Simulans, Jalina Bielaska Da Silva 2017 The Unviersity of Western Ontario

Investigating The Role Of Fruitless In Behavioural Isolation Between Drosophila Melanogaster And Drosophila Simulans, Jalina Bielaska Da Silva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioural isolation is a prezygotic mechanism that is usually determined by female preference, such as seen with the rejection behaviour exhibited by Drosophila simulans females to D. melanogaster males. To confirm the role of a previously identified candidate gene fruitless (fru) in behavioural isolation, I proposed to disrupt fru expression in both D. melanogaster and D. simulans to allow for the generation of interspecies hybrids expressing only a species-specific allele of fru. A reciprocal hemizygosity test would then be used to confirm the role of fru in behavioural isolation. Disruptions of fru in both D. melanogaster and D. simulans through ...


Transcriptomic Responses To Environmental Temperature By Turtles With Temperature-Dependent And Genotypic Sex Determination Assessed By Rnaseq Inform The Genetic Architecture Of Embryonic Gonadal Development, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert A. Literman, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela 2017 Iowa State University

Transcriptomic Responses To Environmental Temperature By Turtles With Temperature-Dependent And Genotypic Sex Determination Assessed By Rnaseq Inform The Genetic Architecture Of Embryonic Gonadal Development, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert A. Literman, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela

Andrew Severin

Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual’s genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera—GSD), to test whether TSD’s and GSD’s transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms. Our data show that most elements of the mammalian urogenital network are active during turtle ...


Nitrogen And Carbon Isotopic Dynamics Of Subarctic Soils And Plants In Southern Yukon Territory And Its Implications For Paleoecological And Paleodietary Studies, Farnoush Tahmesabi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula, Bruce Bennett 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Nitrogen And Carbon Isotopic Dynamics Of Subarctic Soils And Plants In Southern Yukon Territory And Its Implications For Paleoecological And Paleodietary Studies, Farnoush Tahmesabi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula, Bruce Bennett

Earth Sciences Publications

We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles) and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area). The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with ...


Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Most seasonally migrating songbirds have a protandrous migration pattern, meaning that males arrive to the breeding grounds before females. The proximate mechanisms that underlie this pattern are largely unknown for most species. In this thesis, I evaluate the behavioural mechanisms of protandry in the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens) using onset of migratory restlessness as a proxy for departure from the wintering grounds, migratory restlessness intensity as a proxy for motivation to fly, and stopover duration of radio-tagged birds. The onset of migratory restlessness and stopover duration was similar in both sexes. Males displayed higher intensity wing whirring than females ...


The Influence Of Phylogeny And Niche Differentiation On The Diets Of Malagasy Primates, Rebekka S. Hughes 2017 CUNY Hunter College

The Influence Of Phylogeny And Niche Differentiation On The Diets Of Malagasy Primates, Rebekka S. Hughes

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Previous studies have shown that haplorhine diet is affected by phylogeny; however, until now studies in Malagasy strepsirrhines were lacking. The evolution of differences in Malagasy primates’ diets appears to differ from the pattern shown in haplorhines. My results indicate that niche differentiation may be a stronger predictor of diet.


Unravelling Organelle Genome Transcription Using Publicly Available Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Unravelling Organelle Genome Transcription Using Publicly Available Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The study of organelles helped forge theories of genome evolution because of their unconventional genomes and gene expression regimes. The organelle genomics field (~35 years old) has seen the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques and the consequent skyrocketing of genomic and transcriptomic data. However, these data are being underused in the studies of organelle genome transcription. My thesis investigates how NGS has affected the field of organelle genomics at both the DNA and RNA levels. First, I demonstrate that although organelle genomes are being sequenced as never before, they are un-characterized as they are published mostly as “organelle ...


Natural And Anthropogenic Effects On Life History Characteristics In The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Geoffrey David Stuart Smith 2017 Utah State University

Natural And Anthropogenic Effects On Life History Characteristics In The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Geoffrey David Stuart Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Survival is a prerequisite for successful reproduction, and is thus intertwined with fitness. Some physiological systems can improve survival, like the immune system, but compete with other processes for resources. Because animals evolved with resource limitation, it is important to understand how these resource-allocation decisions are made. To meet this end, I performed four investigations addressing how life-history characteristics shift in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) using laboratory studies and multi-year field sampling. First, I measured metabolic rates in response to different immune challenges and different energy states in male lizards. I found that, surprisingly, cutaneous biopsies were associated with a ...


On Honey Bee Colony Dynamics And Disease Transmission, Matthew I. Betti 2017 The University of Western Ontario

On Honey Bee Colony Dynamics And Disease Transmission, Matthew I. Betti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The work herein falls under the umbrella of mathematical modeling of disease transmission. The majority of this document focuses on the extent to which infection undermines the strength of a honey bee colony. These studies extend from simple mass-action ordinary differential equations models, to continuous age-structured partial differential equation models and finally a detailed agent-based model which accounts for vector transmission of infection between bees as well as a host of other influences and stressors on honey bee colony dynamics. These models offer a series of predictions relevant to the fate of honey bee colonies in the presence of disease ...


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