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Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona 2014 University of South Florida

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia 2014 University of South Florida

Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Meta menardi and M. bourneti are two species of spiders inhabiting caves and other subterranean habitats. The occurrence of both species within the same cave has never been proved convincingly and several authors hypothesized a complete niche differentiation mainly based on microclimatic conditions.In order to study the apparent niche differentiation of the two species, we studied several populations of M. menardi and M. bourneti occurring in six caves in the Western Italian Alps (NW Italy). A series of squared plots were monitored monthly from March 2012 to February 2013. At each survey, we counted individuals and we collected the ...


Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi 2014 Wayne State University

Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The Rama Amerindians from southern Nicaragua are one of few indigenous populations inhabiting the east coast and lowlands of southern Central America. Early 18th century ethnohistorical accounts depicted the Rama as a mobile hunter-gatherer and horticulturalists group dispersed in household units along southern Nicaraguan rivers. However, during the 19th and 20th centuries, Rama settlement patterns changed to aggregated communities due to increased competition for local resources resulting from non-indigenous immigration. This study’s objective was to discern the degree of relatedness between and within subdivisions of seven of these communities based on patterns of surname variation and genealogical data. We ...


Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte 2014 Wayne State University

Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Previous studies identified a cluster of individuals with an autosomal recessive form of deafness that resides in a small region of mid-Michigan. We hypothesized that affected members from this community descend from a defined founder population. Using public records and personal interviews, we constructed a genealogical database that includes the affected individuals and their extended families as descendants of 461 settlers who emigrated from the Eifel region of Germany between 1836 and 1875. The genealogical database represents a 13-generation pedigree that includes 27,747 descendants of these settlers. Among these descendants, 13,784 are presumed living. Many of the extant ...


Did Pre-Clovis People Inhabit The Paisley Caves (And Why Does It Matter)?, Stuart J. Fiedel 2014 Wayne State University

Did Pre-Clovis People Inhabit The Paisley Caves (And Why Does It Matter)?, Stuart J. Fiedel

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The date and processes of initial human colonization of the Americas are crucial issues for the understanding of human biological and cultural development. For example, Soares et al. (2009) cited the American archaeological record to validate their proposed revision of the human mitochondrial molecular clock. Their suggested mutation rate puts the date of rapid expansion of Native American clades at around 13,500–15,000 cal BP. Similarly, Poznik et al. (2013) have used the “high-confidence archaeological dating” of the initial peopling of the Americas to calibrate the rates of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA mutation and thereby to reconcile the ...


Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny 2014 Wayne State University

Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that had either started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but had also experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the ...


Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks 2014 Wayne State University

Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory condition that results in injury of the mucosal lining of the small intestine upon ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins from barley and rye. Although the exact mechanisms leading to CD are not fully understood, the genetic basis of CD has been relatively well characterized. In this review we briefly review the history of discovery, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and current understanding of the genetics underlying CD risk. Then, we discuss what is known about the current distribution and evolutionary history of genes underlying CD risk in light of other evolutionary models ...


Questioning The “Melting Pot”: Analysis Of Alu Inserts In Three Population Samples From Uruguay, Pedro C. Hidalgo, Patricia Mut, Elizabeth Ackermann, Gonzalo Figueiro, Monica Sans 2014 Wayne State University

Questioning The “Melting Pot”: Analysis Of Alu Inserts In Three Population Samples From Uruguay, Pedro C. Hidalgo, Patricia Mut, Elizabeth Ackermann, Gonzalo Figueiro, Monica Sans

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The way that immigrants integrate to recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received different waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when occurred, are unclear. In this paper, we use genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and its relation to other immigrants as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyze the allele frequencies of ten ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, F13B ...


Mitochondrial Dna Variability Among Six South-American Amerindian Villages From The Pano Linguistic Group, Celso T. Mendes-Junior, Aguinaldo L. Simoes 2014 Wayne State University

Mitochondrial Dna Variability Among Six South-American Amerindian Villages From The Pano Linguistic Group, Celso T. Mendes-Junior, Aguinaldo L. Simoes

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered as components of a same “Pano” tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not been examined before. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them ...


Phylogeography Of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup And Analysis Of Its Subclades In Morocco, Ahmed Reguig, Nourdin Harich, Abdelhamid Barakat, Hassan Rouba 2014 Wayne State University

Phylogeography Of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup And Analysis Of Its Subclades In Morocco, Ahmed Reguig, Nourdin Harich, Abdelhamid Barakat, Hassan Rouba

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

In this work, we have analyzed a total of 295 unrelated Berber-speaking men from the northern, center and southern of Morocco, in order to characterize frequency of E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and to refine the phylogeny of its subclades: E1b1b1b1-M107, E1b1b1b2-M183 and E1b1b1b2a-M165. For this purpose, we have typed four biallelic polymorphisms: M81, M107, M183 and M165. As results, a large majority of the Berber-speaking male lineages belong to the Y chromosomal E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup. The frequency ranged from 79.1 to 98.5% in all localities sampled. Then, the E1b1b1b2-M183 was the most dominant subclade in our samples, which ranged from 65 ...


Human Paternal Lineages, Languages And Environment In The Caucasus, David Tarkhnishvili, Alexander Gavashelishvili, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Mariam Gabelaia, Gigi Tevzadze 2014 Wayne State University

Human Paternal Lineages, Languages And Environment In The Caucasus, David Tarkhnishvili, Alexander Gavashelishvili, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Mariam Gabelaia, Gigi Tevzadze

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Publications that describe the human Y-DNA haplogroup composition in different ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus – a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian were genotyped for Y-chromosome 23 STR markers and assigned to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with the published data on the haplogroup composition and location ...


Human Diversity In Jordan: Polymorphic Alu Insertions In General Jordanian And Bedouin Groups, Daniela Zanetti, May Sadiq, Robert Carreras-Torres, Omar Khabour, Almuthanna Alkaraki, Esther Esteban, Marc Via, Pedro Moral 2014 Wayne State University

Human Diversity In Jordan: Polymorphic Alu Insertions In General Jordanian And Bedouin Groups, Daniela Zanetti, May Sadiq, Robert Carreras-Torres, Omar Khabour, Almuthanna Alkaraki, Esther Esteban, Marc Via, Pedro Moral

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Jordan, located in the Levant region, is a crucial area to investigate human migration between Africa and Eurasia. Even thought, the genetic history of Jordanians is far to be clarified including the origin of the Bedouins today resident in Jordan. Here, we provide new genetic data on autosomal independent markers in two Jordanian population samples (Bedouins and general population) in order to approach the genetic diversity inside this country and to give new information about the genetic position of these populations in the frame of the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The analyzed markers are 18 Alu polymorphic insertions characterized ...


Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae) Selection To Arabidopsis Thaliana, Huzefa Ratlamwala 2014 Western University

Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae) Selection To Arabidopsis Thaliana, Huzefa Ratlamwala

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spider mite feeding on A. thaliana induces the production of indole glucosinolates (IGs), plant secondary metabolites that negatively affect mite performance. In this study I conducted selection experiments on A. thaliana with varying levels of IGs, to determine if mites could adapt to IGs and other defense compounds. After 12 months, mites reared on host with IGs performed significantly better on A. thaliana than mites maintained on beans. However, an adaptation cost was detected between selected mite lines and their ancestral host. The qRT-PCR data on different mite lines revealed that the detoxification genes previously identified may only be involved ...


Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill

Master's Theses

Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are distributed circumtropically and populations in many locations have been severely depleted. Developing management plans for this species is hindered by major gaps in knowledge concerning habitat use, behavior, and population structure. This study addresses these knowledge gaps for hawksbill sea turtles nesting at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Specifically, I will focus on research priorities identified by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the Recovery Plan for Hawksbill Sea Turtles in the US Caribbean Sea.

The first chapter addresses Recovery Plan Objective 111: Identify Important Nesting Beaches. Three ...


Effects Of Water Parameters On Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition And Performance, Stephanie Sue Schelble 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Water Parameters On Container Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition And Performance, Stephanie Sue Schelble

Master's Theses

Water body parameters have a considerable effect on the communities that develop within them. In small container habitats like tires, the depth, surface area, and volume effect the development and success of the mosquito communities. This study investigated the choices of the adult female mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, between different depths and surface areas. In addition, larval performance was determined under differing depth and larvae densities. Oviposition studies showed that Ae. albopictus had a preference for deeper habitats (χ2= 14.2902, p= 0.0139) but did not prefer any surface areas (χ2= 7.2321, p= 0 ...


A Description Of Vocalizations And Their Association With Mouthing Behaviors And Social Context In Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, Christina Elyse Perazio 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

A Description Of Vocalizations And Their Association With Mouthing Behaviors And Social Context In Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, Christina Elyse Perazio

Master's Theses

Dolphin communication is multimodal and incorporates physical behaviors and vocalizations. Dolphins often exchange information with conspecifics using different types of vocalizations, and these vocalizations are sometimes associated with specific behaviors. However, the relationship of vocalization type and mouthing behavior type has not been investigated. This thesis examines simultaneous acoustic and visual recordings of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to determine the relationship between type of mouthing behavior and type of vocalization (whistle, whistle-squawk, chirp, moan, burst-pulse type A, burst-pulse type B, and click trains). The role of the social context of a mouthing behavior is also evaluated. Data were obtained opportunistically ...


Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

The San Francisco Bay Estuary is home to many species of marine and wildlife that create a delicate ecological balance. Invasive jellyfish introduced to the bay though cargo shipping are believed to be competing with the endangered delta smelt for the same food source of copepods. Samples of zooplankton were taken from high and low salinity zones in the San Francisco Bay over three years in months June through February to correlate with the peak of the jellyfish lifecycle. The preserved samples are looked through and jellyfish are removed and recorded. The species of jellyfish is determined using features such ...


The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina MacMillan, Kelly Stewart 2014 California Polytechnic State University

The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina Macmillan, Kelly Stewart

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Once sea turtle hatchlings emerge from their nest, they must find their way to the ocean by using cues such as a bright horizon and the slope of the beach. While moving toward the water, hatchlings often must navigate past predators and through vegetation, sticks, footprints in the sand, and other dangers such as ghost crab holes. Sometimes hatchlings become confused (or disoriented) and turn in circles to find the right route to the water. Sea turtle hatchlings also may become disoriented as a result of human impacts such as town lights or trash. The purpose of our experiment was ...


Xrf Analyses Of Prehanford Orchards, Komal Rana 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Xrf Analyses Of Prehanford Orchards, Komal Rana

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Subsequent to 1943, the use of Lead Arsenic was banned from the Orchards standing on the Hanford site. This use of Lead Arsenate pesticide was popular among the orchard owners and was dispersed over the site in a myriad of ways. The presence of the traces of lead and arsenic are found today, more than half a century later. Using a portable X-ray florescence analyzer (XRF), the values of lead and arsenic are evaluated while determining the efficiency of the equipment itself. Samples from different decision sites were collected, with lead arsenic values in the low, high and medium range ...


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