Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

10163 Full-Text Articles 16670 Authors 1375792 Downloads 220 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

10163 full-text articles. Page 1 of 297.

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb 2017 Utah State University

Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Following a wildfire, land management agencies act quickly to protect ecosystem services. We don't currently understand how post-wildfire managers make trade-off decisions in these tight timelines, or if these decisions reflect current science. Using Brunson’s (2014) social-ecological systems multi-scalar model, surveys assessed manager opinions about post-wildfire projects, perceptions of stakeholder opinions, and ability or willingness to consider new science results. Public surveys asked local citizens their opinions about post-wildfire projects. Manager perceptions were measured through semi-structured phone interviews (n = 8) and a structured online survey (n = 256). Public surveys were mailed to 1,000 (971 deliverable, n = 152 ...


Ecology, Evolution, And Sexual Selection In The Invasive, Globally Distributed Small Indian Mongoose (Urva Auropunctata), M. Aaron Owen 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Ecology, Evolution, And Sexual Selection In The Invasive, Globally Distributed Small Indian Mongoose (Urva Auropunctata), M. Aaron Owen

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Introduced species provide rare opportunities to test evolutionary hypotheses in situ by creating so-called natural experiments. Natural experiments are situations in nature that resemble laboratory studies by allowing for comparisons of a “control” group (i.e., a species’ native range) with “experimental” groups (i.e., a species’ introduced range). In particular, introduced animals allow us to investigate evolutionary dynamics in complex, long-lived organisms in ways that would otherwise be impossible in a laboratory setting. One such introduced animal is the small Indian mongoose (Urva auropunctata, formerly Herpestes auropunctatus). Native to South Asia, the small Indian mongoose’s introduction to more ...


Editor's Note On `Putting Fossils In Trees' Special Issue, April M. Wright 2017 Iowa State University

Editor's Note On `Putting Fossils In Trees' Special Issue, April M. Wright

April Wright

This special issue has its origins with a 2014 symposium organized by myself and my co-editors David W. Bapst, Graeme T. Lloyd and Nicholas J. Matzke at the Society for Vertebrate Paleontology meetings in Berlin, Germany. In the two years prior to 2014, there had been several interesting and important papers published [1] [2] [3][4] about estimating phylogenetic trees incorporating fossil taxa, and particularly involving Bayesian analyses. Some of these papers were written from a neontological perspective, and appeared in journals not often read by paleontologists. We convened our session with a simple idea: to get di#11;erent ...


Evolvability: What Is It And How Do We Get It?, Matthew Moreno 2017 University of Puget Sound

Evolvability: What Is It And How Do We Get It?, Matthew Moreno

Honors Program Theses

Biological organisms exhibit spectacular adaptation to their environments. However, another marvel of biology lurks behind the adaptive traits that organisms exhibit over the course of their lifespans: it is hypothesized that biological organisms also exhibit adaptation to the evolutionary process itself. That is, biological organisms are thought to possess traits that facilitate evolution. The term evolvability was coined to describe this type of adaptation. The question of evolvability has special practical relevance to computer science researchers engaged in longstanding efforts to harness evolution as an algorithm for automated design. It is hoped that a more nuanced understanding of biological evolution ...


Topology, Divergence Dates, And Macroevolutionary Inferences Vary Between Different Tip-Dating Approaches Applied To Fossil Theropods (Dinosauria), D. W. Bapst, A. M. Wright, N. J. Matzke, G. T. Lloyd 2017 South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Topology, Divergence Dates, And Macroevolutionary Inferences Vary Between Different Tip-Dating Approaches Applied To Fossil Theropods (Dinosauria), D. W. Bapst, A. M. Wright, N. J. Matzke, G. T. Lloyd

April Wright

Dated phylogenies of fossil taxa allow palaeobiologists to estimate the timing of major divergences and placement of extinct lineages, and to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Recently developed Bayesian ‘tip-dating’ methods simultaneously infer and date the branching relationships among fossil taxa, and infer putative ancestral relationships. Using a previously published dataset for extinct theropod dinosaurs, we contrast the dated relationships inferred by several tip-dating approaches and evaluate potential downstream effects on phylogenetic comparative methods. We also compare tip-dating analyses to maximum-parsimony trees time-scaled via alternative a posteriori approaches including via the probabilistic cal3 method. Among tip-dating analyses, we find opposing but stronglysupported ...


Adaptive Therapy: Modeling Evolutionary Principles In Anticancer Therapy, Jeffrey B. West 2017 University of Southern California

Adaptive Therapy: Modeling Evolutionary Principles In Anticancer Therapy, Jeffrey B. West

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Wildlife Monitoring Techniques In Riparian Ecosystems Of The Western United States, Shelan Zuhdi 2017 University of San Francisco

A Comparison Of Wildlife Monitoring Techniques In Riparian Ecosystems Of The Western United States, Shelan Zuhdi

Master's Projects and Capstones

Many riparian restoration projects in the western United States have not implemented monitoring plans. This lack of wildlife monitoring has resulted in a loss riparian ecosystem services and missed opportunities to conserve them. Data collected from wildlife monitoring assists researchers, policymakers, and stakeholders in efficiently allocating time and resources to improve the effectiveness of resource management. This paper discusses the level of feasibility and practicality as a sum of the benefits, limitations, and financial costs for each of the following mammal and avian monitoring methods: wildlife camera trapping, GPS devices, mark-recapture, fecal DNA surveying, circular plot point counts, mist-net transects ...


The Impact Of Anthropocentrism On Christian Environmentalism, Alexis Grasse 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Impact Of Anthropocentrism On Christian Environmentalism, Alexis Grasse

Dialogue & Nexus

This paper will discuss the effects of anthropocentrism in Christian theology, doctrine, and environmentalism. The development and history of Christian environmentalism will be examined, with emphasis on the time since the 1960s, when environmentalism came to the forefront in the Western world. Alternative interpretations and worldviews, mainly ecocentrism and biocentrism, will be considered and compared to the prevalent anthropocentric view. I will close with a presentation of two possible means for developing a Christian ecological theology without anthropocentrism. An environmental position most coherent with Christian principles will be left open to the reader; my purpose is to examine the impact ...


Human Evolution And Divine Agency, Alexandra Rakestraw 2017 Abilene Christian University

Human Evolution And Divine Agency, Alexandra Rakestraw

Dialogue & Nexus

Modern Christians often find themselves at a crossroads when confronted with the two predominant understandings of human and universal origins. Plain sense readings of Genesis lead many to believe in a historical six-day creation that occurred in the past ten thousand years while proponents on the other side of the spectrum use current scientific understanding to support a creation that occurs through evolutionary means. How one views human origins has a profound impact on one’s concept of how God works in the cosmos. In this paper, I will lay out a background to better understand the characters of Adam ...


Moral Awareness, Original Sin And The Atonement, Tanner Gregory 2017 Abilene Christian University

Moral Awareness, Original Sin And The Atonement, Tanner Gregory

Dialogue & Nexus

I will explore how evolution impacts the Christian notion of The Fall of man, and, ultimately, the atonement. Various theories of atonement in the Christian tradition generally assume universal and individual sinfulness in humanity. In some cases, this sinfulness is thought to be the result of a distinct moment of rebellion against God, and is transmitted to all of the descendants of Adam. Here, atonement involves Christ’s sacrifice as the means liberate humanity from the bondage of our sinful nature. Evolution collides with these traditional models. Instead of a creation originally void of death and later corrupted by sin ...


Race Relations: A Dialogue Between Science And Theology On The Basis Of Race, Shanice Latham 2017 Abilene Christian University

Race Relations: A Dialogue Between Science And Theology On The Basis Of Race, Shanice Latham

Dialogue & Nexus

When the topic of race is breached the emotions expressed can range from extreme feelings of guilt to extreme feelings of anger. Why is a word that is, today, commonly associated with a person’s skin color and other physical characteristics responsible for such strong emotional reactions? Much of the violence, poverty, injustice, and hurt in the world has been and is caused by racial division. With the continued use of such an arbitrary system as race these issues will continue to persist and deteriorate. This paper will explore the origin, as well as scientific and theological perspectives of race ...


“Bone Of My Bones And Flesh Of My Flesh”: A Feminist Analysis Of Christianity, Evolutionary Theory, And The Provenance Of Patriarchy, Heather Bishop 2017 Abilene Christian University

“Bone Of My Bones And Flesh Of My Flesh”: A Feminist Analysis Of Christianity, Evolutionary Theory, And The Provenance Of Patriarchy, Heather Bishop

Dialogue & Nexus

While perceived by many as conflicting in nearly every sphere, science and religion both play an important role in the promotion of patriarchal ideologies. My research has found that neither Christianity nor evolutionary theory are inherently patriarchal, neither do they justify patriarchy. Instead, it is the misinterpretation and misuse of these subjects that contribute to the justification of patriarchy for the deep-seated goal of reproductive power. I will show this by analyzing theological themes present throughout the Christian scriptures, as well as investigating findings of evolutionary psychology and hominid ancestry. The implication of this study is that there is no ...


Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan 2017 Abilene Christian University

Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan

Dialogue & Nexus

No abstract provided.


Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann 2017 UMaine

Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unsexual Salamanders within the Blue-Spotted Salamander Complex carry combinations of ambystomatid genomes (those of Blue-Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum in Maine). They are nearly all female, breed in wetlands, and use sperm of related species to reproduce. Little is known about their ecology to guide the conservation of this unique lineage. I examined breeding site occupancy, demographics, orientation, and terrestrial habitat selection of Unisexual Salamanders in comparison to Blue-Spotted Salamanders and other amphibians. I compared statistical tests of orientation to determine which was most appropriate for pitfall data.

Unisexual Salamander occupancy at breeding sites was positively ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Population Ecology Of Colonially Breeding Seabirds: How Intrinsic Processes, Mediating Influences, And Individual Heterogeneity Affect Population Vital Rates, Aly McKnight 2017 University of Maine - Main

Population Ecology Of Colonially Breeding Seabirds: How Intrinsic Processes, Mediating Influences, And Individual Heterogeneity Affect Population Vital Rates, Aly Mcknight

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Seabirds have great potential to serve as marine indicators. However, before we can interpret seabird trends with confidence, we need a better understanding of the role of intrinsic processes, mediating influences, and lifetime experience in modulating relationships between prey availability and seabird population dynamics.

Intrinsic processes, mediating influences, and seabird productivity. I assessed productivity (chicks per breeding attempt) at Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) colonies in Prince William Sound, AK and managed Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) colonies in the Gulf of Maine. Both systems showed evidence of intrinsic control; factors mediating access to prey were also important.

Mediating influences, individual heterogeneity ...


The Relationship Between Sex And Territorial Behavior In The San Cristóbal Lava Lizard (Microlophus Bivittatus), Meghan N. Koenig 2017 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

The Relationship Between Sex And Territorial Behavior In The San Cristóbal Lava Lizard (Microlophus Bivittatus), Meghan N. Koenig

All College Thesis Program

The purpose of this study is to learn more about the territorial behavior of the San Cristóbal lava lizard (Microlophus bivittatus). It was hypothesized that, due to competition for mates, competition would be higher amid individuals of the same sex than between individuals that were opposite sexes. This hypothesis was not supported by the data collected, as females were observed interacting more with other females than other males but males were observed interacting more with females than other males. This is likely a result of a sex ratio of two females to one male and the territory structure of the ...


Restoration Of Native Baboon-Plant Mutualisms Following Biocontrol Of The Invasive Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia Stricta) In Kenya, Marissa A. Dyck 2017 University of Wyoming

Restoration Of Native Baboon-Plant Mutualisms Following Biocontrol Of The Invasive Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia Stricta) In Kenya, Marissa A. Dyck

Honors Theses AY 16/17

When mammals select for fleshy fruits of introduced species, subsequent seed dispersal may increase a potential invader’s rate of establishment and spread. We assessed whether olive baboons (Papio anubis) select for the fruits of an invasive prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta) on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya. Baboons function as seed dispersers for native flora across many regions of Africa. By eating the fleshy fruits of O. stricta, they also facilitate the establishment and spread of the cactus. We collected scats from eight baboon roosts; the seeds in the scats were identified to species and then counted and weighed ...


Non-Native Mangroves Of Moloka'i, Hawai'i: A Socio-Ecological Analysis, Casey Lewis 2017 Portland State University

Non-Native Mangroves Of Moloka'i, Hawai'i: A Socio-Ecological Analysis, Casey Lewis

Student Research Symposium

Invasive species are recognized as a leading threat to ecosystems and their management is expensive, time consuming, and labor intensive. Therefore, it is important to review both benefits and detriments of the species to inform appropriate management decisions. Red mangrove was introduced to Moloka'i, Hawaii in 1902 to mitigate the effects of soil erosion and has since spread along the coast and to adjacent islands creating novel habitat. This study assessed both biological services and social attitudes towards Moloka'i's non-native mangroves to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the species. Zooplankton community structure was examined in mangrove and ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress