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Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Native rangelands in the Great Plains are largely privately owned and used for beef production. Vegetation heterogeneity is important for maintaining biodiversity, but private land may be more homogenous than desired. My research had two components: 1) to examine whether a variety of grazing strategies created vegetation heterogeneity in a large, intact rangeland, and 2) to understand beef producers’ attitudes about vegetation heterogeneity.

First, I sampled vegetation structure, composition, and bird abundance at multiple plots on eleven management units in Cherry County, Nebraska. Units were managed with commonly used grazing strategies (e.g., short-duration grazing and season-long continuous grazing). I ...


The Behavior And Ecology Of Cursorial Predators And Dangerous Prey: Integrating Behavioral Mechanisms With Population-Level Patterns In Large Mammal Systems, Aimee Tallian 2017 Utah State University

The Behavior And Ecology Of Cursorial Predators And Dangerous Prey: Integrating Behavioral Mechanisms With Population-Level Patterns In Large Mammal Systems, Aimee Tallian

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Driving into Yellowstone National Park for the first time is a moving experience. Gazing over the sweeping landscapes, seeing a geyser erupt 80 feet into the air, and having your first ‘wildlife encounter’, whether that be a 2 ton bull bison aggressively wallowing on his dirt mound, snorting and kicking up dust, or watching a pack of 6 wolves move through a valley off in the distance, pausing to howl in search of their companions. Yellowstone staff wishes to manage our park in a way that preserves these remarkable experiences. In order to effectively manage this dynamic ecosystem, it is ...


The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Although the 12 species representing three waterfowl tribes described in this volume are not closely related, they fortuitously provide an instructive example of adaptive evolutionary radiation within the much larger waterfowl lineage (the family Anatidae), especially as to their divergent morphologies, life histories, and social behaviors.

The whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna), with three known North American species, are notable for their permanent pair-bonds, extended biparental family care, and strong social cohesion. In contrast, males of the five typical pochards of North American diving ducks (Aythya) establish monogamous pair-bonds that are maintained only long enough to assure that the female’s eggs are ...


Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

In the present paper, the taxonomic status of several Hispaniolan members of the genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1966 is revised after examination of almost all primary types and abundant supplementary material. This resulted in six new synonymies, which involve both extant and fossil species. The extant taxa herein synonymized are Tityus anasilviae Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus ottenwalderi Armas, 1999, Tityus bahoruco Teruel et Armas, 2006 under Tityus crassimanus (Thorell, 1876), Tityus ebanoverde Armas, 1999 under Tityus elii Armas et Marcano, 1992, and Tityus septentrionalis Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus portoplatensis Armas et Marcano, 1992. The fossil ...


Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, J. David Adams, Casey L. Bergthold, Justin D. Haas, Mark A. Pegg, Gerald E. Mestl 2017 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission

Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, J. David Adams, Casey L. Bergthold, Justin D. Haas, Mark A. Pegg, Gerald E. Mestl

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Blue Sucker Cycleptus elongatus populations in the Missouri River are believed to be declining. The decline is most likely attributable to anthropogenic modifications including channelization and dam construction. We compared 2008 and 2009 summer use distribution (UD) for 21 blue suckers implanted with acoustic tags to better understand how blue suckers use the Missouri River. UDs are used to analyze space-use requirements based on the home range concept. The geometric mean 95% UD range was 1.9 river kilometers (RKM) in 2008 and 0.3 RKM in 2009, and differed statistically by year. The upper bound of the 2008 95 ...


Hitching A Ride: First Record Of A Least Chipmunk (Tamias Minimus) In Eastern Nebraska, Keith Geluso, Michael L. Forsberg 2017 University of Nebraska—Kearney

Hitching A Ride: First Record Of A Least Chipmunk (Tamias Minimus) In Eastern Nebraska, Keith Geluso, Michael L. Forsberg

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

On 10 October 2016, a Least Chipmunk (Tamias minimus) was discovered in a residential area of Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska. The closest populations of Least Chipmunks reside > 640 km to the west in northwestern Nebraska and southeastern Wyoming. The most parsimonious explanation for this unusual observation is that the chipmunk was transported to the city by humans. A likely scenario is that the chipmunk hitched a ride to Lincoln in a motor vehicle on 2 October 2016, when one of us drove 1500 km in a single day from Jackson, Teton County, Wyoming, after residing in that area for 10 ...


Shoes Are Not Paleo, Stephanie Welch 2017 Ancestral Health Society

Shoes Are Not Paleo, Stephanie Welch

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Living High And Healthy: Why Coloradans And Others Who Live At High Altitude Live Longer, And What Flatlanders Can Learn From Them, Todd Becker 2017 Getting Stronger blog

Living High And Healthy: Why Coloradans And Others Who Live At High Altitude Live Longer, And What Flatlanders Can Learn From Them, Todd Becker

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

Clinicians have long understood the immense impact the health of our gut has on things like weight, energy, depression, autoimmunity and more. With the recent advancements in microbiota research we have learned much more about this connection. Like never before we understand how we can alleviate chronic health conditions and enhance well-being through improving the health of the gut.

However, with this increased research has also come over speculation and ill-informed recommendations. This has high impact on today's healthcare professional or consumer who could unintentionally do harm. For example by replicating the microbiota of hunter-gatherers of Africa, we could ...


Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, George M. Diggs Jr. 2017 Austin College Department of Biology and Program in Public Health

Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, George M. Diggs Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


The Case For The Long Body, Frank Forencich 2017 Exuberant Animal

The Case For The Long Body, Frank Forencich

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Evolutionary Medicine’S Place In Nutrition And Dietetics, Anthony J. Basile, David B. Schwartz, Joseph Rigdon, Hamilton M. Stapell 2017 Columbia University Medical Center

Evolutionary Medicine’S Place In Nutrition And Dietetics, Anthony J. Basile, David B. Schwartz, Joseph Rigdon, Hamilton M. Stapell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Movement Patterns And Population Genetics Of The American Horseshoe Crab In Relation To Long Island Sound Conservation Strategies, Jo-Marie Kasinak, Kirk A. Bartholomew, Mark Beekey, Jennifer Mattei 2017 Sacred Heart University

Movement Patterns And Population Genetics Of The American Horseshoe Crab In Relation To Long Island Sound Conservation Strategies, Jo-Marie Kasinak, Kirk A. Bartholomew, Mark Beekey, Jennifer Mattei

Jo-Marie Kasinak

The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) established three no-harvest zones for the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) population as part of a conservation plan for the species. Data from a long-term mark/recapture study of horseshoe crabs in conjunction with a microsatellite-based genetic survey of the population were analyzed to determine if this plan was appropriate to conserve genetic diversity and broaden our knowledge of movement patterns of Limulus in Long Island Sound (LIS). To date, ~53,000 crabs have been tagged over a 10 year period through the Project Limulus program with an annual average recapture rate of 12 ...


P31. Assessing The Long Term Effects Of Perceived Predation Risk On The Avian Brain, Lauren E. Witterick 2017 Western University

P31. Assessing The Long Term Effects Of Perceived Predation Risk On The Avian Brain, Lauren E. Witterick

Western Research Forum

Predators affect prey populations not only through direct killing, but also through the perception of predation risk. Responding to predator threats is critical for prey survival, however perceived predation risk can have lasting effects ranging from individual changes in neurobiology up to the population level. My research focuses on the lasting effects of predator ‘fear’ on the avian brain. I will be using auditory playbacks to manipulate predation risk in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in acoustic isolation and brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in large outdoor aviaries. Lasting behavioural changes have been found in black-capped chickadees one week after exposure to ...


P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels 2017 Western University

P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels

Western Research Forum

Background: Beat perception is a complex cognitive skill that enables humans to “feel” the beat in music, and is an essential component of synchronization of behavior and dance. The mechanisms in the human brain that facilitate beat perception are not entirely understood, and have only been studied thus far using non-invasive techniques. Some animals, such as songbirds, also seem to be able to detect a beat in rhythms, though this has never been formally tested independent of motor synchronization.

Methods: An operant experiment is used to assess if European starlings, a type of songbird, are capable of categorizing auditory rhythms ...


Phylogenies, The Comparative Method, And The Conflation Of Tempo And Mode, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou, Dean C. Adams 2017 CIBIO/InBio, Vairão, Portugal

Phylogenies, The Comparative Method, And The Conflation Of Tempo And Mode, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou, Dean C. Adams

Dean C. Adams

The comparison of mathematical models that represent alternative hypotheses about the tempo and mode of evolutionary change is a common approach for assessing the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. However, because model parameters are estimated simultaneously, they are inextricably linked, such that changes in tempo, the pace of evolution, and mode, the manner in which evolution occurs, may be difficult to assess separately. This may potentially complicate biological interpretation, but the extent to which this occurs has not yet been determined. In this study, we examined 160 phylogeny × trait empirical datasets, and conducted extensive numerical phylogenetic simulations, to investigate the ...


Evaluating Modularity In Morphometric Data: Challenges With The Rv Coefficient And A New Test Measure, Dean C. Adams 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluating Modularity In Morphometric Data: Challenges With The Rv Coefficient And A New Test Measure, Dean C. Adams

Dean C. Adams

1: Modularity describes the case where patterns of trait covariation are unevenly dispersed across traits. Specifically, trait correlations are high and concentrated within subsets of variables (modules), but the correlations between traits across modules are relatively weaker. For morphometric datasets, hypotheses of modularity are commonly evaluated using the RV coefficient, an association statistic used in a wide variety of fields. 2: In this article I explore the properties of the RV coefficient using simulated data sets. Using data drawn from a normal distribution where the data were neither modular nor integrated in structure, I show that the RV coefficient is ...


Biotic And Abiotic Factors Predicting The Global Distribution And Population Density Of An Invasive Large Mammal, Jesse S. Lewis, Mathew L. Farnsworth, Christopher L. Burdett, David M. Theobald, Miranda Gray, Ryan S. Miller 2017 Conservation Science Partners, Fort Collins, CO

Biotic And Abiotic Factors Predicting The Global Distribution And Population Density Of An Invasive Large Mammal, Jesse S. Lewis, Mathew L. Farnsworth, Christopher L. Burdett, David M. Theobald, Miranda Gray, Ryan S. Miller

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

Biotic and abiotic factors are increasingly acknowledged to synergistically shape broad-scale species distributions. However, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting species distributions is unclear. In particular, biotic factors, such as predation and vegetation, including those resulting from anthropogenic land-use change, are underrepresented in species distribution modeling, but could improve model predictions. Using generalized linear models and model selection techniques, we used 129 estimates of population density of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from 5 continents to evaluate the relative importance, magnitude, and direction of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting population density of an invasive large mammal ...


Session C-1: Ecosystem Disruption: Using Lab And Real-World Examples To Bring Changes In Earth’S Ecosystems To Life, Crystal Randall, Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Sowmya Anjur, Don Dosch 2017 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Session C-1: Ecosystem Disruption: Using Lab And Real-World Examples To Bring Changes In Earth’S Ecosystems To Life, Crystal Randall, Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Sowmya Anjur, Don Dosch

Sowmya Anjur

The magnitude of the changes occurring in Earth’s ecosystems seems difficult to tackle in the classroom and lab. Here we explore ways to demonstrate the changes in the Earth’s water and carbon cycles in the lab and bring them to life in real-world ecosystems in the classroom.


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