Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,194 Full-Text Articles 5,009 Authors 543,150 Downloads 136 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

3,194 full-text articles. Page 1 of 74.

Social Sciences, not given 2014 SelectedWorks

Social Sciences, Not Given

cm articles

No abstract provided.


Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona 2014 University of South Florida

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia 2014 University of South Florida

Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Meta menardi and M. bourneti are two species of spiders inhabiting caves and other subterranean habitats. The occurrence of both species within the same cave has never been proved convincingly and several authors hypothesized a complete niche differentiation mainly based on microclimatic conditions.In order to study the apparent niche differentiation of the two species, we studied several populations of M. menardi and M. bourneti occurring in six caves in the Western Italian Alps (NW Italy). A series of squared plots were monitored monthly from March 2012 to February 2013. At each survey, we counted individuals and we collected the ...


Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill

Master's Theses

Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are distributed circumtropically and populations in many locations have been severely depleted. Developing management plans for this species is hindered by major gaps in knowledge concerning habitat use, behavior, and population structure. This study addresses these knowledge gaps for hawksbill sea turtles nesting at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Specifically, I will focus on research priorities identified by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the Recovery Plan for Hawksbill Sea Turtles in the US Caribbean Sea.

The first chapter addresses Recovery Plan Objective 111: Identify Important Nesting Beaches. Three ...


Effects Of Water Parameters On Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition And Performance, Stephanie Sue Schelble 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Water Parameters On Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition And Performance, Stephanie Sue Schelble

Master's Theses

Water body parameters have a considerable effect on the communities that develop within them. In small container habitats like tires, the depth, surface area, and volume effect the development and success of the mosquito communities. This study investigated the choices of the adult female mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, between different depths and surface areas. In addition, larval performance was determined under differing depth and larvae densities. Oviposition studies showed that Ae. albopictus had a preference for deeper habitats (χ2= 14.2902, p= 0.0139) but did not prefer any surface areas (χ2= 7.2321, p= 0 ...


A Description Of Vocalizations And Their Association With Mouthing Behaviors And Social Context In Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, Christina Elyse Perazio 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

A Description Of Vocalizations And Their Association With Mouthing Behaviors And Social Context In Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, Christina Elyse Perazio

Master's Theses

Dolphin communication is multimodal and incorporates physical behaviors and vocalizations. Dolphins often exchange information with conspecifics using different types of vocalizations, and these vocalizations are sometimes associated with specific behaviors. However, the relationship of vocalization type and mouthing behavior type has not been investigated. This thesis examines simultaneous acoustic and visual recordings of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to determine the relationship between type of mouthing behavior and type of vocalization (whistle, whistle-squawk, chirp, moan, burst-pulse type A, burst-pulse type B, and click trains). The role of the social context of a mouthing behavior is also evaluated. Data were obtained opportunistically ...


Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

The San Francisco Bay Estuary is home to many species of marine and wildlife that create a delicate ecological balance. Invasive jellyfish introduced to the bay though cargo shipping are believed to be competing with the endangered delta smelt for the same food source of copepods. Samples of zooplankton were taken from high and low salinity zones in the San Francisco Bay over three years in months June through February to correlate with the peak of the jellyfish lifecycle. The preserved samples are looked through and jellyfish are removed and recorded. The species of jellyfish is determined using features such ...


The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina MacMillan, Kelly Stewart 2014 California Polytechnic State University

The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina Macmillan, Kelly Stewart

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Once sea turtle hatchlings emerge from their nest, they must find their way to the ocean by using cues such as a bright horizon and the slope of the beach. While moving toward the water, hatchlings often must navigate past predators and through vegetation, sticks, footprints in the sand, and other dangers such as ghost crab holes. Sometimes hatchlings become confused (or disoriented) and turn in circles to find the right route to the water. Sea turtle hatchlings also may become disoriented as a result of human impacts such as town lights or trash. The purpose of our experiment was ...


Xrf Analyses Of Prehanford Orchards, Komal Rana 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Xrf Analyses Of Prehanford Orchards, Komal Rana

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Subsequent to 1943, the use of Lead Arsenic was banned from the Orchards standing on the Hanford site. This use of Lead Arsenate pesticide was popular among the orchard owners and was dispersed over the site in a myriad of ways. The presence of the traces of lead and arsenic are found today, more than half a century later. Using a portable X-ray florescence analyzer (XRF), the values of lead and arsenic are evaluated while determining the efficiency of the equipment itself. Samples from different decision sites were collected, with lead arsenic values in the low, high and medium range ...


Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Light pollution (LP) can disrupt and/or degrade the health of all living things, as well as, their environments. The goal of my research at the NOAO was to check the accuracy of the citizen science LP reporting systems entitled: Globe at Night (GaN), Dark Sky Meter (DSM), and Loss of the Night (LoN). On the GaN webpage, the darkness of the night sky (DotNS) is reported by selecting a magnitude chart. Each magnitude chart has a different density/number of stars around a specific constellation. The greater number of stars implies a darker night sky. Within the DSM iPhone ...


Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Microplankton are a diverse group of planktonic organisms ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 millimeters. Since the group is defined solely by size, it spans numerous taxonomic groups, including both heterotrophs and autotrophs. Microplankton are abundant in all aquatic ecosystems and are important prey for many organisms, including bivalves, crustaceans, and fish. The San Francisco Bay is truly an estuary as saltwater enters the estuary under the Golden Gate Bridge and freshwater flows in from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. Thus, there is a gradient of salinity from freshwater (0) in the rivers to saltwater by the Golden ...


Mother Convict Cichlids Inflict More Bites Upon An Intruder In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Mother Convict Cichlids Inflict More Bites Upon An Intruder In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Convict cichlids (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) have developed to be extremely good parents by protecting their brood. Parental care leads to aggressive biting, chasing, and gill flaring to intimidate known predators. In this experiment, we show that environmental factors, such as the changing of temperature in this case, affect a female convict cichlid’s aggression toward caring for her offspring when an intruder is introduced. Females attack more in warmer water.


Informing Flood Plain Wetland Restoration Using Amphibian Monitoring, Ashley VanderHam 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Informing Flood Plain Wetland Restoration Using Amphibian Monitoring, Ashley Vanderham

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Wetlands are among the most important and complex ecosystems in the world. They contribute to nutrient cycling, the hydrologic cycle, and provide critical habitat for many plants, fish, and wildlife. Channelization of Missouri River resulted in the loss of many floodplain wetlands. Despite ongoing restoration efforts, there are few ecologically-based performance guidelines, and managers need methods to quantify and assess the success of restored riverine wetland systems.

In 2008 a multi-institutional herpetofauna monitoring project, funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, was initiated in four states (Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Nebraska). The main goal of the project is ...


A Tragedy Exposed? Clear Growth Medium Reveals Competing Roots, Christopher H. Karounos, Deric Miller, Philip Crowley, Nicholas McLetchie 2014 University of Kentucky

A Tragedy Exposed? Clear Growth Medium Reveals Competing Roots, Christopher H. Karounos, Deric Miller, Philip Crowley, Nicholas Mcletchie

Kaleidoscope

Abstract

Tragedy of the Commons (ToC) is the exploitation of an open-access resource that is exploited by selfish individuals to the detriment of all. Examples include open sea fisheries, cattle grazing, pollution, deforestation and plants competing over shared soil nutrients and space. Tragically, these resources become depleted and plants become severely resource limited. Our study seeks to determine if a ToC causes two plants sharing resources to reproduce less successfully than two plants owning the equivalent amount of personal resources. We predict that plant root competition creates a ToC by increasing root mass while reducing reproductive mass. Our study uses ...


Getting In Deep, Earl Smith 2014 Colby College

Getting In Deep, Earl Smith

Colby Magazine

Cleaning up Johnson Pond required wading through a quagmire of regulations- and produced some surprising revelations.


Understanding Copepod Life-History And Diversity Using A Next-Generation Zooplankton Model, Andrew J. Pershing 2014 The University of Maine

Understanding Copepod Life-History And Diversity Using A Next-Generation Zooplankton Model, Andrew J. Pershing

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Final Reports

The main goal of our project is to understand the patterns of diversity and biogeography in marine copepods. To achieve this goal, we developed a unique modeling framework to simulate the trade-offs between growth, development, and fecundity in marine copepods.

We developed a new approach to modeling growth and development in metazoans. We applied this approach to marine copepods, and used it to understand relationships between copepod body size and temperature, copepod biodiversity patterns, and copepod biogeography. This project also provided support for experiments to look at how copepod body size impacts the particle size spectrum.

We used our model ...


Across-Year Social Stability Shapes Network Structure In Wintering Migrant Sparrows, Daizaburo Shizuka, Alexis S. Chaine, Jennifer Anderson, Oscar Johnson, Inger Marie Laursen, Bruce E. Lyon 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Across-Year Social Stability Shapes Network Structure In Wintering Migrant Sparrows, Daizaburo Shizuka, Alexis S. Chaine, Jennifer Anderson, Oscar Johnson, Inger Marie Laursen, Bruce E. Lyon

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Migratory birds often form flocks on their wintering grounds, but important details of social structure such as the patterns of association between individuals are virtually unknown. We analysed networks of co-membership in short-term flocks for wintering golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) across three years and discovered social complexity unsuspected for migratory songbirds. The population was consistently clustered into distinct social communities within a relatively small area (~ 7 ha). Birds returned to the same community across years, with mortality and recruitment leading to some degree of turnover in membership. These spatiotemporal patterns were explained by the combination of space use and social ...


Mitigation Site Soil Characteristics And The Effects Of Inoculation, Nursery Fertilizer Practices And Irrigation On Survival And Growth Of Mesquite (Prosopis Glandulosa) In The Coachella Valley, California, David A. Bainbridge, Marcelle M. Darby 2014 SelectedWorks

Mitigation Site Soil Characteristics And The Effects Of Inoculation, Nursery Fertilizer Practices And Irrigation On Survival And Growth Of Mesquite (Prosopis Glandulosa) In The Coachella Valley, California, David A. Bainbridge, Marcelle M. Darby

David A Bainbridge

Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana (mesquite, honey mesquite) is a small to medium sized leguminous tree that was once common in the low desert of California. Widespread destruction of mesquite woodlands in the Coachella Valley of southern California for fuel wood, agricultural and urban development, and urbanization has reduced once vast stands to isolated remnants. The rerouting and widening of Highway 86 in the Coachella Valley was a typical example of ongoing mesquite woodland removal. Despite the recognized need for mitigation, relatively little information on mesquite establishment in California is available. This research explored mesquite establishment by replanting on an abandoned ...


Report On The Workshop For Life Detection In Samples From Mars, Gerhard Kminek, Catherine Conley, Carlton C. Allen, Douglas H. Bartlett, David W. Beaty, Liane G. Benning, Rohit Bhartia, Penelope J. Boston, Caroline Duchaine, Jack D. Farmer, George J. Flynn, Daniel P. Glavin, Yuri Gorby, John E. Hallsworth, Rakesh Mogul, Duane Moser, P. Buford Price, Ruediger Pukall, David Fernandez-Remolar, Caroline L. Smith, Kenneth M. Stedman, Andrew Steele, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Henry Sun, Jorge L. Vago, Mary A. Voytek, Paul S. Weiss, Frances Westfall 2014 Portland State University

Report On The Workshop For Life Detection In Samples From Mars, Gerhard Kminek, Catherine Conley, Carlton C. Allen, Douglas H. Bartlett, David W. Beaty, Liane G. Benning, Rohit Bhartia, Penelope J. Boston, Caroline Duchaine, Jack D. Farmer, George J. Flynn, Daniel P. Glavin, Yuri Gorby, John E. Hallsworth, Rakesh Mogul, Duane Moser, P. Buford Price, Ruediger Pukall, David Fernandez-Remolar, Caroline L. Smith, Kenneth M. Stedman, Andrew Steele, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Henry Sun, Jorge L. Vago, Mary A. Voytek, Paul S. Weiss, Frances Westfall

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The question of whether there is or was life on Mars has been one of the most pivotal since Schiaparellis’ telescopic observations of the red planet. With the advent of the space age, this question can be addressed directly by exploring the surface of Mars and by bringing samples to Earth for analysis. The latter, however, is not free of problems. Life can be found virtually everywhere on Earth. Hence the potential for contaminating the Mars samples and compromising their scientific integrity is not negligible. Conversely, if life is present in samples from Mars, this may represent a potential source ...


Stop Lion Hunting, Paul Johnsgard 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Stop Lion Hunting, Paul Johnsgard

Paul Johnsgard Collection

According to my informal tally, at least seven mountain lions have so far been killed in Nebraska during 2014, as follows: 1 & 2: Two were killed on January 1 and 2, at the start of Nebraska's first hunting season. Both were killed by treeing the animals with dogs, then shooting them execution style. One was killed by a man who bought the permit ($13,500) at auction; the other by a teenager who won a Game & Park's fund -raising lottery. 3: An adult male was accidentally killed by a vehicle on February 1, in Sioux County. 4: An adult was accidentally killed by a cable entanglement in Custer County, February 16th. 5: An adult female was killed for sport on February 26 in Sioux County, ending the second phase of legal hunting, but leaving most of the state open for the rest of the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress