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Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith 2017 College of William and Mary

A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith

John Swaddle

Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a “sonic net”), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before ...


Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Human-altered landscapes often include structural features, such as higher levels of impervious surface cover (ISC) and less vegetation, that are likely to affect the transmission of avian vocalizations. We investigated the relationships between human habitat modifications and signal transmission by measuring four acoustic parameters—persistence, reverberation, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of broadcast tones, as well as absolute ambient noise level—in each of 39 avian breeding territories across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Using a geographic information system, we quantified the amounts of different habitat features (e.g., ISC, grass, trees) at each site; a principal component analysis was used to ...


Starlings Can Categorize Symmetry Differences In Dot Displays, John P. Swaddle, Stephen Pruett-Jones 2017 College of William and Mary

Starlings Can Categorize Symmetry Differences In Dot Displays, John P. Swaddle, Stephen Pruett-Jones

John Swaddle

Fluctuating asymmetry is an estimate of developmental stability and, in some cases, the asymmetry of morphological traits can reflect aspects of individual fitness. As asymmetry can be a marker for fitness, it has been proposed that organisms could use morphological asymmetry as a direct visual cue during inter‐ and intraspecific encounters. Despite some experimental evidence to support this prediction, the perceptual abilities of animals to detect and respond to symmetry differences have been largely overlooked. Studying the ability of animals to perceive symmetry and factors that affect this ability are crucial to assessing whether fluctuating asymmetry could be used as ...


Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success And Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study With Adult- Or Lifetime-Exposure In Zebra Finch, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, John P. Swaddle, Daniel A. Cristol 2017 Colorado State University - Pueblo

Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success And Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study With Adult- Or Lifetime-Exposure In Zebra Finch, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, John P. Swaddle, Daniel A. Cristol

John Swaddle

Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems ...


Blood Mercury Levels Of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications For The Evolution Of Mercury Resistance, Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Blood Mercury Levels Of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications For The Evolution Of Mercury Resistance, Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird species, maintaining a breeding population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on standardized diets ranging from 0.0–2.4 μg/g methylmercury. We applied a ...


Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton 2017 University of the Sunshine Coast

Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton

John Swaddle

Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these ...


Bioaccumulation Of Metallic Trace Elements And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities In Apfelbeckia Insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) (Diplopoda: Callipodida) From The Cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina (Serbia), Jelena Vranković, Slavica Borković-Mitić, Bojan Ilić, Milanka Radulović, Slaviša Milošević, Slobodan Makarov, Bojan Mitić 2017 University of Belgrade

Bioaccumulation Of Metallic Trace Elements And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities In Apfelbeckia Insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) (Diplopoda: Callipodida) From The Cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina (Serbia), Jelena Vranković, Slavica Borković-Mitić, Bojan Ilić, Milanka Radulović, Slaviša Milošević, Slobodan Makarov, Bojan Mitić

International Journal of Speleology

The concentration of 10 metallic trace elements or MTE (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr) was measured in specimens of the troglophilic millipede Apfelbeckia insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) and sediment of the cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina in western Serbia. Some MTE, like Fe and Mn, displayed much higher concentrations compared to other elements, both in the sediment and in the body of A. insculpta. On the other hand, estimation of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in both males and females of A. insculpta showed values greater than 1 for xenobiotic elements compared to those that are essential ...


Monitoring Macroalgae In The Great Bay Estuary For 2015, David M. Burdick, Arthur C. Mathieson, Sydney Nick, Chris Peter 2017 Jackson Estuarine Laboratory

Monitoring Macroalgae In The Great Bay Estuary For 2015, David M. Burdick, Arthur C. Mathieson, Sydney Nick, Chris Peter

PREP Publications

In 2015, five of the eight locations with fixed intertidal transects were sampled as part of the long-term effort to monitor macroalgae in the Great Bay Estuary. With the completion of the third year of the project, all eight locations have been sampled at least once, two years of data have been collected for four locations, and three years of data have been collected for one location, Monitoring results from 2015 show high levels of cover of nuisance green or red algae (Ulva and Gracilaria, respectively) at all sites sampled. Nuisance algae is characterized as fast-growing; it can interfere with ...


Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, Philippe Audra, Pavel Bosák, Fernando Gázquez, Didier Cailhol, Roman Skála, Lenka Lisá, Šárka Jonášová, Amos Frumkin, Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Asma Al-Farraj 2017 University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis

Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, Philippe Audra, Pavel Bosák, Fernando Gázquez, Didier Cailhol, Roman Skála, Lenka Lisá, Šárka Jonášová, Amos Frumkin, Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Asma Al-Farraj

International Journal of Speleology

Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave is a small cave in United Arab Emirates (UAE) that hosts a bat colony which is the source of guano deposits and peculiar centimeter-long yellowish stalactites. The mineralogy and geochemistry of these deposits were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ15N). Urea CO(NH2)2 was found to be the main compound of these stalactites, while allantoin C4H6N4O3 was found to be an accessory urea byproduct. This paper ...


Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. de Armas, Darren Mansfield 2017 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. De Armas, Darren Mansfield

Euscorpius

We recorded a pregnant female of the Central American bark stripped scorpion Centruroides thorellii (Kraepelin, 1891), which arrived to England as a stowaway in the bag of a woman that previously visited the Departments of Sacatepéquez, Sololá and San Marcos, Guatemala. On January 2, this C. thorellii female had a litter of three off-spring and three infertile eggs, but she has eaten them, probably as consequence of the stress caused by the hard travel and the environmental changes. We provide a map with the geographical distribution of this species and photos of the female detected in a British train.


Revbayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models And An Interactive Model-Specification Language, Sebastian Höhna, Michael J. Landis, Tracy A. Heath, Nicolas Lartillot, Brian R. Moore, John P. Huelsenbeck, Fredrik Ronquist 2017 University of California, Berkeley

Revbayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models And An Interactive Model-Specification Language, Sebastian Höhna, Michael J. Landis, Tracy A. Heath, Nicolas Lartillot, Brian R. Moore, John P. Huelsenbeck, Fredrik Ronquist

Tracy Heath

Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive ...


Total-Evidence Dating Under The Fossilized Birth–Death Process, Chi Zhang, Tanja Stadler, Serena Klopfstein, Tracy A. Heath, Fredrik Ronquist 2017 Swedish Museum of Natural History

Total-Evidence Dating Under The Fossilized Birth–Death Process, Chi Zhang, Tanja Stadler, Serena Klopfstein, Tracy A. Heath, Fredrik Ronquist

Tracy Heath

Bayesian total-evidence dating involves the simultaneous analysis of morphological data from the fossil record and morphological and sequence data from recent organisms, and it accommodates the uncertainty in the placement of fossils while dating the phylogenetic tree. Due to the flexibility of the Bayesian approach, total-evidence dating can also incorporate additional sources of information. Here, we take advantage of this and expand the analysis to include information about fossilization and sampling processes. Our work is based on the recently described fossilized birth–death (FBD) process, which has been used to model speciation, extinction, and fossilization rates that can vary over ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova

Euscorpius

We introduce a new system of classification for the subfamily Scorpioninae Latreille, 1802 which includes genera Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828, Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch, 1837, Pandiborellius Rossi, 2015 stat. n., Pandinoides Fet, 1997, Pandinops Birula, 1913, Pandinurus Fet, 1997, Pandinus (Pandinus) Thorell, 1876, Pandinus (Pandinopsis) Vachon, 1974 stat. n., Pandinus (Pandipalpus) Rossi, 2015 stat. n., and Scorpio Linné, 1758. We provide a checklist of 41 valid species and their synonyms of Pandinus sensu lato. We revise Horn of Africa genera Pandiborellius stat. n. and Pandinurus; all species are fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as ...


Effects Of Elephants On Vegetation Along A Fenceline Contrast In South Africa, Daniel Krieger, Sydney D. Gilmer 2017 Kent State University

Effects Of Elephants On Vegetation Along A Fenceline Contrast In South Africa, Daniel Krieger, Sydney D. Gilmer

Sydney Gilmer

Sydney Gilmer
Daniel Krieger
01/29/2017
Poster Abstract
 
Effects of elephants on vegetation along a fenceline contrast in South Africa
 
We assessed the degree of damage of two common plant species, marula Sclerocarya birrea and
the mountain aloe or flat-flowered aloe Aloe marlothii in two neighboring game reserves along a
fenceline with respect to the presence of African elephants Loxodonta africana. One of these
reserves, Thornybush, had 40-50 elephants while the other reserve, the Wits Rural facility,
contained no elephants, although elephants had broken into a select region briefly during a recent
drought. We measured the browse height of ...


Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Populations of the Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) have declined dramatically in recent years in eastern North America due to white-nose syndrome. Although M. septentrionalis was once common in parts of eastern North America, few studies have examined habitat selection of this species in an agricultural landscape. We used acoustical methods to quantify bat activity and construct a habitat model of M. septentrionalis in an intensively farmed area in the Midwestern United States, where mortality from white-nose syndrome has not yet been observed. Our study confirms that M. septentrionalis prefers forest and avoids open habitats in this agricultural region. The ...


The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, Sandy Avila 2017 University of California, Irvine School of Law

The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, Sandy Avila

Libraries' Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Nitrogen Sustainability: Impediments To Action And Communication, Eric E. Jorgensen 2017 USEPA

Nitrogen Sustainability: Impediments To Action And Communication, Eric E. Jorgensen

Journal of Environmental Sustainability

“Sustainability” is widely used to imply the presence of explicit consideration of environmentally friendly needs and that high societal-value is placed on those needs. However, it is abundantly clear after 30 years that talking about sustainability and achieving it are two entirely different things. The core concept underlying sustainability is that current human practices and activities be conducted so as to not degrade prospects for future generations. With nitrogen, conflicts about sustainability in-theory and sustainability in-practice are close to the surface because of nitrogen’s central role in food production and economic activity. Measures of nitrogen inputs commonly range as ...


Regressive Evolution In The Mexican Cave Tetra, Astyanax Mexicanus, Meredith E. Protas, Melissa Conrad, Joshua B. Gross, Clifford Tabin, Richard Borowsky 2017 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School

Regressive Evolution In The Mexican Cave Tetra, Astyanax Mexicanus, Meredith E. Protas, Melissa Conrad, Joshua B. Gross, Clifford Tabin, Richard Borowsky

Meredith Protas

Cave adapted animals generally have reduced pigmentation and eyes, but the evolutionary forces driving the reductions are unknown; Darwin famously questioned the role of natural selection in eye loss in cave fishes; “As it is difficult to imagine that eyes, although useless, could be in any way injurious to animals living in darkness, I attribute their loss wholly to disuse” [1]. We studied the genetic basis of this phenomenon in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, by mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining differences in eye/lens sizes and melanophore number between cave and surface fish. In addition, we ...


Do Elephants Eat More Trees When Less Grass Is Available? A Field Study In Kruger National Park, South Africa., Emily Goldberg 2017 Yale

Do Elephants Eat More Trees When Less Grass Is Available? A Field Study In Kruger National Park, South Africa., Emily Goldberg

Yale Day of Data

Although African bush elephants are often responsible for the majority of herbivore-driven savanna tree mortality, confusion remains regarding the factors that influence their diet. Some elephants either browse or graze almost exclusively, while others balance the two, and the determinants of this variation remain poorly understood. I seek to determine whether grass availability controls the proportion of woody plants in elephant diet and, therefore, the amount of damage elephants do to trees while foraging. Preliminary analysis using already-available data on grass biomass, elephant density, and elephant damage to trees suggest that tree damage is in fact negatively correlated with grass ...


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