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Investigating Genetic Differences Between Strains Of Janthinobacterium Lividum On Salamanders And In Their Environment, Rhiannon E. Black 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Investigating Genetic Differences Between Strains Of Janthinobacterium Lividum On Salamanders And In Their Environment, Rhiannon E. Black

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Development Of Genomic Resources For The Evaluation Of Red Snapper, An Emerging Species Candidate For Marine Aquaculture And Stock Enhancement, Adrienne Elise Norrell 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Genomic Resources For The Evaluation Of Red Snapper, An Emerging Species Candidate For Marine Aquaculture And Stock Enhancement, Adrienne Elise Norrell

Master's Theses

The northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is a highly targeted reef fish candidate for marine aquaculture and stock enhancement in the southern United States. This work aimed to develop genomic resources for the genetic management of aquaculture programs and to investigate population structure using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Eighty-four new microsatellite markers were developed through screening of Illumina paired-end sequencing reads. Microsatellite loci and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) generated through Restriction Site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing were assayed in 5 outbred full-sib families to construct a high-density linkage map of the red snapper genome. The map consists of 7,964 markers ...


Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, Patrick Daniel Gillam 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, Patrick Daniel Gillam

Master's Theses

In recent years, the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (DMR) has made a concerted effort to enhance its coastal fishery resources by creating artificial reefs. Through this effort, 73 nearshore reefs have been created across the MS coast. Different substrate types used to construct MS artificial reefs include oyster shell and cement rubble. Two types of reef architecture used include high profile breakwater and low profile submerged structures. This study compared the benthic biota associated with oyster shell and cement rubble substrates among four artificial reefs representing high and low profile structures in summer 2011. Colonized benthic biota were quantified ...


Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman

Master's Theses

Young Adult (YA) dystopias, in recent years, have imagined a future world fueled by the overuse and misuse of technology, the advancement of science for human gain, as well as societies ruled by governments that govern based on their own self-interests and economic gain. Such novels have opened the door for discussion about how the present-day actions of societies can impact the future of the environment; yet many only focus their attention on societies in the North— regions considered “developed” by the western world. In her YA novel, Orleans (2014), Sherri L. Smith focuses attention on the aftermath of Hurricane ...


Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava

Biology Theses

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity via mechanisms that include altering the dynamics and structure of native food webs. Whereas much research has focused on how exotic species respond to native predators, less is known about how native predators are affected by invasive prey. Here I investigate the response of a rare and threatened native predator—the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) to a high-profile invasive crayfish species, Orconectes rusticus. Hellbenders have declined throughout much of their range, and although the potential for exotic predators (i.e. sport fish) to negatively impact C. alleganiensis has been addressed, effects of exotic prey on ...


Addressing Misconceptions About Evolution, Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Don Dosch 2016 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Addressing Misconceptions About Evolution, Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Don Dosch

Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll

"Leave with effective ways to identify and address misconceptions about evolution, with a particular focus on supporting explanations with evidence."


"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Safina’s fascinating series of fifty separate feuilletons tries to bridge a painful Methodenstreit in contemporary ethology mainly by an accumulation of anecdotes. Some deal with his own dogs, but most derive from reading or conversing with observers of a wider range of social mammals including elephants, wolves, apes, and whales. In spite of the many interruptions by travesties of the academic lifestyle and its literature, there is a point to be made, concerning the centrality of evidence about cooperative behavior styles, especially aspects of child-rearing, for the understanding of “what animals think and feel.” But Safina’s argument would ...


The Effects Of Egg-Incubation Temperature On Growth And Survival Of Hatchling Painted Turtles, Daniel Warner, Timothy Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen II 2016 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Egg-Incubation Temperature On Growth And Survival Of Hatchling Painted Turtles, Daniel Warner, Timothy Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen Ii

Fredric Janzen

The environmental conditions that reptile embryos experience during development have profound effects on many offspring traits. For example, incubation temperature affects offspring body size, growth rate, running performance, and even gender—all phenotypic traits that are important for survival and reproduction (i.e., fitness). Although these effects on fitness-related traits are well known, very few studies have evaluated the long-term consequences of incubation temperature on survival and reproduction, particularly in long-lived species.


Nest-Site Philopatry And The Evolution Of Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination, Nicole M. Valenzuela, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Nest-Site Philopatry And The Evolution Of Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination, Nicole M. Valenzuela, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Despite intensive research, there is no clear empirical evidence to explain the evolution and persistence of temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. A recent hypothesis presented by Reinhold proposes that natal homing could lead directly to the evolution of temperature-dependent sex determination. According to his hypothesis, daughters are produced in rare high-quality sites (associated with higher survival rates) to which they return and use to nest, thus deriving higher fitness than sons for whom the quality of the natal patch does not affect their reproductive output if they survive to maturity. We performed an initial empirical evaluation of several assumptions and ...


Effects Of Overwintering Conditions On Nesting Behavior Of Painted Turtles, Timothy Mitchell, Cecilia Hinsley, Fredric J. Janzen II 2016 Iowa State University

Effects Of Overwintering Conditions On Nesting Behavior Of Painted Turtles, Timothy Mitchell, Cecilia Hinsley, Fredric J. Janzen Ii

Fredric Janzen

For painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and many other reptiles, the temperature experienced by developing eggs determines whether the embryo will become a male or a female. Animals with this temperaturedependent sex determination (TSD) are vulnerable to rapid climate change, as consistent, directional changes in climate may result in detrimental population sex-ratio shifts. Yet, many animals with TSD have persisted for millions of years, through many periods of global warming and cooling. How have these animals evolved to maintain healthy sex ratios, despite this apparent vulnerability?


Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair III, Carol M. Vleck 2016 Iowa State University

Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair Iii, Carol M. Vleck

Carol Vleck

In Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligator), body length increases with age, but body length can be used as an accurate estimator of age only up to about 6–7 years, when growth rates slow considerably. Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences that cap the ends of each chromosome. Telomeres shorten with age in most animals, but telomere shortening has not been examined in reptiles. We measured telomere length in erythrocytes of A. mississippiensis varying between ≈ 5 and 240 cm in body length and found a negative relationship between telomere length and body length (P < 0.01). Assuming that erythrocyte telomeres continue to shorten with time, even after growth rate declines, those individuals with the shortest telomeres should be the oldest members of the population. This method of estimating age, even in animals of similar body size, should allow questions about age structure and senescence to be addressed.


Maternity Colony Of Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In A Human-Made Structure In Nebraska, Rachel M. Stein, Jeremy A. White 2016 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Maternity Colony Of Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In A Human-Made Structure In Nebraska, Rachel M. Stein, Jeremy A. White

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Northern Long-eared Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) occurs across eastern North America, and its range extends west into the Great Plains of the United States. Summer roosts of M. septentrionalis in the Great Plains are not well documented. Herein we describe a maternity colony of M. septentrionalis using small, elevated structures (i.e., cabins) in southeastern Nebraska. Cabins were in a small parcel of upland deciduous forest about 1.6 km from the Missouri River. The maternity colony was observed roosting in a space between the outer and inner walls of three different cabins from 21 June to 8 October 2014 ...


Macropattern Of Styloid And Druse Crystals In Quillaja (Quillajaceae) Bark And Leaves, Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner 2016 Iowa State University

Macropattern Of Styloid And Druse Crystals In Quillaja (Quillajaceae) Bark And Leaves, Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner

Harry Horner

Quillaja has been shuffled among tribes and subfamilies of Rosaceae, segregated from it as a separate family, and, most recently, transferred to the Fabales as a separate family. Many anomalous characters have kept it from being settled anywhere permanently. One character never mentioned by systematists, but long known, is the anomalous (for Rosaceae) occurrence of prominent styloid calcium oxalate crystals, reported from the inner bark of stems. We describe in more detail the macropattern of crystal distribution in stem and leaf, using vibratome sections, sodium hypochlorite clearings of leaves, and polarizing and scanning electron microscopy. Styloids are extremely numerous in ...


Animals Are Agents, Linda A.W. Brakel 2016 University of Michigan

Animals Are Agents, Linda A.W. Brakel

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Mark Rowlands’s (2016) target article invites us to consider individuals in a broad subset of the non-human animal world as genuine persons. His account features animals reacting to salient environmental stimuli as Gibsonian affordances, which is indicative of “pre-reflective self-awareness.” He holds that such pre-reflective self-awareness is both “immune to error through misidentification” (Shoemaker, 1968) and a necessary precursor to reflective consciousness and personhood. I agree. In this commentary I hope to extend Rowlands’s work with a view in which agency is an even more fundamental precursor and one can (and should) consider individuals throughout the entire animal ...


Seeding Method Influences Warm-Season Grass Abundance And Distribution But Not Local Diversity In Grassland Restoration, Kathryn Anne Yurkonis, Brian J. Wilsey, Kirk A. Moloney, Pauline Drobney, Diane L. Larson 2016 Iowa State University

Seeding Method Influences Warm-Season Grass Abundance And Distribution But Not Local Diversity In Grassland Restoration, Kathryn Anne Yurkonis, Brian J. Wilsey, Kirk A. Moloney, Pauline Drobney, Diane L. Larson

Kirk Moloney

Ecological theory predicts that the arrangement of seedlings in newly restored communities may influence future species diversity and composition. We test the prediction that smaller distances between neighboring seeds in drill seeded grassland plantings would result in lower species diversity, greater weed abundance, and larger conspecific patch sizes than otherwise similar broadcast seeded plantings. A diverse grassland seed mix was either drill seeded, which places seeds in equally spaced rows, or broadcast seeded, which spreads seeds across the ground surface, into 24 plots in each of three sites in 2005. In summer 2007, we measured species abundance in a 1 ...


Constraints On The Establishment Of Plants Along A Fluctuating Water-Depth Gradient, Eric W. Seabloom, Kirk A. Moloney, Arnold G. van der Valk 2016 Iowa State University

Constraints On The Establishment Of Plants Along A Fluctuating Water-Depth Gradient, Eric W. Seabloom, Kirk A. Moloney, Arnold G. Van Der Valk

Kirk Moloney

We used simulation modeling to investigate the relative importance of current environmental conditions and factors affecting establishment of different plant species on the formation of vegetative zonation patterns. We compared the results from a series of six models that incorporated increasing amounts of information about key factors affecting species' ability to adjust to water-level fluctuations. We assessed model accuracy using aerial photographs taken of a 10-yr field experiment, in which 10 wetlands were flooded to 1 m above normal water level for 2 yr, drawn down for 1 or 2 yr, and reflooded for 5 yr to three different water ...


Finding The Missing Link Between Landscape Structure And Population Dynamics: A Spatially Explicit Perspective, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Javier Naves, Felix Knauer 2016 UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research

Finding The Missing Link Between Landscape Structure And Population Dynamics: A Spatially Explicit Perspective, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Javier Naves, Felix Knauer

Kirk Moloney

We construct and explore a general modeling framework that allows for a systematic investigation of the impact of changes in landscape structure on population dynamics. The essential parts of the framework are a landscape generator with independent control over landscape composition and physiognomy, an individual-based spatially explicit population model that simulates population dynamics within heterogeneous landscapes, and scale-dependent landscape indices that depict the essential aspects of landscape that interact with dispersal and demographic processes. Landscape maps are represented by a grid of 50#50 cells and consist of good-quality, poorquality, or uninhabitable matrix habitat cells. The population model was shaped ...


The Karoo: Ecological Patterns And Processes, Kirk A. Moloney 2016 Iowa State University

The Karoo: Ecological Patterns And Processes, Kirk A. Moloney

Kirk Moloney

This book consists of chapters that examine a wide range of topics concerning the ecology of the little known, arid karoo of South Arica: "a vast region of rugged landscapes and low treeless vegetation" (p xxi). The karoo has a very high level of species diver sity and endemism, particularly the flora that "probably exceeds 7000 species of which up to 50% are endemic" (p 44). This fact alone makes the karoo an extremely interesting ecological system suitable of book-length treatment, particularly if it is well done, as in this case.


Population Dynamics, Disturbance, And Pattern Evolution: Identifying The Fundamental Scales Of Organization In A Model Ecosystem, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Suzanne J. Milton 2016 UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research

Population Dynamics, Disturbance, And Pattern Evolution: Identifying The Fundamental Scales Of Organization In A Model Ecosystem, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Suzanne J. Milton

Kirk Moloney

We used auto- and cross-correlation analysis and Ripley’s K-function analysis to analyze spatiotemporal pattern evolution in a spatially explicit simulation model of a semiarid shrubland (Karoo, South Africa) and to determine the impact of small-scale disturbances on system dynamics. Without disturbance, local dynamics were driven by a pattern of cyclic succession, where ‘‘colonizer’’ and ‘‘successor’’ species alternately replaced each other. This results in a strong pattern of negative correlation in the temporal distribution of colonizer and successor species. As disturbance rates were increased, the relationship shifted from being negatively correlated in time to being positively correlated—the dynamics became ...


The Effects Of Disturbance Architecture On Landscape-Level Population Dynamics, Kirk A. Moloney, Simon A. Levin 2016 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Disturbance Architecture On Landscape-Level Population Dynamics, Kirk A. Moloney, Simon A. Levin

Kirk Moloney

Phenomena such as disturbance play a major role in structuring ecological systems by producing a spatiotemporal mosaic of patches at different successional states. The distribution of species within the resulting mosaic depends upon an interaction between species' life history traits and the spatial and temporal structure of the ecological processes controlling species' distributions. We have used a spatially explicit simulation model (Jasper) of a serpentine grassland to examine the importance of some of these relationships, focusing primarily on the role of disturbance. The model Jasper is hierarchical in design and was developed to simulate the population dynamics of three interacting ...


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