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Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon 2023 East Tennessee State University

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plants species interactions via pollinators are a model system to understand the mechanisms that generate plant diversity in nature. However, most studies have focused on plant-plant interactions via pollinator attraction while ignoring the role of plant-plant interactions via pollen transfer. Heterospecific pollen transfer (henceforth HP) can be common and have negative fitness effects. Negative HP fitness effects may prompt the evolution of adaptive strategies to minimize them. However, the extent of spatial variation in HP load size within and among populations, a tenet for natural selection, remains unexplored. Such knowledge would hence constitute a first step in advancing our understanding …


The Future Of Pandemics: Land Use Controls As Means Of Preventing Zoonotic Disease, Bailey Andree 2023 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

The Future Of Pandemics: Land Use Controls As Means Of Preventing Zoonotic Disease, Bailey Andree

Pace International Law Review

Zoonotic diseases are increasing in frequency as climate change worsens around the world, with the recent COVID-19 pandemic highlighting the inadequate mechanisms in place to counteract disease spread. This article reviews various zoonotic diseases and their patterns of spread, highlighting land use change as the key driver of disease to demonstrate the need for legal intervention. International land use law is a little-developed subsect of environmental law that holds the key to combating this disease spread, and this article proposes solutions through this legal lens. Land use techniques which may be used to combat disease spread include conservation laws, setback …


Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík 2023 Marshall University

Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

A new species Lychas jakli sp. n. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is described from Indonesia, fully illustrated with color photos showing its morphology and habitus. A new synonymy is proposed: Lychas kotao Lourenço, 2020 = Lychas mucronatus (Fabricius, 1798), syn. n.


Taxonomic Notes On The Luciolinae (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), Oliver Keller, Lesley Ballantyne 2023 Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Taxonomic Notes On The Luciolinae (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), Oliver Keller, Lesley Ballantyne

Insecta Mundi

Several nomenclatural changes for taxa in the firefly subfamily Luciolinae (Coleoptera: Lampyri­dae) are proposed. Evidence is presented to correct the year of description for Luciola dregei Motschulsky 1853 to Motschulsky 1854 when the name was ratified. We correct the authorities and years of descriptions for type species designations for the genera Delopleurus Motschulsky, 1853, and Delopyrus Motschulsky, 1853 to Motschulsky 1854 for both. All remaining taxa described as variations in the subfamily Luciolinae by McDermott (1966), are evaluated to subspecies with their availability determined based on ICZN (1999) Article 45.6.


New Host And Distribution Records Plus Additional Notes For North American Species Of Chrysobothris Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), With Designation Of A Lectotype For Chrysobothris Vulcanica Leconte, 1861, Richard L. Westcott 2023 Oregon Department of Agriculture

New Host And Distribution Records Plus Additional Notes For North American Species Of Chrysobothris Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), With Designation Of A Lectotype For Chrysobothris Vulcanica Leconte, 1861, Richard L. Westcott

Insecta Mundi

New distribution and host records plus additional notes are provided for North American spe­cies in the genus Chrysobothris Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Forty-one species are treated. The occurrence of Chrysobothris bicolor Horn in the USA is refuted. Chrysobothris breviloboides Barr is newly synonymized with Chrysobothris breviloba Fall. The southernmost record for Chrysobothris piuta Wick­ham, from Baja California, Mexico, is established. A specimen of the Argentinian Chrysobothris rugosa Gory and Laporte labeled from Florida is reported. A lectotype for Chrysobothris vulcanica LeConte is newly designated.


Thirteen New Species Of Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) From Texas, Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Nick V. Grishin 2023 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Thirteen New Species Of Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) From Texas, Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Nick V. Grishin

Insecta Mundi

Analyses of whole genomic shotgun datasets, COI barcodes, morphology, and historical literature suggest that the following 13 butterfly species from the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) in Texas, USA are distinct from their closest named relatives and therefore are described as new (type localities are given in parenthesis): Spicauda atelis Grishin, new species (Hidalgo Co., Mission), Urbanus (Urbanus) rickardi Grishin, new species (Hidalgo Co., nr. Madero), Urbanus (Urbanus) oplerorum Grishin, new spe­cies (Hidalgo Co., Mission/Madero), Telegonus tsongae Grishin, new species (Starr Co., Roma), Autochton caballo Grishin, new species (Hidalgo Co., 6 mi W of Hidalgo), Epargyreus fractigutta …


New Species And Taxonomical And Geographical Notes On Cerambycidae And Disteniidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea), Daniel Heffern, Juan Pablo Botero, Antonio Santos-Silva 2023 Houston, TX

New Species And Taxonomical And Geographical Notes On Cerambycidae And Disteniidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea), Daniel Heffern, Juan Pablo Botero, Antonio Santos-Silva

Insecta Mundi

Four new species of Coleoptera are described: Pentanodes clavatus new species, from Ecuador; Pentanodes baldwini new species, from Panama (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Tillomorphini); Elytrimita­trix (Grossifemora) dilatata new species, from Mexico (Disteniidae) and Novantinoe falsa new species, from Mexico (Disteniidae). Taxonomical notes on Euderces cribellatus (Bates, 1885) (Tillomorphini) and Oreodera Audinet-Serville, 1835 (Lamiinae: Acrocinini) are provided. Additionally, new records are provided for Oreo­dera noguerai McCarty, 2001 (new state record), Adetus croton Heffern, Santos-Silva and Botero, 2019 (new country record), Icimauna sarauaia Martins and Galileo, 1991 (new country record), and Phoebe mexicana Bates, 1881 (new state record).


A New Species Of Biclonuncaria Razowski And Becker, 1993 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) From Costa Rica, John W. Brown 2023 National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

A New Species Of Biclonuncaria Razowski And Becker, 1993 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) From Costa Rica, John W. Brown

Insecta Mundi

Biclonuncaria recurvana, new species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini), is described and il­lustrated from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. It is most similar to B. conica Razowski, 1993, from Mexico, but the two are easily distinguished by features of the male genitalia. Biclo­nuncaria recurvana has been reared (n = 12 specimens) from field-collected larvae feeding on the leaves of Dalbergia glomerata Hemsley (Fabaceae), consistent with the previously reported host plant for B. dalbergiae Razowski and Becker, 1993, which has been reared from Dalbergia in Brazil.


A Dynamical System Model Of Dengue Transmission For Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Gregory Schmidt, Benjamin Whipple, Vinodh Chellamuthu, Xiaoxia Xie 2023 Utah Tech University

A Dynamical System Model Of Dengue Transmission For Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Gregory Schmidt, Benjamin Whipple, Vinodh Chellamuthu, Xiaoxia Xie

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The dengue virus is a serious concern in many parts of the world, including Brazil. As data indicates, a prominent vector for dengue is the mosquito Aedes aegypti. By using the dengue incidence records from the Brazilian SINAN database, we estimate the population of A. aegypti within the city of Rio de Janeiro. Using historical climate data for Rio de Janeiro and the computed population estimates, we extend an existing model for the population dynamics of mosquitoes to incorporate precipitation in aquatic stages of development for A. aegypti.


Potential Effects Of Road Proximity On Zooplankton Communities And Water Quality In Lakes In The Northwest Territories, Marie N. Hannan 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Potential Effects Of Road Proximity On Zooplankton Communities And Water Quality In Lakes In The Northwest Territories, Marie N. Hannan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Studies conducted along Canada’s Dempster Highway in the Northwest Territories have shown that road dust can affect water quality in roadside lakes, leading to higher calcium, conductivity, and pH levels. These water quality changes have the potential to affect important members of the lower aquatic food web, such as zooplankton.

For my thesis research, I had two main objectives: 1) To determine if changes in water chemistry caused by deposition of road dust affects zooplankton communities; and 2) To examine if the type of roadside vegetation influences the effects of road dust on aquatic habitats. To achieve these objectives, I …


Attack Of The Clones: Elucidating The Role Of Clonality In The Invasion Success Of Carpobrotus Edulis, Eduardo Luis Cruz 2023 California State University - San Bernardino

Attack Of The Clones: Elucidating The Role Of Clonality In The Invasion Success Of Carpobrotus Edulis, Eduardo Luis Cruz

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Transcriptomics is a modern technique in genomics that utilizes RNA sequences to get a snapshot of genetic expression. This is a powerful tool in non-model species lacking a reference genome. Thus, the application of comparative transcriptomics has the potential to help us elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate species invasion. Carpobrotus edulis is a prolific and widespread invasive succulent plant belonging to the Aizoaceae family. A native to South Africa, this species has become a dominant invader of many Mediterranean coastal areas. In this study, we leveraged the use of RNAseq to investigate evolutionary changes among invasive populations. RNA-seq data …


Orb-Web Spider Argiope (Araneidae) As Indigenous Arrow Poison Of G/Ui And G//Ana San Hunters In The Kalahari, Tharina L. Bird, Smith Moeti, Robert K. Hitchcock, Melinda C. Kelly, Lefang L. Chobolo, Nonofo Gotcha, Kgosi K. Moatlhodi, Leungo D. Mukoka, Emmanuel K. Sekopo, Caroline Simmrita Chaboo 2023 Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Afr

Orb-Web Spider Argiope (Araneidae) As Indigenous Arrow Poison Of G/Ui And G//Ana San Hunters In The Kalahari, Tharina L. Bird, Smith Moeti, Robert K. Hitchcock, Melinda C. Kelly, Lefang L. Chobolo, Nonofo Gotcha, Kgosi K. Moatlhodi, Leungo D. Mukoka, Emmanuel K. Sekopo, Caroline Simmrita Chaboo

Publications of UNSM Staff and Affiliates

Hunting has been crucial in early human evolution. Some San (Bushmen) of southern Africa still practice their indigenous hunting. The use of poisons is one remarkable aspect of their bow-and-arrow hunting but the sources, taxonomic identifications of species used, and recipes, are not well documented. This study reports on fieldwork to investigate recent indigenous hunting practices of G/ui and G//ana San communities in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), Botswana. Here we discuss their use of spider poison. The hunters use the contents of the opisthosoma (‘abdomen’) of a spider as sole ingredient of the arrow poison and discard the …


Nicotiana Glauca Graham (Solanaceae) Bioactivity And Toxic Effects On Mortality, Feeding Behavior And Pupation Choice Of Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Abir Bouzar, Sarra Habbachi, Ibtissem Samai, Makarem Rahat, Nour El Imene Boublata, Saadane Fatma Zohra, Wafa Habbachi, Benhissen Saliha, Abdelkrim Tahraoui 2022 Applied Neuroendocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Badji Mokhtar Annaba 23000,Algeria.

Nicotiana Glauca Graham (Solanaceae) Bioactivity And Toxic Effects On Mortality, Feeding Behavior And Pupation Choice Of Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Abir Bouzar, Sarra Habbachi, Ibtissem Samai, Makarem Rahat, Nour El Imene Boublata, Saadane Fatma Zohra, Wafa Habbachi, Benhissen Saliha, Abdelkrim Tahraoui

Journal of Bioresource Management

Nicotiana glauca is a medicinal plant used by traditional healers as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory medicines. The leaves of N. glauca are very rich in indolic alkaloids which give it a larvicidal power which allows us to use it as a bio-insecticide.In the present study we were perfomed in the direct (mortality) and indirect (food attractiveness and pupation) toxic effects of the aqueous extract of N. glauca on the mortality and feeding behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The treatment was administered to 2nd instar larvae (L2) and the mortality rate was monitored for 15 days. Similarly we …


Ecological Diagnosis And Diversity Structure Of The Forest Birds Community In Machroha Forest (Souk Ahras – Northeastern Algeria), Abdelhak Boucif, Mouslim Bara, Moussa Houhamdi 2022 The Laboratory of Biology Water and Environment, University 8 Mai 1945 Guelma, BP 401, Guelma 24000, Algeria

Ecological Diagnosis And Diversity Structure Of The Forest Birds Community In Machroha Forest (Souk Ahras – Northeastern Algeria), Abdelhak Boucif, Mouslim Bara, Moussa Houhamdi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Machroha forest is a large hot spot of biodiversity of northeastern region of Algeria. It is dominated by several species of oak tree that can contribute to the conservation of many animals such as birds. Our study was carried out from February 2019 to July 2021, in order to diagnosis the ecological status of forest birds and their dynamics. Our results reported that this forest was including 19.21% of the Algerian avifauna diversity. We recorded 78 species of birds classified in 32 families. The main species were sedentary with an insectivorous trophic categories and terrestrial guild. Three species observed in …


A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith 2022 University of Alabama in Huntsville

A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

We present results from an examination of the seasonal reproductive patterns of two closely related sympatric darter species of the Simoperca clade, Etheostoma duryi and Etheostoma simoterum. Most members of the genus Etheostoma exhibit striking sexual dimorphism, making reproductive strategy a logical point of study. Monthly collections of specimens over a one-year period were performed at a single site on the Flint River near Huntsville, Alabama. Standard length and gross somatic mass were measured for all individuals. Sex ratio was examined for possible skew. Measures of reproductive effort were monthly means of gonadosomatic index of both sexes, total oocyte count, …


Isolation And Characterization Of Cellulose Degrading Microorganisms Generating Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cell, Lama Fayad, Rania Amer, Ahmad Abd El Nabi, Ali Hammoud, Hoda Yusef 2022 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University

Isolation And Characterization Of Cellulose Degrading Microorganisms Generating Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cell, Lama Fayad, Rania Amer, Ahmad Abd El Nabi, Ali Hammoud, Hoda Yusef

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Global warming and the accumulation of organic waste constitute a serious environmental problem. Therefore, microbial fuel cells (MFC) are an eco-friendly device that have significant capability for the production of electricity using biodegradable waste as fuel. Microorganisms used as catalysts in the anode compartment, execute a principal function in operating MFCs. The present study was conducted to isolate and to screen potential bioelectricity generating microorganisms from dumpsite soil samples and also to construct a domestic dual-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC). Streptomyces fimicarius was found to be the best isolate for the degradation of cellulose and the production of bioelectricity. The …


A Report Of Intraguild Predation By Orthochirus Sp. On Hottentotta Tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Maharashtra, India, Mihir Joshi, Shubhankar Deshpande 2022 Marshall University

A Report Of Intraguild Predation By Orthochirus Sp. On Hottentotta Tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Maharashtra, India, Mihir Joshi, Shubhankar Deshpande

Euscorpius

We report an event of intraguild predation by Orthochirus sp. feeding on a juvenile individual of Hottentotta tamulus (Fabricius,1798) from Maharashtra, India. This is the first report of intraguild predation among Indian scorpions.


The Genus Barbaracurus In Saudi Arabia (Scorpiones: Buthidae), With Description Of A New Species, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Pavel Just 2022 Marshall University

The Genus Barbaracurus In Saudi Arabia (Scorpiones: Buthidae), With Description Of A New Species, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Pavel Just

Euscorpius

The genus Barbaracurus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia. B. yemenensis Kovařík et al., 2018 was found in the extreme southwest of the country, near its border with Yemen. The diagnosis of the species is emended based on the finding of adult males and a large adult female. The proximal margins of the pedipalp fingers of male B. yemenensis are strongly undulate, leaving a gap with the fingers closed. This character differentiates it from all other species of Barbaracurus in the Arabian Peninsula. A second species, B. kabateki sp. n. from Saudi Arabia is described …


Niche Modeling Of Eight Crayfish Species In Texas, Nathan Schubert 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Niche Modeling Of Eight Crayfish Species In Texas, Nathan Schubert

Biology Theses

Freshwater species make up ~10% of all known species and occupy less than one percent of earth’s habitat, which is being degraded by human usage. Crayfish have a large impact on their aquatic or terrestrial environment and can serve as a health indicator of aquatic environments, as they generally require undegraded environments. In many habitats, crayfish make up more than half of the macroinvertebrate biomass, and play important ecological roles, as a food resource for both aquatic and terrestrial species, as predators of fish and invertebrates, and as bioprocessors of vegetation and detritus. The objective of this project was to …


Selection Strategy Of Small Mammalian Preys By The Common Genet Genetta Genetta Between Natural And Anthropized Environments In Edough Forest Massif (Northeastern Algeria), Fatma Belbel, Mehdi Boukheroufa, Camelia Hesni Benotmane, Rym Sakraoui, Lina Rania Ikram Henada, Feriel Sakraoui 2022 Soil and Sustainable Development Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Badji Mokhtar BP 12, 23 200 Annaba, Algeria.

Selection Strategy Of Small Mammalian Preys By The Common Genet Genetta Genetta Between Natural And Anthropized Environments In Edough Forest Massif (Northeastern Algeria), Fatma Belbel, Mehdi Boukheroufa, Camelia Hesni Benotmane, Rym Sakraoui, Lina Rania Ikram Henada, Feriel Sakraoui

Journal of Bioresource Management

We analyzed fluctuations in of small mammals’ biodiversity through the winter diet of the common genet Genetta genetta (Linnaeus, 1958), to deduce the predator - adopted strategy according to the habitat conditions in which it occurs, particularly in anthropogenic environments. The field sampling was conducted during the 2020 winter season, in two contrasting environments of the Edough mountain range: natural site (Ain Boukal), and anthropized site (Bouzizi landfill). The analysis of 30 collected excrements in each of the two sites, allowed us to identify different food categories including small mammals. The result shows that the common genet is an excellent …


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