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Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella 2022 University of New Mexico

Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella

Biology ETDs

At high latitudes, climatic oscillations have triggered repeated episodes of organismal divergence by geographically isolating populations. For terrestrial species, extended isolation in glacial refugia – ice-free regions that enable terrestrial species persistence through glacial maxima – is hypothesized to stimulate allopatric divergence. Alternatively, upon glacial recession, divergent populations expanded from independent glacial refugia and often contacted other diverging populations. In the absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms, this biogeographic process may trigger hybridization and ultimately, gene flow between divergent taxa. My dissertation research aims to understand how these episodic periods of isolation and contact have impacted the evolution of high latitude species. To ...


Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John 2022 University of Montana

Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

The complex population dynamics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) were studied to determine the patterns of their population cycles and the processes driving them. It is well established, via previous archaeological research and Indigenous knowledge, that large migrating caribou herds found in and around the tundra at northern latitudes experience population boom and busts roughly every several decades. However, the processes driving the dynamics of these cycles are relatively unknown, which makes managing caribou herds for recreational and subsistence harvests difficult. It has been hypothesized that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors shape these cycles, with density-dependence, predation, harvest, climate ...


Flea The Flyentist: What Is An Invasive Species?, Molly Fitzgerald 2021 Michigan Technological University

Flea The Flyentist: What Is An Invasive Species?, Molly Fitzgerald

Open Access Books

No abstract provided.


Recruitment Patterns Of The Fouling Community On Eelgrass In Long Island Sound, Diana Lancaster 2021 Albion College

Recruitment Patterns Of The Fouling Community On Eelgrass In Long Island Sound, Diana Lancaster

Department of Marine Sciences

Abstract The seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) is typically found in shallow protected areas of portions of eastern Long Island Sound (LIS). Although the species and its associated ecosystem have been well studied in many places, work in LIS has been limited. A field study was conducted to assess the fouling communities associated with eelgrass beds around Pine Island, in eastern LIS. Samples were collected from four sites between July and October, 2011. A total of 15 species of fouling organisms were found on eelgrass leaves throughout the study period. Recruitment patterns varied spatially and temporally. Differences in the composition of ...


Use Of Soapweed Yucca (Yucca Glauca) By Rodents And Other Vertebrates In Western Nebraska, Michael L. Rohde, Keith Geluso, Carter Kruse, Mary J. Harner 2021 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Use Of Soapweed Yucca (Yucca Glauca) By Rodents And Other Vertebrates In Western Nebraska, Michael L. Rohde, Keith Geluso, Carter Kruse, Mary J. Harner

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Soapweed Yucca (Yucca glauca) is a conspicuous and common shrub in the Great Plains of North America, characterized by tall woody flower stalks, large flowers and seed pods, and dense masses of ground-level evergreen leaves. These plant structures can provide a variety of resources or functions to animals. In general, studies focus on single species associated with Y. glauca. We examined three groups of vertebrates that interacted with Y. glauca and the functions this plant provided for organisms in western Nebraska. We experimentally examined small mammals in areas with and without Y. glauca, and we descriptively noted birds and reptiles ...


Four New Lithophilic Species Of Scorpiops Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae) From Peninsular India, Shauri Sulakhe, Shubhankar Deshpande, Nikhil Dandekar, Anand Padhye, Deshabhushan Bastawade 2021 Marshall University

Four New Lithophilic Species Of Scorpiops Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae) From Peninsular India, Shauri Sulakhe, Shubhankar Deshpande, Nikhil Dandekar, Anand Padhye, Deshabhushan Bastawade

Euscorpius

Four new lithophilic species of Scorpiops Peters, 1861 (Scorpiopidae) have been described from peninsular India using an integrated taxonomic approach. Three species Scorpiops vrushchik sp. n., S. nagphani sp. n. and S. neera sp. n. have been described from northern Western Ghats and S. lioneli sp. n. is described from Deccan Plateau. S. vrushchik sp. n. is closely related to S. tenuicauda and S. telbaila and differs by a raw genetic divergence of 9.6-9.8% from S. tenuicauda and 11% from S. telbaila. S. nagphani sp. n. is closely related to S. lioneli sp. n. and S. maharashtraensis and ...


Phenotype Bias Determines How Natural Rna Structures Occupy The Morphospace Of All Possible Shapes, Fatme Ghaddar, Dr Kamaludin Dingle, Dr Petr Sulc, Prof Ard A. Louis 2021 Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait

Phenotype Bias Determines How Natural Rna Structures Occupy The Morphospace Of All Possible Shapes, Fatme Ghaddar, Dr Kamaludin Dingle, Dr Petr Sulc, Prof Ard A. Louis

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The relative prominence of developmental bias versus natural selection is a long standing controversy in evolutionary biology. Here we demonstrate quantitatively that developmental bias is the primary explanation for the occupation of the morphospace of RNA secondary structure (SS) shapes. By using the RNAshapes method to define coarse-grained SS classes, we can measure the frequencies that non-coding RNA SS shapes appear in nature. Our main findings are firstly that only the most frequent structures appear in nature; the vast majority of possible structures in the morphospace have not yet been explored. Secondly, and perhaps more surprisingly, these frequencies are accurately ...


A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

A Novel Approach for Characterizing the Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community

Students: Abdullah Salim, Priscilla Pineda, Isabella Alamilla

Mentors/Supervisors: Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

ABSTRACT

The ultra-micro size-fraction (UMSF) are bacteria that can pass through the 0.2 µm pore membrane filters employed in environmental surveys. Despite being ubiquitous and having high metabolic activity, UMSF remain elusive and largely uncultured. Investigations of UMSF are skewed by difficulties in culturing and a lack of techniques for measuring UMSF biogeochemical signatures. This study measures surface stream UMSF community diversity, and community response to the addition of the synthetic pharmaceutical and cosmetic carbon product ...


Connecting Communities To Coastal Resilience: Enhancing Sustainability Through Public Participation In Salt Marsh Management And Restoration In Suffolk County, Ny, Jennifer L. McGivern 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Connecting Communities To Coastal Resilience: Enhancing Sustainability Through Public Participation In Salt Marsh Management And Restoration In Suffolk County, Ny, Jennifer L. Mcgivern

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Coastal resiliency is becoming significantly more critical to the livelihood of coastal communities as the frequency and intensity of storm events increases and is exacerbated by rising sea levels due to climate change. In October 2012 Superstorm Sandy impacted the New York-New Jersey area costing over $70 billion in storm damages and 147 lives lost, as storm surges surpassed record highs for the region. Protruding more than 100 miles into the Atlantic Ocean with over 1,000 miles of shoreline, Long Island is particularly vulnerable to the increasingly ferocious and numerous storms as well as the rising sea levels that ...


Does Cortisol Respond To A Social Perturbation In Captive Bonobos?, Tiffany Ly 2021 Kennesaw State University

Does Cortisol Respond To A Social Perturbation In Captive Bonobos?, Tiffany Ly

Symposium of Student Scholars

All animals are influenced by their environment. For social species, this means that changes in group size or composition can have long-lasting effects on survival or reproduction. When these social species are placed in captivity and new individuals are introduced suddenly by zookeepers or researchers, these events can lead to stress by changing established dominance hierarchies. For example, these interactions can cause stress hormones—like cortisol in primates and humans—to be released in response to meeting unfamiliar individuals. We took advantage of an introduction event happening at a captive research and conservation facility to better understand how introducing a ...


Individual Variation In Behavioral Plasticity In African Starlings, Jasmine Little 2021 Kennesaw State University

Individual Variation In Behavioral Plasticity In African Starlings, Jasmine Little

Symposium of Student Scholars

Individual variation in behavioral plasticity in African starlings

Authors: Jasmine Little1, Dustin Rubenstein2, Sarah Guindre-Parker1

1Kennesaw State University 2Columbia University

Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to respond appropriately to highly variable environmental conditions in order to increase their fitness under different types of environments. Cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) living in unpredictable Kenyan savannas experience tremendous variation in annual rainfall from year to year. Rainfall is critical for these birds because it shapes the availability of food (insects), but it remains unclear how the parental care behavior of individual starlings is influenced by changes in ...


Towards The Identification Of The Soil Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Tori Quillen, Brian Sassi, Joshua Inneh, Geoffrey Eger, Sarah Andrews, Lindsey Gard, Sara Grimm, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Chelsea Nix 2021 Kennesaw State University

Towards The Identification Of The Soil Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Tori Quillen, Brian Sassi, Joshua Inneh, Geoffrey Eger, Sarah Andrews, Lindsey Gard, Sara Grimm, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Chelsea Nix

Symposium of Student Scholars

This project is part of a larger study looking at the restoration of the Long-leaf Pine ecosystem in certain Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) in Northwest Georgia. As part of this larger study another group of researchers has been looking at changes in the plant community in the same plots used for this soil microbiome research. Our long-term aim is to look for potential associations between the above and below-ground community structures.

Although research has shown that the health and composition of the microbiome surrounding the roots of plants has a significant impact on the ability of plants to fight and ...


Eradicating Zebra Mussels: What Works?, Elijah Davies 2021 Kennesaw State University

Eradicating Zebra Mussels: What Works?, Elijah Davies

Symposium of Student Scholars

The invasion of U.S lakes and rivers by the invasive species of zebra mussels called Dreissena polymorpha has caused catastrophic harm to the local ecosystem by reproducing and outcompeting native mussel species as well as harm to pipes leading into water sources by binding to surfaces and reproducing to the point that the mussels clog pipes. In addition, recreation areas must be closed due to the sharp shells making areas unusable. In the past, research has focused on individual molluscicides and their eradication of zebra mussels, as well as their effect on native flora and fauna. My research will ...


The Effects Of Provisional Rate On Offspring Growth In European Starlings, Shelby Edge, Sarah Guindre-Parker 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Effects Of Provisional Rate On Offspring Growth In European Starlings, Shelby Edge, Sarah Guindre-Parker

Symposium of Student Scholars

Offspring rarely have a linear growth rate and many external factors may be to blame for this. They may be most sensitive to their rearing conditions when they grow most rapidly. Parenting and provisional habits are similarly inconsistent and may depend on various factors including the energetic state of the parent or the food availability in the surrounding environment. Though not previously linked before, the connection between parental provisioning efforts and growth and success rate of the offspring may be immense. This study focused on European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). The hypothesis tested was that rapid offspring growth may be connected ...


Initial Assessment Of Potential Relationships Between Plant Communities And The Soil Microbiome In Closed Forest And Longleaf Pine Restoration Sites., Sean Davis, Ian Kennedy 2021 Kennesaw State University

Initial Assessment Of Potential Relationships Between Plant Communities And The Soil Microbiome In Closed Forest And Longleaf Pine Restoration Sites., Sean Davis, Ian Kennedy

Symposium of Student Scholars

Longleaf pine is an endangered ecosystem characterized by high levels of biodiversity.

Our study took place in the Sheffield Wildlife Management Area located in the Piedmont ecoregion of Georgia in Paulding County. Fifty plots of 10 x 30 m2 were setup on south or north facing slopes, some in covered forest, and some in an area actively being restored for the longleaf pine. All trees above 1.37 m were identified and had their diameter measured, and species diversity, relative density, dominance, and frequency were determined. Herbaceous plant cover percentages were recorded in select plots. Soil samples were also ...


Towards The Identification Of The Soil Fungal Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Joshua Inneh, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Fletcher Moon, Geoffrey Eger 2021 Kennesaw State University

Towards The Identification Of The Soil Fungal Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Joshua Inneh, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Fletcher Moon, Geoffrey Eger

Symposium of Student Scholars

This project is part of a larger study looking at the restoration of the Longleaf Pine (LLP) ecosystem in certain Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) in Northwest Georgia. Our long-term aim is to look for potential associations between the aboveground and belowground community structures as the complex system of feedback mechanisms between the soil microbiome, the rhizosphere, and the plant communities is not yet understood.

Soil samples were collected from a total of six plots in the Sheffield WMA located in Paulding County. The samples were collected from north or south facing hillside plots except for in the savanna sites (an ...


Do Environmental Toxins Predict Violent Crimes?, Tyler Stahl 2021 Kennesaw State University

Do Environmental Toxins Predict Violent Crimes?, Tyler Stahl

Symposium of Student Scholars

Do chemical pollutants that persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate in the body affect human health and behavior? Could these Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) chemicals play a role in the cause of violent crimes due to deterioration of mental and cognitive functions? In the past, Mercury, a PBT chemical, has been shown in salmon to be associated with aggression. Could similar aggression occur in humans exposed to mercury through a toxic spill? Two sources of data are utilized in this analysis. The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Annual Toxic Release Inventory publishes data on toxic releases into the environment ...


Soil Bacteria: Metabolic Diversity In A Wildlife Management Area, Nicholas Green 2021 Kennesaw State University

Soil Bacteria: Metabolic Diversity In A Wildlife Management Area, Nicholas Green

Symposium of Student Scholars

This research is part of a larger study linking the soil microbiome and processes to the aboveground plant community.

Soil samples were collected from six plots under closed canopy in the Sheffield Wildlife management area in the Piedmont ecoregion of Georgia in Paulding County. Two of the plots were located in the longleaf pine savanna where restoration of longleaf pine has been in place since 2010. Samples were collected in sterile plastic tubes at the center of each plot and 10 meters above and below the center. For each sample, soil pH and the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P ...


A Reevaluation Of The Phylogeography Of The Chattahoochee Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Chattahoochee) Using Next-Generation Genomic Data, Jadin Cross 2021 Kennesaw State University

A Reevaluation Of The Phylogeography Of The Chattahoochee Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Chattahoochee) Using Next-Generation Genomic Data, Jadin Cross

Symposium of Student Scholars

The Plethodon glutinosus species complex is a group of large-bodied, lungless salamanders that are widespread across the eastern United States. Species in this group are morphologically cryptic and were originally delimited using allozyme data, but in most cases, the extent of contemporary gene flow between named taxa has not be rigorously evaluated. The Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia are home to several members of this group—including P. glutinosus, P. teyahalee, P. chlorobryonis, and P. chattahoochee. P. chattahoochee has been found to be especially cryptic both morphologically and genetically as both intraspecific genetic variation and species boundaries within the P ...


The Evolutionary Origins Of Autism Associated Genes And Their Role In Great Ape Socio-Communication, Azeeza Abdulrauf, Martin Hudson, Susan M.E. Smith, Jared P. Taglialatela 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Evolutionary Origins Of Autism Associated Genes And Their Role In Great Ape Socio-Communication, Azeeza Abdulrauf, Martin Hudson, Susan M.E. Smith, Jared P. Taglialatela

Symposium of Student Scholars

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a major role in socio-communicative behavior. For this study, the focus is on autism associated OXTR, AVPR1A, and FOXP2 SNPs, and the role they play in great apes. Prior research on the OXTR, AVPR1A, and FOXP2 SNPs show that they affect behavior skills such as understanding and controlling emotion, understanding the emotions of others, and communications skills. Great apes, such as bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas are the model, since they are our closest relatives in the animal kingdom capable of understanding complex communication. Each gene has at least two SNPS that are investigated in the ...


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