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Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons 2014 Occidental College

Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Chorizanthe robusta var. hartwegii (Scotts Valley spineflower, Polygonaceae) is a narrow endemic plant restricted to a specialized microhabitat (exposed bedrock in California prairie) in Santa Cruz County, California. This taxon and the nominate variety were listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1994. Three occurrences of C. robusta hartwegii exist on four properties in a recently urbanized area at the northern edge of the city of Scotts Valley. Ten of 80 known colonies are now likely extirpated. In 2014 the primary threats are habitat alteration due to adjacent land uses and developments, and invasive plant species ...


From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman 2014 Occidental College

From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Blubber progesterone levels were measured in biopsy samples and used to predict the pregnancy status of 507 female common dolphins (204 long-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus capensis, and 303 short-beaked common dolphins, D. delphis). Samples were collected in the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific between central California, USA and the southern end of Baja California, Mexico. The percentage of females pregnant was similar between the two species: 22.1% (n = 45) of D. capensis and 28.1% (n = 85) of D. delphis. For both species we found strong geographic patterns in pregnancy, suggesting that some areas were more conducive ...


Responses Of Small Mammals To Wildfire In A Mixed Conifer Forest In The San Bernardino Mountains, California, Mark I. Borchert 2014 Occidental College

Responses Of Small Mammals To Wildfire In A Mixed Conifer Forest In The San Bernardino Mountains, California, Mark I. Borchert

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Abstract.—Wildfires are becoming more prevalent in montane conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. The effects of fire on stand structure and composition of these forests has been extensively studied but there are far fewer studies on how wildfires affect the fauna. For five years after a wildfire in 2007, we live-trapped small mammals in three burn types: unburned, moderate-severity and high-severity. A primary objective of this study was to document the response of the small mammal community to high-severity fire. Pinyon mice were consistently more abundant in unburned forests and declined by 69-76% between unburned ...


Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe 2014 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe

communication +1

Permaculture design is a concept that aims at transforming not only agriculture, but also city planning, architecture, development, etc. In short it aims to change human habitats. It is part of a new ecological paradigm that is currently spreading in popularity from the urban gardening movement to various other alternative movements such as the slow movement, sustainable architecture, etc. Permaculture design defines itself as building on systems theory (as formulated in particular by Howard Thomas Odum and Christopher Alexander). However I would like to propose that the afterlife of systems theory as expressed in the concept of permaculture, first developed ...


Acceptance Of Evolution By America’S Educators Of Prospective Teachers, Guillermo Paz-y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa 2014 Roger Williams University

Acceptance Of Evolution By America’S Educators Of Prospective Teachers, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño-C, Avelina Espinosa

New England Science Public: Series Evolution

Paz-y-Miño-C G & Espinosa A. 2014. Acceptance of Evolution by America’s Educators of Prospective Teachers. New England Science Public: Series Evolution 2(1): 1-92 (ISSN: 2326-0971). In NESP Series Evolution Vol 2 No 1, Paz-y-Miño-C and Espinosa use the conceptual framework of the Incompatibility Hypothesis (i.e. science/evolution and belief in supernatural causation are incompatible) to document the patterns of acceptance of evolution of 495 Educators of Prospective Teachers affiliated with 281 colleges and universities widely distributed in 4 regions, 9 divisions, and 50 states in the United States. These higher-education professionals (65% PhD-, 22% doctorate-holders) were polled in five areas: (i) their views about evolution, creationism and Intelligent Design, (ii) their understanding of how science and the evolutionary process work, (iii) their position about the hypothetical ‘harmony or compatibility’ between science/evolution and supernatural causation, (iv) their awareness of the age of the Earth, its moon, our solar system and the universe, and the application of the concept of evolution to the cosmos, and (v) their personal convictions concerning the evolution and/or creation of humans in the context of the educators’ religiosity. The authors report that acceptance of evolution among these educators was influenced by their level of understanding the foundations of science/evolution and their beliefs in supernatural causation. In comparison to two other populations, whose acceptance of evolution had already been documented in Paz-y-Miño-C’s and Espinosa’s previous research (i.e. New England research faculty, non-educators, and college students; NESP Ser Evol Vol 1 No 1), the educators had an intermediate level of understanding science/evolution, low acceptance of evolution, and high religiosity, as follows: 59% of the educators accepted evolution openly, 51% thought that evolution is definitely true, and 59% admitted to be religious. Among the New England researchers, 94% accepted evolution openly, 82% thought that evolution is definitely true, and 29% admitted to be religious. Among the students, 63% accepted evolution openly, 58% thought that evolution is definitely true, and 37% admitted to be religious. Educators in each of the four regions of the United ...


Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona 2014 University of South Florida

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia 2014 University of South Florida

Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Meta menardi and M. bourneti are two species of spiders inhabiting caves and other subterranean habitats. The occurrence of both species within the same cave has never been proved convincingly and several authors hypothesized a complete niche differentiation mainly based on microclimatic conditions.In order to study the apparent niche differentiation of the two species, we studied several populations of M. menardi and M. bourneti occurring in six caves in the Western Italian Alps (NW Italy). A series of squared plots were monitored monthly from March 2012 to February 2013. At each survey, we counted individuals and we collected the ...


Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi 2014 Wayne State University

Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The Rama Amerindians from southern Nicaragua are one of few indigenous populations inhabiting the east coast and lowlands of southern Central America. Early 18th century ethnohistorical accounts depicted the Rama as a mobile hunter-gatherer and horticulturalists group dispersed in household units along southern Nicaraguan rivers. However, during the 19th and 20th centuries, Rama settlement patterns changed to aggregated communities due to increased competition for local resources resulting from non-indigenous immigration. This study’s objective was to discern the degree of relatedness between and within subdivisions of seven of these communities based on patterns of surname variation and genealogical data. We ...


Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte 2014 Wayne State University

Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Previous studies identified a cluster of individuals with an autosomal recessive form of deafness that resides in a small region of mid-Michigan. We hypothesized that affected members from this community descend from a defined founder population. Using public records and personal interviews, we constructed a genealogical database that includes the affected individuals and their extended families as descendants of 461 settlers who emigrated from the Eifel region of Germany between 1836 and 1875. The genealogical database represents a 13-generation pedigree that includes 27,747 descendants of these settlers. Among these descendants, 13,784 are presumed living. Many of the extant ...


Did Pre-Clovis People Inhabit The Paisley Caves (And Why Does It Matter)?, Stuart J. Fiedel 2014 Wayne State University

Did Pre-Clovis People Inhabit The Paisley Caves (And Why Does It Matter)?, Stuart J. Fiedel

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The date and processes of initial human colonization of the Americas are crucial issues for the understanding of human biological and cultural development. For example, Soares et al. (2009) cited the American archaeological record to validate their proposed revision of the human mitochondrial molecular clock. Their suggested mutation rate puts the date of rapid expansion of Native American clades at around 13,500–15,000 cal BP. Similarly, Poznik et al. (2013) have used the “high-confidence archaeological dating” of the initial peopling of the Americas to calibrate the rates of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA mutation and thereby to reconcile the ...


Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny 2014 Wayne State University

Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that had either started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but had also experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the ...


Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks 2014 Wayne State University

Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory condition that results in injury of the mucosal lining of the small intestine upon ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins from barley and rye. Although the exact mechanisms leading to CD are not fully understood, the genetic basis of CD has been relatively well characterized. In this review we briefly review the history of discovery, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and current understanding of the genetics underlying CD risk. Then, we discuss what is known about the current distribution and evolutionary history of genes underlying CD risk in light of other evolutionary models ...


Questioning The “Melting Pot”: Analysis Of Alu Inserts In Three Population Samples From Uruguay, Pedro C. Hidalgo, Patricia Mut, Elizabeth Ackermann, Gonzalo Figueiro, Monica Sans 2014 Wayne State University

Questioning The “Melting Pot”: Analysis Of Alu Inserts In Three Population Samples From Uruguay, Pedro C. Hidalgo, Patricia Mut, Elizabeth Ackermann, Gonzalo Figueiro, Monica Sans

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The way that immigrants integrate to recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received different waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when occurred, are unclear. In this paper, we use genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and its relation to other immigrants as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyze the allele frequencies of ten ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, F13B ...


Mitochondrial Dna Variability Among Six South-American Amerindian Villages From The Pano Linguistic Group, Celso T. Mendes-Junior, Aguinaldo L. Simoes 2014 Wayne State University

Mitochondrial Dna Variability Among Six South-American Amerindian Villages From The Pano Linguistic Group, Celso T. Mendes-Junior, Aguinaldo L. Simoes

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered as components of a same “Pano” tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not been examined before. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them ...


Phylogeography Of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup And Analysis Of Its Subclades In Morocco, Ahmed Reguig, Nourdin Harich, Abdelhamid Barakat, Hassan Rouba 2014 Wayne State University

Phylogeography Of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup And Analysis Of Its Subclades In Morocco, Ahmed Reguig, Nourdin Harich, Abdelhamid Barakat, Hassan Rouba

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

In this work, we have analyzed a total of 295 unrelated Berber-speaking men from the northern, center and southern of Morocco, in order to characterize frequency of E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and to refine the phylogeny of its subclades: E1b1b1b1-M107, E1b1b1b2-M183 and E1b1b1b2a-M165. For this purpose, we have typed four biallelic polymorphisms: M81, M107, M183 and M165. As results, a large majority of the Berber-speaking male lineages belong to the Y chromosomal E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup. The frequency ranged from 79.1 to 98.5% in all localities sampled. Then, the E1b1b1b2-M183 was the most dominant subclade in our samples, which ranged from 65 ...


Human Paternal Lineages, Languages And Environment In The Caucasus, David Tarkhnishvili, Alexander Gavashelishvili, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Mariam Gabelaia, Gigi Tevzadze 2014 Wayne State University

Human Paternal Lineages, Languages And Environment In The Caucasus, David Tarkhnishvili, Alexander Gavashelishvili, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Mariam Gabelaia, Gigi Tevzadze

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Publications that describe the human Y-DNA haplogroup composition in different ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus – a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian were genotyped for Y-chromosome 23 STR markers and assigned to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with the published data on the haplogroup composition and location ...


Human Diversity In Jordan: Polymorphic Alu Insertions In General Jordanian And Bedouin Groups, Daniela Zanetti, May Sadiq, Robert Carreras-Torres, Omar Khabour, Almuthanna Alkaraki, Esther Esteban, Marc Via, Pedro Moral 2014 Wayne State University

Human Diversity In Jordan: Polymorphic Alu Insertions In General Jordanian And Bedouin Groups, Daniela Zanetti, May Sadiq, Robert Carreras-Torres, Omar Khabour, Almuthanna Alkaraki, Esther Esteban, Marc Via, Pedro Moral

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Jordan, located in the Levant region, is a crucial area to investigate human migration between Africa and Eurasia. Even thought, the genetic history of Jordanians is far to be clarified including the origin of the Bedouins today resident in Jordan. Here, we provide new genetic data on autosomal independent markers in two Jordanian population samples (Bedouins and general population) in order to approach the genetic diversity inside this country and to give new information about the genetic position of these populations in the frame of the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The analyzed markers are 18 Alu polymorphic insertions characterized ...


A New Species Of Small-Eared Shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) From The Lacandona Rain Forest, Mexico, Lázaro Guevara, Victor Sánchez-Cordero, Livia León-Paniagua, Neal Woodman 2014 SelectedWorks

A New Species Of Small-Eared Shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) From The Lacandona Rain Forest, Mexico, Lázaro Guevara, Victor Sánchez-Cordero, Livia León-Paniagua, Neal Woodman

Neal Woodman

The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a lowelevation habitat (approximately 90 ...


Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae) Selection To Arabidopsis Thaliana, Huzefa Ratlamwala 2014 Western University

Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae) Selection To Arabidopsis Thaliana, Huzefa Ratlamwala

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spider mite feeding on A. thaliana induces the production of indole glucosinolates (IGs), plant secondary metabolites that negatively affect mite performance. In this study I conducted selection experiments on A. thaliana with varying levels of IGs, to determine if mites could adapt to IGs and other defense compounds. After 12 months, mites reared on host with IGs performed significantly better on A. thaliana than mites maintained on beans. However, an adaptation cost was detected between selected mite lines and their ancestral host. The qRT-PCR data on different mite lines revealed that the detoxification genes previously identified may only be involved ...


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