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The Use Of Argumentation In Socio-Scientific Issues: Enhancing Evolutionary Biology Instruction, Heath R. Marchand 2015 The College at Brockport

The Use Of Argumentation In Socio-Scientific Issues: Enhancing Evolutionary Biology Instruction, Heath R. Marchand

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), further emphasis in science education is being placed on preparing students to become more informed voters regarding social, ethical, economic and political topics that affect contemporary society. Parallel to this shift is a stronger emphasis on integrating evolutionary theory as a unifying concept in the biological sciences. Given that evolution is one of the aforementioned topics commonly discussed and debated about in social and political arenas, ensuring that instruction provides students from all backgrounds a comprehensive understanding of its principals is becoming increasingly important in contemporary science education. Chapter II ...


Observations On The Life History Of The Bayou Killifish, Fundulus Pulvereus (Everman 1899) In Mississippi Tidal Marshes, Leah C. Gaines 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Observations On The Life History Of The Bayou Killifish, Fundulus Pulvereus (Everman 1899) In Mississippi Tidal Marshes, Leah C. Gaines

Master's Theses

This study provides insight into the life history of the relatively unknown intertidal marsh fish Fundulus pulvereus (Everman), the bayou killifish. Monthly sampling for F. pulvereus took place in three different Mississippi tidal marshes over a period of 17 months (n=445). Observations on the diet, parasite fauna, and fecundity of the bayou killifish were documented on all specimens collected. Percent Occurrence and Percent Number coupled along with multivariate analyses indicated seasonal, site, and ontogenetic shifts in the diet of F. pulvereus. Dominant prey items consumed by F. pulvereus were copepods, mites, chironomids, and terrestrial and aquatic insects. The bayou ...


Species Delimitation, Phylogenetics, And Biogeography Of The Catfish Genus Rhamdia Bleeker (Heptapteridae) Of Central America And The Trans-Andean Region Of Colombia, Carmen L. Hernández Torres 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Species Delimitation, Phylogenetics, And Biogeography Of The Catfish Genus Rhamdia Bleeker (Heptapteridae) Of Central America And The Trans-Andean Region Of Colombia, Carmen L. Hernández Torres

Dissertations

A recent taxonomic revision of the Neotropical catfish genus Rhamdia (Pisces: Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) reduced a number of described species to synonymy, especially under a broadly circumscribed R. quelen. Evidence is presented here from DNA sequence data, external and internal morphology, and morphometrics that argues for the recognition of R. guatemalensis in Central and northern South America and R. saijaensis and R. cinerascens in the Pacific drainages of Colombia and Ecuador, respectively. The DNA data indicate that all trans-Andean samples form a monophyletic group, within which there are separate clades corresponding to R. laticauda and the synonymized R. guatemalensis, R. saijaensis ...


Coral Growth Under Thermal Stress And Different Levels Of Light Intensity In Acropora Aspera., Devan Y. Klein, Mary W. Barana, Leeanne A. Obilor 2015 Dominican University of California

Coral Growth Under Thermal Stress And Different Levels Of Light Intensity In Acropora Aspera., Devan Y. Klein, Mary W. Barana, Leeanne A. Obilor

Scholarly and Creative Works Conference

In this study we examined the growth rates of coral species Acropora aspera in conditions of high thermal stress which are expected to become more common because of climate change. During higher than normal temperature periods, corals can experience bleaching which is the loss of algal symbionts from their tissue. Since corals depend on these photosynthetic organisms for most of their nutrition, this loss can lead to mass mortality. However, if the period of thermal stress happens during cloudy weather, bleaching events are less severe, and thus it is possible that shading reefs could help mitigate the effects of warmer ...


Analysis Of The Diets Of The Northern Spotted Owl And Barred Owl, Valeria Briones 2015 Dominican University of California

Analysis Of The Diets Of The Northern Spotted Owl And Barred Owl, Valeria Briones

Scholarly and Creative Works Conference

The Northern Spotted Owl, a once thriving species is now a threatened species and on the verge of endangerment. The Barred Owl, a species native to the eastern United States over the past few centuries has expanded its range into that of the Northern Spotted Owl, causing a major threat to the Northern Spotted Owl Populations. This paper is a synthesis of the existing literature of the diets of the Northern Spotted Owl and Barred Owl individually as well as in areas in which they occur sympatrically. With this summary of literature, the reader can gain an understanding of the ...


The Changing Role Of Plant-Soil Feedback Loops In Maintaining Coexistence In The Face Of Drought, Amelia E. Snyder, Scott Mangan, Alexandra N. Harmon-Threatt 2015 Washington University in St Louis

The Changing Role Of Plant-Soil Feedback Loops In Maintaining Coexistence In The Face Of Drought, Amelia E. Snyder, Scott Mangan, Alexandra N. Harmon-Threatt

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

  1. My goal was to explore the influence of drought and soil biota on plant growth via plant-soil feedbacks, and thus to examine potential implications for stable coexistence for similar plants within overlapping species ranges.
  2. I carried out a greenhouse experiment to determine the effect of drought and soil biota on the relative fitness of two milkweed species. The project consisted of harvesting soil samples of each species from the field, further training the soil in the greenhouse to cultivate soil organisms, then growing each milkweed species in trained soil in a fully reciprocal experiment that included watering regiment and soil ...


Manipulation Of Same Sex Social Pair Bonds In Budgerigars, Melopsittacus Undulatus, Amanda M. Stilwell 2015 Otterbein University

Manipulation Of Same Sex Social Pair Bonds In Budgerigars, Melopsittacus Undulatus, Amanda M. Stilwell

Distinction Papers

Same sex pair bonding can be found throughout various animal species. These relationships can be common in monogamous species, especially when there is a lack of members of the opposite sex. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, are a socially monogamous species, which create strong pair bonds but are also known to engage in extra pair copulations. When looking at an all-male flock of budgerigars, the question arises, are these bonds easily broken or disrupted by a third party individual. After determining seven pair bonds in a flock of 32 males, these pairs were removed from an aviary and placed in separate lab ...


Transatlantic Disjunction In Fleshy Fungi Iii: Gymnopus Confluens, Karen Hughes, Ronald H. Petersen 2015 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Transatlantic Disjunction In Fleshy Fungi Iii: Gymnopus Confluens, Karen Hughes, Ronald H. Petersen

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Publications and Other Works

Phylogeographic data indicate that DNA differences consistently exist between the North American and European allopatric populations of Gymnopus confluens. Conversely, pairing experiments show that collections from both populations were sexually compatible in vitro and detailed morphological examinations of numerous fresh and dried basidiomata do not produce qualitative differences. Percent ITS sequence divergence between Europe and North American collections of G. confluens was 3.25%. Species delineation metrics including Rosenberg’s PAB statistic, PID metrics, RRD ( randomly distributed) and PTP (Poisson Tree Processes ) gave mixed indications that North American and European populations were distinct at species rank. The ...


Early Successional Microhabitats Allow The Persistence Of Endangered Plants In Coastal Sand Dunes, Eleanor A. Pardini, Kyle E. Vickstrom, Tiffany M. Knight 2015 Washington University in St Louis

Early Successional Microhabitats Allow The Persistence Of Endangered Plants In Coastal Sand Dunes, Eleanor A. Pardini, Kyle E. Vickstrom, Tiffany M. Knight

Biology Faculty Publications

Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution ...


Monitoring Fish Diversity In Massie’S Creek, Ohio, Connor J. Gilmour, Mark A. Gathany, Angela McCain, Jenelle C. Krob 2015 Cedarville University

Monitoring Fish Diversity In Massie’S Creek, Ohio, Connor J. Gilmour, Mark A. Gathany, Angela Mccain, Jenelle C. Krob

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Streams are susceptible to numerous threats to their water quality and biodiversity. In our region of southwest Ohio a major driver of these impacts is associated with current and past agricultural practices. These changes include straightening, embanking, dredging, and removal of large rocks and woody debris, increased erosion, and non-point source pollution. These structural and chemical impacts are known to significantly affect biodiversity in these streams. This means a greater understanding of stream ecology is of utter importance to places such as Greene County, Ohio due to the prevalence of agricultural practices in the landscape. In 2010 a 2.2 ...


New Records Of Merriam’S Shrew (Sorex Merriami) From Western North Dakota, Michael J. Shaughnessy Jr., Neal Woodman 2015 Northeastern State University, OK

New Records Of Merriam’S Shrew (Sorex Merriami) From Western North Dakota, Michael J. Shaughnessy Jr., Neal Woodman

Neal Woodman

Despite having a broad geographic distribution, Merriam’s Shrew (Sorex merriami Dobson 1890) is known from a relatively few, widely-scattered localities. In North Dakota, the species was known from only a single poorly-preserved specimen collected in 1913 near Medora. We recently collected two new specimens of Merriam’s Shrew from Billings and McKenzie counties in the western quarter of the state. These specimens confirm the presence of S. merriami in North Dakota and better define the northeastern edge of the species’ distribution.


Reproductive Success And Sexual Selection In Drosophila Melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Trinh Xuan Thi Nguyen 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Reproductive Success And Sexual Selection In Drosophila Melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Trinh Xuan Thi Nguyen

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sexual selection is a branch of natural selection which acts upon variation in reproductive success. Sexual selection is a complex field of study in biology as each species has their own mating system and strategies. Models of sexual selection theory are not mutually exclusive, and often times there are multiple layers of selection within a given mating system. For instance, both direct and indirect benefits of sexual selection can occur simultaneously, and selection can act both before and after mating occurs. Postcopulatory sexual selection, which is not as well understood, can be comprised of both the male-male interaction of sperm ...


Fish Out Of Salt Water: Smoltification In Subyearling Chinook Salmon From The Laurentian Great Lakes, Steve Sharron 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Fish Out Of Salt Water: Smoltification In Subyearling Chinook Salmon From The Laurentian Great Lakes, Steve Sharron

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The timing of smoltification in juvenile anadromous salmonids is important to ensure individuals match their preparedness with their migration timing and the optimal conditions in the environment. I performed the first study of smoltification in adfluvial juvenile Chinook salmon naturalized in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In a hatchery study, I found that juveniles from one of these populations have similar patterns of smoltification timing to individuals from anadromous populations. Their Na+/K+ ATPase activity, a common indicator or smolt status, peaked at 7.7 μmoles ADP/mg protein/hour on July 1 in freshwater. During the peak period, individual body ...


Climate Effects On Mammalian Body Size And Grassland Composition Inferred From Late Quaternary Grazers In The Great Plains Of North America, Tom Baldvins 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Climate Effects On Mammalian Body Size And Grassland Composition Inferred From Late Quaternary Grazers In The Great Plains Of North America, Tom Baldvins

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Several mammalian taxa exhibited a diminution during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: (1) human hunting and (2) climate change along with its effects on grasslands. I use stable isotopes from a variety of Quaternary grazing mammals to measure grassland changes following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Nebraska and to develop a climate proxy to compare with mammalian body size. Results indicate that latest Pleistocene equids and mammoths have δ13C values indicative of a C3 or mixed C3/C4 diet. However, Holocene bison have greatly elevated δ13 ...


Seagrass Deterrence To Mesograzer Herbivory: Evidence From Mesocosm Experiments And Feeding Preference Trials, LaTina Steele, John F. Valentine 2015 Sacred Heart University

Seagrass Deterrence To Mesograzer Herbivory: Evidence From Mesocosm Experiments And Feeding Preference Trials, Latina Steele, John F. Valentine

Biology Faculty Publications

Two laboratory experiments documented the effects of mesograzers (i.e. the gastropod Crepidula ustulatulina and the isopod Paracerceis caudata) on phenolic acid and condensed tannin production in 2 regionally abundant seagrasses—Thalassia testudinum (turtlegrass) and Halodule wrightii (shoalgrass). Subsequent paired choice experiments tested the hypothesis that phenolic acids and condensed tannins produced by these seagrasses deter mesograzer feeding. At the scale of the shoot, grazing by gastropods and isopods led to ~40 to 50% decreases in concentrations of some phenolic acids and ~20% decreases in condensed tannins in turtlegrass leaves. At a more refined spatial scale, concentrations of 2 of ...


Elevational Gradients In Β-Diversity Reflect Variation In The Strength Of Local Community Assembly Mechanisms Across Spatial Scales, J Sebastián Tello, Jonathan A. Myers, Manuel J. Macia, Alfredo F. Fuentes, Leslie Cayola, Gabriel Arellano, M Isabel Loza, Vania Torrez, Maritza Cornejo, Tatiana B. Miranda, Peter M. Jørgensen 2015 Washington University in St. Louis

Elevational Gradients In Β-Diversity Reflect Variation In The Strength Of Local Community Assembly Mechanisms Across Spatial Scales, J Sebastián Tello, Jonathan A. Myers, Manuel J. Macia, Alfredo F. Fuentes, Leslie Cayola, Gabriel Arellano, M Isabel Loza, Vania Torrez, Maritza Cornejo, Tatiana B. Miranda, Peter M. Jørgensen

Biology Faculty Publications

Despite long-standing interest in elevational-diversity gradients, little is known about the processes that cause changes in the compositional variation of communities (β-diversity) across elevations. Recent studies have suggested that β-diversity gradients are driven by variation in species pools, rather than by variation in the strength of local community assembly mechanisms such as dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or local biotic interactions. However, tests of this hypothesis have been limited to very small spatial scales that limit inferences about how the relative importance of assembly mechanisms may change across spatial scales. Here, we test the hypothesis that scale-dependent community assembly mechanisms shape ...


An Individual-Based Model Of Chaparral Vegetation Response To Frequent Wildfire, Timothy Lucas, Dayna Mann, Reanna Dona 2015 Pepperdine University

An Individual-Based Model Of Chaparral Vegetation Response To Frequent Wildfire, Timothy Lucas, Dayna Mann, Reanna Dona

Undergraduate Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

In recent years, the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) have been plagued by frequent wildfires which threaten the native chaparral species. Nonsprouting chaparral species are completely killed by a fire, but their seeds germinate in response to fire cues. Facultative sprouters both resprout after a wildfire and release seeds that germinate post-fire. This project is based on data collected since 1986 at a biological preserve adjacent to the Malibu campus of Pepperdine University with an average fire return interval of 7.5 years. We present a spatial model that simulates the growth, seed dispersal and resprouting behavior of individual shrubs that ...


From The Field To The Lab: Best Practices For Field Preservation Of Bat Specimens For Molecular Analyses, Angelique Corthals, Alynn Martin, Omar M. Warsi, Megan Woller-Skar, Winston Lancaster, Amy L. Russell, Liliana M. Dávalos 2015 John Jay College of Criminal Justice

From The Field To The Lab: Best Practices For Field Preservation Of Bat Specimens For Molecular Analyses, Angelique Corthals, Alynn Martin, Omar M. Warsi, Megan Woller-Skar, Winston Lancaster, Amy L. Russell, Liliana M. Dávalos

Amy L. Russell

Studies in molecular ecology depend on field-collected samples for genetic information, and the tissue sampled and preservation conditions strongly affect the quality of the DNA obtained. DNA yields from different tissue types have seldom been compared, even though these media may influence DNA degradation under field conditions. We analyzed DNA yield from buccal swabs and wing punches harvested from live bats using nucleic acid quantification as well as quantitative PCR for a single-copy nuclear locus. We also compared DNA yields from wing tissue preserved in three media: ethanol, NaCl-saturated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and silica desiccant. Wing punches yielded more total ...


Relatedness, Conflict, And The Evolution Of Eusociality, Xiaoyun Liao, Stephen Rong, David C. Queller 2015 Washington University in St Louis

Relatedness, Conflict, And The Evolution Of Eusociality, Xiaoyun Liao, Stephen Rong, David C. Queller

Biology Faculty Publications

The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Blue Sucker Cycleptus Elongatus, Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman 2015 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Blue Sucker Cycleptus Elongatus, Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Blue Sucker Cycleptus elongatus are a large-bodied, benthic fish that are considered an indicator species for riverine health. A combination of historic commercial fishing and anthropogenic modifications to riverine habitat led to blue suckers being listed as a candidate species for the federal threatened or endangered species list in 1993. However, they were never designated a federally protected species. Locally, Blue Suckers are currently listed as a Nebraska Natural Legacy Project’s Tier 1 species but population changes and trends have not been quantified. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the current population status of Blue Sucker ...


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