Meta-Analysis Reveals Evolution In Invasive Plant Species But Little Support For Evolution Of Increased Competitive Ability (Eica), 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Meta-Analysis Reveals Evolution In Invasive Plant Species But Little Support For Evolution Of Increased Competitive Ability (Eica), E Felker-Quinn, J A. Schweitzer, J K. Bailey
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Publications and Other Works
Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of ...
Utilization Of The Invasive Alga Gracilaria Vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss By The Native Mud Snail Ilyanassa Obsoleta (Say), Michele Guidone, Christine Newton, Carol S. Thornber
Biology Faculty Publications
The recent invasions of the red alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, to the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans have the potential to significantly alter intertidal and subtidal soft sediment communities. In particular, G. vermiculophylla increases habitat complexity and provides a novel hard substrate in an otherwise two dimensional habitat. Following our observations that the native omnivorous mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta utilizes G. vermiculophylla for egg capsule deposition, our field surveys demonstrated that the in situ abundance of egg capsules on G. vermiculophylla matched abundances on a native alga Ceramium virgatumandwere at least 11–50 times greater than on all other co-occurring macrophytes ...
Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, And Culture, 2014 Purdue University
Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, And Culture, Gábor Náray-Szabó
CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture
In his article "Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, and Culture" Gábor Náray-Szabó argues that evolution is conservative in the sense that throughout the history of the universe old constructs like elementary particles, amino acids, and living cells remained conserved while the world evolved/evolves in complexity. A similar process can be observed in cultural evolution as components of society and culture continue to evolve. Considering the increasing pressure on natural resources by material consumption, a close alliance between past, present, and future generations is unavoidable and thus Náray-Szabó posits that concepts of conservative evolution and sustainability are related. However, in order to ...
From The Inside Out, And Through., 2014 Claremont Colleges
From The Inside Out, And Through., Dominique Ovalle
The STEAM Journal
These photographs describe “Science” born of consumerism, hijacked by me, economically disenfranchised, or rather—temporarily embarrassed, artist. I was putzing around Malibu—my old college stomping ground, looking for free food; maybe a sample of some gourmet $5 chocolate, and all I got were these photographs.
With Whom Do We Speak? Building Transdisciplinary Collaborations In Rhetoric Of Science, 2014 University of Iowa
With Whom Do We Speak? Building Transdisciplinary Collaborations In Rhetoric Of Science, Caroline Gottschalk Druschke
There is a necessary and growing preoccupation in rhetoric of science with the real-world consequences of our work and with the mediating role rhetoric should play at the nexus of science-publics-policy. Emerging from these discussions are calls by Gross, Ceccarelli, and Herndl for thoughtful and practical action. This paper builds from this preoccupation with thoughtful praxis, highlighting three funded collaborations that offer a vision for engaged, mutually beneficial, consequential collaborations in rhetoric of science. Taken together, these collaborations constitute an argument for Herndl’s “applied rhetoric of science.” They move beyond transactional models of collaboration and posit a transdisciplinary vision ...
Tribute To Tinbergen: The Place Of Animal Behavior In Biology, 2014 Washington University in St. Louis
Tribute To Tinbergen: The Place Of Animal Behavior In Biology, Joan E. Strassmann
Biology Faculty Publications
Tinbergen is famous for emphasizing behavioral fieldwork and experimentation under natural circumstances, for founding the field of ethology, for getting a Nobel Prize, and for mentoring Richard Dawkins. He is known for dividing behavior studies into physiology, development, natural selection, and evolutionary history. In the decades since Tinbergen was active, some of the best research in animal behavior fuses Tinbergen's questions, connecting genes to behavioral phenotypes, for example. Behavior is the most synthetic of the life sciences, because observing the actions of an organism can tell us what all those physical and physiological traits are for. Insights from behavior ...
Environmental Factors Influencing Spring Migration Chronology Of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis), 2014 Western University
Environmental Factors Influencing Spring Migration Chronology Of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis), Taylor A. Finger
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Weather likely affects the timing and rate of migration by waterfowl to their breeding grounds. I hypothesized that timing of migration by lesser scaup during spring is affected by annual variation in temperature, precipitation and ice cover. I used satellite telemetry data, waterfowl survey data and corresponding weather data to evaluate competing models that explained variation in timing and rate of migration by lesser scaup. Timing of spring migration occurred earlier and faster when lesser scaup encountered warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, both of which are known to influence thermoregulation and habitat availability for waterfowl. Migration chronology of lesser scaup ...
Native And Domestic Browsers And Grazers Reduce Fuels, Fire Temperatures, And Acacia-Ant Mortality In An African Savanna, Duncan K. Kimuyu, Ryan L. Sensenig, Corinna Riginos, Kari E. Veblen, Truman P. Young
Kari E. Veblen
Despite the importance of fire and herbivory in structuring savanna systems, few replicated experiments have examined the interactive effects of herbivory and fire on plant dynamics. In addition, the effects of fire on associated ant-tree mutualisms have been largely unexplored. We carried out small controlled burns in each of 18 herbivore treatment plots of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), where experimentally excluding elephants has resulted in 42% greater tree densities. The KLEE design includes six different herbivore treatments that allowed us to examine how different combinations of megaherbivore wildlife, mesoherbivore wildlife, and cattle affect fire temperatures and subsequent loss ...
The Cumulative Effects Of Management On The Population Dynamics Of The Double-Crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax Auritus In The Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, Terry J. Doyle
Brian S Dorr
Wildlife species have been subject to control efforts throughout human history due to real or alleged human–wildlife conflicts. The Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the interior of North America is no exception, with recent population growth leading to increased conflicts and consequently the development of many control programmes. These control programmes are usually conducted at local scales, often with little or no effort to assess their cumulative effects at the population level. We attempted the first comprehensive assessment of the cumulative effects of control at various spatio-temporal scales, focusing on 199 colonies of Double-crested Cormorant monitored during a 29-year ...
Causes And Consequences Of Broad-Scale Geographic Variation In Gulf Of Maine Rocky Intertidal Communities, 2014 Northeastern University
Causes And Consequences Of Broad-Scale Geographic Variation In Gulf Of Maine Rocky Intertidal Communities, Elizabeth Bryson
A major challenge facing ecology is to better understand how large-scale processes modify local scale processes to shape the assembly and organization of ecological communities. Previous work indicates that on New England rocky intertidal shores, consumers strongly control recovery from disturbance on sheltered shores, and high recruitment and competition for space dictate recovery on wave-exposed shores. However, experimental results indicate that exposure driven consumer control is not ubiquitous throughout the Gulf of Maine, and communities in the northern Gulf exhibit limited recruitment of sessile invertebrates with extended planktonic larval stages and rapid settlement and growth of macroalgae. Based upon prevailing ...
Differential Resource Allocation Of Black Mustard Plants (Brassica Nigra L.) With Proximity To Black Walnut Trees (Juglans Californica L.) In A Southern California Riparian Ecosystem, 2014 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School
Differential Resource Allocation Of Black Mustard Plants (Brassica Nigra L.) With Proximity To Black Walnut Trees (Juglans Californica L.) In A Southern California Riparian Ecosystem, Victor D. Carmona
Victor D. Carmona-Galindo
The invasive forb Brassica nigra (black mustard) and the native tree Juglans californica (black walnut) are allelopathic species that suppress the growth of neighboring plants. This study evaluates how allocation to root, reproductive, and photosynthetic biomass in B. nigra was affected with proximity to J. californica. We hypothesized that a joint suppressive effect would lead to lower root biomass allocation in B. nigra near J. californica due to reduced interspecific competition. Our results indicate that B. nigra plants growing near J. californica had significantly lower root : total biomass ratios, and provide insights into how to effectively control this invasive species.
Monitoring Of Livestock Grazing Effects On Bureau Of Land Management Land, 2014 Utah State University
Monitoring Of Livestock Grazing Effects On Bureau Of Land Management Land, Kari E. Veblen, David A. Pyke, Cameron L. Aldridge, Michael L. Casazza, Timothy J. Assal, Melissa A. Farinha
Kari E. Veblen
Public land management agencies, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are charged with managing rangelands throughout the Western United States for multiple uses such as livestock grazing and conservation of sensitive species and their habitats. Monitoring of condition and trends of these rangelands, particularly with respect to effects of livestock grazing, provide critical information for effective management of these multi-use landscapes. We therefore investigated the availability of livestock grazing-related quantitative monitoring data and qualitative region-specific Land Health Standards (LHS) data across BLM grazing allotments in the Western United States. We then queried university and federal rangeland science experts ...
Characterization Of Sugar Diversity In Floral And Extra-Floral Nectar From The Coastal Coral Tree (Erythrina Caffra Thunb.) In Southern California, 2014 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School
Characterization Of Sugar Diversity In Floral And Extra-Floral Nectar From The Coastal Coral Tree (Erythrina Caffra Thunb.) In Southern California, Victor D. Carmona
Victor D. Carmona-Galindo
The Coastal Coral Tree (Erythrina caffra Thunb.) produces floral nectar (FN) that serves to attract pollinating insects, but also secretes nectar from extra-floral (EFN) glands that serves to attract predatory insects, such as ants. While studies on myrmecophytes (i.e. specialized plants that attract and interact with ants) have primarily focused on interspecific evaluations of EFN chemistry, the Coastal Coral tree offers an opportunity to contrast intraspecific nectar chemistry with differing evolutionary and ecological functions. We hypothesized that the richness of (molecular) sugar species, relative concentrations, and diversity of sugars in FN and foliar EFN would diverge due to differences ...
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis And Ecosystem Processes: Prospects For Future Research In Tropical Soils, Geofrey Soka, Mark Ritchie
No abstract provided.
The Conservation Value Of Karst Dolines For Vascular Plants In Woodland Habitats Of Hungary: Refugia And Climate Change, 2014 University of South Florida
The Conservation Value Of Karst Dolines For Vascular Plants In Woodland Habitats Of Hungary: Refugia And Climate Change, Zoltán Bátori, János Csiky, Tünde Farkas, E. Anna Vojtkó, László Erdős, Dániel Kovács, Tamás Wirth, László Körmöczi, András Vojtkó
International Journal of Speleology
Limestone (karst) surfaces in Hungary are rich in dolines, in which many endangered vascular plant species occur. To date, the majority of studies dealing with doline vegetation have focused on the local rather than the landscape level, without using comparative data from other areas. However, in this study we aimed to compare the vegetation pattern and species composition of dolines under different climate regimes of Hungary with regard to regional species pools. The fieldwork was carried out between 2005 and 2012. Twenty dolines were selected in the Mecsek Mountains (southern Hungary) and nine dolines in the Aggtelek Karst area (northern ...
Partitioning The Fitness Components Of Rna Populations Evolving In Vitro, 2013 Portland State University
Partitioning The Fitness Components Of Rna Populations Evolving In Vitro, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Niles Lehman
Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations
All individuals in an evolving population compete for resources, and their performance is measured by a fitness metric. The performance of the individuals is relative to their abilities and to the biotic surroundings – the conditions under which they are competing – and involves many components. Molecules evolving in a test tube can also face complex environments and dynamics, and their fitnessmeasurements should reflect the complexity of various contributing factors as well. Here, the fitnesses of a set of ligase ribozymes evolved by the continuous in vitroevolution system were measured. During these evolution cycles there are three different catalytic steps, ligation ...
The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, 2013 University of South Carolina
The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science
Bacteriophages are used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria in drinking, and wastewaters. They also show potential in limiting aquatic bacterial populations through their lytic properties. The effect of different water characteristics (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) on the sensitivity of the PCR identification of virus particles were analyzed to determine at what levels bacteriophage can be detected in environmental samples. Results from this preliminary study indicate that a PCR bacteriophage detection technique has potential as a relatively efficient and economical indicator of coliform contamination in multiple aquatic environments. While further evaluation is needed, the protocol appears to function in ...
Explosive Diversification Following A Benthic To Pelagic Shift In Freshwater Fishes, 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Explosive Diversification Following A Benthic To Pelagic Shift In Freshwater Fishes, Phillip R. Hollingsworth Jr., A M. Simons, J A. Fordyce, C D. Hulsey
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Publications and Other Works
Interspecific divergence along a benthic to pelagic habitat axis is ubiquitous in freshwater fishes inhabiting lentic environments. In this study, we examined the influence of this habitat axis on the macroevolution of a diverse, lotic radiation using mtDNA and nDNA phylogenies for eastern North America's most species-rich freshwater fish clade, the open posterior myodome (OPM) cyprinids. We used ancestral state reconstruction to identify the earliest benthic to pelagic transition in this group and generated fossil-calibrated estimates of when this shift occurred. This transition could have represented evolution into a novel adaptive zone, and therefore, we tested for a ...
Modern Cavemen? Stereotypes And Reality Of The Ancestral Health Movement, 2013 Ancestral Health Society
Modern Cavemen? Stereotypes And Reality Of The Ancestral Health Movement, David B. Schwartz, Hamilton M. Stapell
Journal of Evolution and Health
Both academic and popular interest in the ancestral health movement, or “paleo” lifestyle, has grown rapidly in recent years. More people than ever are joining the movement, and more books and articles are being published on the topic. Media coverage and certain societal preconceptions of the movement have also increased. More often than not, followers of a paleo lifestyle are thought to be “modern cavemen”: athletic, single, meat-eating, young, white, and male. To test whether or not these stereotypes are true, the authors of the present study created the first large, academic survey (N = 3,967) of the ancestral health ...
From Heart Beats To Health Recipes: The Role Of Fractal Physiology In The Ancestral Health Movement, 2013 Ancestral Health Society
From Heart Beats To Health Recipes: The Role Of Fractal Physiology In The Ancestral Health Movement, Aaron P. Blaisdell, Brent Pottenger, John S. Torday
Journal of Evolution and Health
The human body—an amazing biological system that scales up fractally from its cellular building blocks—exhibits an incredible ability to self heal. Why then, are chronic diseases and degeneration on the rise in the population? Why are we sicker, more obese, and more depressed and stressed than ever before in human history? Why can’t we heal? The answers to these questions may lie in our ancestry, and modern departure from the human ecological niche. The ability to heal requires proper spatio-temporal inputs—nutrition, sleep, stress, activity, and socialization—in order for cellular signaling to occur properly across semi-permeable ...