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Investigating Genetic Differences Between Strains Of Janthinobacterium Lividum On Salamanders And In Their Environment, Rhiannon E. Black 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Investigating Genetic Differences Between Strains Of Janthinobacterium Lividum On Salamanders And In Their Environment, Rhiannon E. Black

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Community Involvement To Address A Long-Standing Invasive Species Problem: Aspects Of Civic Ecology In Practice, Rebecca W. Dolan, Kelly Harris, Mark Adler 2015 Butler University

Community Involvement To Address A Long-Standing Invasive Species Problem: Aspects Of Civic Ecology In Practice, Rebecca W. Dolan, Kelly Harris, Mark Adler

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Invasive non-native species (INS) are found in every city around the globe, but their impacts in urban settings as biological agents of visual pollution that block views of natural landscapes and disconnect citizens from nature are not as often addressed as comprehensively as their impacts in natural areas or agricultural settings. The multiple impacts of INS in cities make them ideal candidates for aspects of Civic Ecology Practice, where local environmental stewardship action is taken to enhance green infrastructure and community well-being in urban and other human-dominated systems. We present details of a community driven program focused on removal of ...


The Use Of Argumentation In Socio-Scientific Issues: Enhancing Evolutionary Biology Instruction, Heath R. Marchand 2015 The College at Brockport

The Use Of Argumentation In Socio-Scientific Issues: Enhancing Evolutionary Biology Instruction, Heath R. Marchand

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), further emphasis in science education is being placed on preparing students to become more informed voters regarding social, ethical, economic and political topics that affect contemporary society. Parallel to this shift is a stronger emphasis on integrating evolutionary theory as a unifying concept in the biological sciences. Given that evolution is one of the aforementioned topics commonly discussed and debated about in social and political arenas, ensuring that instruction provides students from all backgrounds a comprehensive understanding of its principals is becoming increasingly important in contemporary science education. Chapter II ...


Hemochromatosis: Niche Construction And The Genetic Domino Effect In The European Neolithic, John M. McCullough, Kathleen M. Heath, Alexis M. Smith 2015 University of Utah

Hemochromatosis: Niche Construction And The Genetic Domino Effect In The European Neolithic, John M. Mccullough, Kathleen M. Heath, Alexis M. Smith

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is caused by a potentially lethal recessive gene (HFE, C282Y allele) that increases iron absorption and reaches polymorphic levels in Northern European populations. Because persons carrying the allele absorb iron more readily than non-carriers, it has often been suggested HFE is an adaptation to anemia. We hypothesize positive selection for HFE began during or after the European Neolithic with the adoption of an iron-deficient high grain and dairying diet and consequent anemia, a finding confirmed in Neolithic and later European skeletons. HFE frequency compared with rate of lactase persistence in Eurasia yields a positive linear correlation coefficient ...


Chasin’ Tail In Southern Alabama: Delineating Programmed And Stimulus-Driven Grooming In Odocoileus Virginianus, Kyle Heine 2015 University of New Orleans

Chasin’ Tail In Southern Alabama: Delineating Programmed And Stimulus-Driven Grooming In Odocoileus Virginianus, Kyle Heine

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This study examined variation in ectoparasite density and grooming behavior of naturally occurring white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southwest Alabama. Stimulus-driven grooming as well as the intraspecific body size and vigilance principles of programmed grooming were tested. During the rut, males had a higher average tick (Ixodidae) density than females and exhibited complete separation of tick parasitism between non-rutting and rutting periods, supporting the vigilance principle. Stimulus-driven grooming was supported, as both fawns and yearlings had significantly higher fly (Hippoboscidae) and combined fly/tick densities than adults, and fawns oral groomed at a significantly higher rate than adults, even in ...


Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira 2015 Fundação Oswaldo Cruz

Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Some human parasites originated in prehominid ancestors in Africa. Nematode species, such as Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), hookworms and Trichuris trichiura are shared by humans and other close phylogenetic primates (Pan and Gorilla), showing that they infected a common ancestor to this group. When humans migrated from Africa to other continents they carried these parasites wherever climate conditions allowed parasite transmission from host to host. Other parasites, however, were acquired throughout human biological and social evolutive history when new territories were occupied. Paleoparasitology data is a valuable source to recover emergence and disappearance of parasite infections through analysis of archaeological remains ...


Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene McGuffie 2015 Northern Arizona University

Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene Mcguffie

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Human parasitism has obvious relationships to group size and composition, mobility, subsistence patterns, and rates of culture change. At their best, human endoparasites may be annoying; at their worst, some can cause death. Thus, an overall view of the parasite load of a prehistoric population can yield insights useful in interpreting past lifeways. With these thoughts in mind, we undertook a study of Desha Complex (6800-4800 B .C.) human feces recovered from Dust Devil Cave in southern Utah.


Movement, Habitat Selection, And Survival Of Female Wood Ducks (Aix Sponsa) And Ducklings At Long Point, Ontario., Matthew E. Dyson 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Movement, Habitat Selection, And Survival Of Female Wood Ducks (Aix Sponsa) And Ducklings At Long Point, Ontario., Matthew E. Dyson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nest box programs provide additional nesting opportunities for wood ducks throughout their breeding range. The purpose of my research was to understand habitat use and survival of wood ducks produced from nest boxes during the brood-rearing period. I used radio-telemetry to monitor female wood ducks and ducklings to 30 days post-hatch. Females showed the greatest selection for swamp, scrub-shrub, and emergent marsh habitats, and used emergent marsh most. Female survival was high (0.90, 95% CI = 0.81 – 1.0). Conversely, brood survival (0.47, 95% CI = 0.33 - 0.69) and duckling survival (0.18, 95% CI = 0.14 ...


Speciation In Western North America: Lomatium As An Example Of Diversification And Convergent Evolution, Edgar M. Sosa, Lauren Polito, Mckayla Stevens, Donald H. Mansfield, James F. Smith (Mentor) 2015 Boise State University

Speciation In Western North America: Lomatium As An Example Of Diversification And Convergent Evolution, Edgar M. Sosa, Lauren Polito, Mckayla Stevens, Donald H. Mansfield, James F. Smith (Mentor)

Idaho Conference on Undergraduate Research

Species delimitations and understanding the processes that drive speciation are essential to nearly all aspects of human endeavor. Determining species boundaries traditionally used morphology. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequence data provide a means to resolve species boundaries, as well as test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary processes. Numerous species radiations have occurred in Western North America. Among these are several plant groups such as Astragalus, Artemisia, and Lomatium. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Lomatium and related genera have demonstrated that many of the morphological characters used to delimit taxa have arisen multiple times and that most taxa are para- or polyphyletic ...


Climate Warming Reduces Essential Fatty Acid Production In Algae, Michael T. Arts, Stefanie M. Hixson, Samantha Mercieca 2015 Ryerson University

Climate Warming Reduces Essential Fatty Acid Production In Algae, Michael T. Arts, Stefanie M. Hixson, Samantha Mercieca

21st International Conference on Environmental Indicators (ICEI 2015)

No abstract provided.


Resilience Thinking And Structured Decision Making In Social-Ecological Systems, Noelle M. Hart 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Resilience Thinking And Structured Decision Making In Social-Ecological Systems, Noelle M. Hart

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Natural resource management may be improved by synthesizing approaches for framing and addressing complex social-ecological issues. This dissertation examines how structured decision making processes, including adaptive management, can incorporate resilience thinking. Structured decision making is a process for establishing a solid understanding of the problem, values, management options, and potential consequences. Adaptive management is a form of structured decision making in which uncertainty is reduced for iterative decisions through designed monitoring and review. Resilience thinking can help conceptualize complex social-ecological systems and draws attention to the risks of managing for narrowly-focused objectives.

This dissertation provides practical advice to managers and ...


A Search For Parent-Of-Origin Effects On Honey Bee Gene Expression, Sarah D. Kocher, Jennifer M. Tsuruda, Joshua D. Gibson, Christine M. Emore, Miguel E. Arechavaleta-Velasco, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann, Christina M. Grozinger, Michael R. Gribskov, Phillip San Miguel, Rick Westerman, Greg J. Hunt 2015 Washington University in St Louis

A Search For Parent-Of-Origin Effects On Honey Bee Gene Expression, Sarah D. Kocher, Jennifer M. Tsuruda, Joshua D. Gibson, Christine M. Emore, Miguel E. Arechavaleta-Velasco, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann, Christina M. Grozinger, Michael R. Gribskov, Phillip San Miguel, Rick Westerman, Greg J. Hunt

Biology Faculty Publications

Parent-specific gene expression (PSGE) is little known outside of mammals and plants. PSGE occurs when the expression level of a gene depends on whether an allele was inherited from the mother or the father. Kin selection theory predicts that there should be extensive PSGE in social insects because social insect parents can gain inclusive fitness benefits by silencing parental alleles in female offspring. We searched for evidence of PSGE in honey bees using transcriptomes from reciprocal crosses between European and Africanized strains. We found 46 transcripts with significant parent-of-origin effects on gene expression, many of which overexpressed the maternal allele ...


Dietary Strategies For Mitigation Of Methane Production By Growing And Finishing Cattle, Anna C. Pesta 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dietary Strategies For Mitigation Of Methane Production By Growing And Finishing Cattle, Anna C. Pesta

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Interest in reducing methane (CH4) emissions by cattle has increased recently. Loss of feed energy as CH4 represents both an environmental concern and an energetic loss to the animal. Manipulation of dietary composition has proven to be an effective mitigation strategy. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of several dietary characteristics on CH4 production in growing and finishing cattle, and to develop a novel, non-invasive method for quantifying emissions from animals in a production setting. Short-term gaseous emissions of CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and the CH4:CO2 was used ...


Ecology And Morphology Of The Late Miocene Musk Deer, Longirostromeryx Wellsi (Artiodactyla: Moschidae: Blastomerycinae), Katheryn Y. C. Chen 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ecology And Morphology Of The Late Miocene Musk Deer, Longirostromeryx Wellsi (Artiodactyla: Moschidae: Blastomerycinae), Katheryn Y. C. Chen

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Longirostromeryx wellsi, one of the latest surviving members of the extinct clade Blastomerycinae (Artiodactyla: Moschidae), possesses highly derived craniodental morphology that deviates from typical musk deer form. Previous work suggests that the unique anatomy of L. wellsi represents adaptations for occupying open savannas. To test this hypothesis I conduct principal components analysis on five postcranial bones of L. wellsi, comparing them to that of several extant ruminant artiodactyls, which are divided among seven habitat categories. These elements are also compared with the postcrania of other blastomerycines. These analyses indicate that L. wellsi anatomy is most similar to that of other ...


Sediment Loss Of Santa Rosa Island Slopes: An Erosional Study, Michael Perez 2015 CSU Long Beach

Sediment Loss Of Santa Rosa Island Slopes: An Erosional Study, Michael Perez

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Ranching began on Santa Rosa Island in the 1840’s, consequently introducing nonnative megafauna that put novel selective grazing pressures on endemic plant species. Their movement patterns also altered sediment integrity as the land was denuded of any stabilizing vegetation. Dense groves of island oak (Q. tomentella) are known to aid in sediment deposition and retention. The groves also function to collect water during periods of intense fog that are common to the island. This experiment sought to quantify the volume of sediment that has been lost on a south facing slope in the middle of the island that contains ...


Performance Variation In Leptasterias Spp. Among Populations And Habitats, Caleb Shaw, Sarah Cohen 2015 University of New Hampshire - Main Campus

Performance Variation In Leptasterias Spp. Among Populations And Habitats, Caleb Shaw, Sarah Cohen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Leptasterias spp. are six rayed sea stars that are found in rocky intertidal habitats ranging from the California coast to Alaska. In central California, Leptasterias spp. can be found in a variety of intertidal habitats in mixed populations. There are multiple clades that represent these populations and it is thought that they may vary behaviorally, including habitat preference. To investigate this individuals were collected from Pigeon Point, San Mateo, CA and characterized into two habitat categories according to where they were found: rocky habitat and pool habitat. To test for behavioral variation among habitats, righting response was used as a ...


Do Marine Protected Areas Affect Emerging Fisheries Population Density?, Jennifer Greene, Katherine O. Grady, Crow White, Danielle Zacherl 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Do Marine Protected Areas Affect Emerging Fisheries Population Density?, Jennifer Greene, Katherine O. Grady, Crow White, Danielle Zacherl

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Kellet’s whelk, Kelletia kelletii, were observed at sample sites throughout their range from Baja California, Mexico, to Monterey, CA to determine patterns of population density. Sample sites in each region were either located within California marine protected areas where take of the Kellet’s whelk in prohibited, or in non-protected areas where the whelks can be fished both commercially and recreationally. Kellet’s whelk population density was compared between all MPA and non-MPA sample sites. These mean densities were also found for sites in Santa Barbara and San Diego near active fishing ports and compared to data from the ...


Winter Freeze Decreases The Emergence Of Fauna And Flora In California Vernal Pools, Korena S. Hendryx, Jamie Kneitel 2015 California State University - Sacramento

Winter Freeze Decreases The Emergence Of Fauna And Flora In California Vernal Pools, Korena S. Hendryx, Jamie Kneitel

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Impacts of global climate change is observed in many ecological systems. Temporary aquatic ecosystems, including California vernal pools, are especially sensitive to climatic variation, but most species are adapted to the annual fluctuations in precipitation and temperature. Since vernal pools experience an inundation and desiccation every year, species that occupy the ecosystem have adaptations to this cycle. Many species survive drought by creating resting eggs to then re-emerge upon inundation However, climate changes outside the typical range may have deleterious effects on these populations. Moreover, climate variation can have secondary effects on the community. For example, the amount of precipitation ...


Monitoring Abundance Of Carcinus Maenas Developmental Stages In Seadrift Lagoon, Andrea M. Fieber 2015 California Polytechnic State University

Monitoring Abundance Of Carcinus Maenas Developmental Stages In Seadrift Lagoon, Andrea M. Fieber

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Able to tolerate a wide range of habitats, temperatures, and salinities, Carcinus maenas thrives in much of its non-native range, out-competing native crabs for resources while diminishing food supplies for a variety of marine and estuarine organisms. In Seadrift Lagoon, a manmade inlet of Bolinas Lagoon in Marin County, California, green crabs comprise a significant portion of benthic fauna, and trapping efforts began in 2009 to eradicate them. We analyzed several years of trapping data to monitor demographic changes for this closed population, performed larvae and megalopae sampling with pot scrubbers, and counted eggs on ovigerous females captured in Seadrift ...


Radiocarbon Isotopic Classification Of Deep Tropical Forest Soils, Brooke Butler, Karis J. McFarlane, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Katherine A. Heckman 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Radiocarbon Isotopic Classification Of Deep Tropical Forest Soils, Brooke Butler, Karis J. Mcfarlane, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Katherine A. Heckman

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Tropical forest soils have an important role in global carbon (C) stocks. Small changes in the cycling of C could drastically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and active cycling of carbon in a forest community. Currently, little is understood of how tropical forest soils will respond to the increasing global temperatures. To examine the effects of warming/ drought on losses of older versus younger soil C pools, we implemented radiocarbon (14C) isotopic characterization of various soil plot samples and depths from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. 14C was measured using Accelerated Mass Spectrometry (AMS) from catalytically condensed carbon ...


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