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Revegetation Strategies For Native Wetland Plant Restoration In The Face Of Phragmites Australis Reinvasion And Hydrologic Extremes, Maddie Houde 2024 Utah State University

Revegetation Strategies For Native Wetland Plant Restoration In The Face Of Phragmites Australis Reinvasion And Hydrologic Extremes, Maddie Houde

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Reestablishing native plant communities in degraded habitats through seeding or planting ("revegetation") is a necessary step to restore ecosystems and their functions (e.g., supporting biodiversity, nutrient cycling, etc.). Globally, wetlands have suffered high rates of degradation and also experience numerous invasions. Invasive species are those that cause environmental, economic, or societal harm. Phragmites australis is a widespread invasive species that outcompetes native plants and reduces habitat diversity. Reestablishing native plant communities can limit P. australis invasion, yet effective methods to do so remain somewhat untested in wetlands. Additionally, stressful environmental conditions can increase plant mortality in revegetation efforts. In semi-arid …


The Effects Of Aboveground Herbivory On Root Traits And Root Decomposition, Emily A. Chavez 2024 Utah State University

The Effects Of Aboveground Herbivory On Root Traits And Root Decomposition, Emily A. Chavez

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Soil holds more carbon (C) than the Earth's atmosphere and vegetation combined. Soil loses carbon through soil respiration and releases CO2 from the soil. The soil respiration rate can vary based on the chemistry of the plant litter inputs and physical factors, such as soil temperature and nutrient content. In Alaska's Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) Delta, grazing by geese affects the chemistry of plants and the soil's physical qualities, thus altering the rate of soil respiration. Although we know that goose herbivory leads to changes in the rate of soil respiration, we know very little about how goose herbivory affects the …


Evaluating Aspen Seedling Outplanting Success Following High Severity Wildfire In The Southwest, Sarah M. Kapel 2024 Utah State University

Evaluating Aspen Seedling Outplanting Success Following High Severity Wildfire In The Southwest, Sarah M. Kapel

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is an ecologically important forest species in the western U.S. Aspen forests host a variety of understory species, are critical wildlife habitat, and are considered a "natural fuel break" since they are less likely to support crown fires than conifers. Because of climate change and altered disturbance regimes, populations are declining, and innovative strategies are needed to restore aspen. Planting aspen seedlings is a solution, though not a common practice in the West and has been met with high mortality in past experiments. For aspen planting to be more broadly implemented, managers need guidance …


Experimental Nonnative Wood Addition Enhances Instream Habitat For Native Fishes And Investigating Dryland River Alterations, Benjamin J. Miller 2024 Utah State University

Experimental Nonnative Wood Addition Enhances Instream Habitat For Native Fishes And Investigating Dryland River Alterations, Benjamin J. Miller

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

The rivers of the Colorado River Basin (CRB) have been degraded by human activities such flow regulation, water overallocation, and the introduction of invasive riparian vegetation (primarily tamarisk tamarix spp. and Russian olive Elaeagnus angustifolia). These stressors have resulted in widespread habitat loss and simplification, which is a major contributor to the endangerment of native fishes in the CRB.

The objectives of this study were to 1) assess the effectiveness of enhancing native fish habitat by experimentally adding cut wood from nonnative Russian olive to the San Juan River, a highly degraded dryland river, and 2) determine the …


Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Disease: Social And Environmental Drivers Of Movement, Connectivity, And Disease Transmission In Bighorn Sheep, Lauren E. Ricci 2024 Utah State University

Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Disease: Social And Environmental Drivers Of Movement, Connectivity, And Disease Transmission In Bighorn Sheep, Lauren E. Ricci

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Movement is a fundamental component of animal ecology. Animals move in order to access resources and avoid risk. Movement decisions aggregated across time determine how individuals use space, contact dynamics between individuals within a population, and connectivity across a species range. These patterns that emerge from movement decisions have downstream implications for many ecological processes and a mechanistic understanding of movement can help answer broader questions about ecology.

Disease dynamics are intrinsically tied to movement. Understanding the mechanisms that drive movement can elucidate how disease will spread and impact host populations. In this vein, I employed a suite of movement …


Water Lily Leaf Beetle Ecology On Hourglass Lake In Big Lake, Alaska, Haley Lloyd, Grace Beatty 2024 Olivet Nazarene University

Water Lily Leaf Beetle Ecology On Hourglass Lake In Big Lake, Alaska, Haley Lloyd, Grace Beatty

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The Water-Lily Leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae, is a beetle commonly found on Western Pond Lily pads, Nuphar lutea, in Hourglass Lake. Hourglass Lake is located in Big Lake, Alaska. This area is surrounded by boreal forest and bogs and is situated roughly twenty miles North of Anchorage. Within this ecosystem, the Water-Lily Leaf Beetle and the Western Pond Lily are intrinsically linked, as the lily pads serve as a site of feeding and reproduction for the beetles. Dr. Derek Rosenberger of Olivet Nazarene University noticed an abundance of these beetles as he was kayaking through Hourglass Lake, and a project …


A Comparative Study Of Butterfly And Bumblebee Communities At The Onu Prairie And Perry Farm, Kathryn S. Bell 2024 Olivet Nazarene University

A Comparative Study Of Butterfly And Bumblebee Communities At The Onu Prairie And Perry Farm, Kathryn S. Bell

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The decline in many pollinator communities has been a topic of great concern for many years. The primary causes of these declines are habitat loss from urbanization and agriculture, pesticide usage, and climate change. Surveys of pollinator populations are important because they can help determine the health of the pollinator communities. No systematic surveys have assessed the pollinator populations at Olivet Nazarene University’s Prairie or at the LaGesse Prairie at Perry Farm Park in Bourbonnais Township, IL. Thus, little is known about the abundance or the species richness of bumble bees or butterflies in these areas. To address this lack …


Hgs-3 The Influence Of A Tandem Cycling Program In The Community On Physical And Functional Health, Therapeutic Bonds, And Quality Of Life For Individuals And Care Partners Coping With Parkinson’S Disease, Leila Djerdjour, Jennifer L. Trilk 2024 university of south carolina school of medicine greenville

Hgs-3 The Influence Of A Tandem Cycling Program In The Community On Physical And Functional Health, Therapeutic Bonds, And Quality Of Life For Individuals And Care Partners Coping With Parkinson’S Disease, Leila Djerdjour, Jennifer L. Trilk

SC Upstate Research Symposium

Purpose Statement: Several studies have shown that aerobic exercise can have a positive impact on alleviating symptoms experienced by individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite this evidence, the potential benefits of exercise for both PD patients and their care partners (PD dyad) remain unexplored. This research project investigates the effectiveness, therapeutic collaborations, and physical outcomes of a virtual reality (VR) tandem cycling program specifically designed for PD dyads.

Methods: Following approval from the Prisma Health Institutional Review Board, individuals with PD were identified and screened by clinical neurologists. The pre-testing measures for PD dyads (N=9) included emotional and cognitive status …


An Ecology Against Right Learning Uncertainty And Humility From Ecosystems, Pierre L. Ibisch, Mona Eikel-Pohen, Elias Iceman, Jake Snelling 2024 Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde

An Ecology Against Right Learning Uncertainty And Humility From Ecosystems, Pierre L. Ibisch, Mona Eikel-Pohen, Elias Iceman, Jake Snelling

Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics - All Scholarship

This article is a translation from the German to English. The title of the original is:

Ibisch, P.L. (2020): Eine Ökologie gegen rechts. Von Ökosystemen Unsicherheit und Demut lernen. In: Leitschuh, H., A. Brunnengräber, P.L. Ibisch, R. Loske, M. Müller, J. Sommer & E.-U. v. Weizsäcker (eds. J. Sommer, P.L. Ibisch, A. Brunnengräber): Ökologie und Heimat. Jahrbuch Ökologie 2021. Hirzel-Verlag, Stuttgart, 191-205.


Effects Of Fungal Biopesticide Doses On Mortality In Bumble Bees, Colton Burris 2024 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Effects Of Fungal Biopesticide Doses On Mortality In Bumble Bees, Colton Burris

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Agricultural practices often include the use of pesticides to produce meaningful crop yields. While the pesticide may be used to target “pest” insects (e.g. thrips, aphids, whiteflies), it can also have negative effects on important pollinating insects such as bees. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been found responsible for widespread decline in bee biodiversity, and were even banned in Europe (Sgolastra et al. 2020) . Beauveria bassiana, sold as Botanigard, on the other hand, is a fungal biopesticide that is marketed to be a safer alternative for bees, and has been found to have other possibly harmful effects to the inner …


Continuous Mowing Differentially Affects Floral Defenses In The Noxious And Invasive Weed Solanum Elaeagnifolium In Its Native Range, Alejandro Vasquez, Alexa Alaniz, Robert K. Dearth, Rupesh R. Kariyat 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Continuous Mowing Differentially Affects Floral Defenses In The Noxious And Invasive Weed Solanum Elaeagnifolium In Its Native Range, Alejandro Vasquez, Alexa Alaniz, Robert K. Dearth, Rupesh R. Kariyat

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

In weeds, disturbance has been found to affect life history traits and mediate trophic interactions. In urban landscapes, mowing is an important disturbance, and we previously showed that continuous mowing leads to enhanced fitness and defense traits in Solanum elaeagnifolium, Silverleaf Nightshade (SLN). However, most studies have been focused on foliar defenses, ignoring floral defenses. In this study we examined whether continuous mowing affected floral defenses in SLN using mowed and unmowed populations in South Texas, their native range. We found flowers of mowed SLN plants larger but lighter than unmowed plants. Additionally, flowers on plants that were mowed …


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxx. Parabuthus (Buthidae) (Part Iii), With Description Of Three New Species From Somaliland And Occurrence Of Parabuthus Eritreaensis Kovařík, 2003, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh A. Elmi, František Šťáhlavský 2024 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxx. Parabuthus (Buthidae) (Part Iii), With Description Of Three New Species From Somaliland And Occurrence Of Parabuthus Eritreaensis Kovařík, 2003, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh A. Elmi, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

A new record of an adult female of Parabuthus eritreaensis Kovařík, 2003 in Somaliland confirms true distribution of this species, already discussed in Kovařík et al. (2016: 19–21). Three new species are described from Somaliland, P. dorisae sp. n., P. evae sp. n., and P. quincyae sp. n.. The hemispermatophore of P. dorisae sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophore, we have provided descriptions of the karyotypes of P. dorisae sp. n. and P. quincyae sp. n. Despite the presence of multivalents (CVIII and CXIV), both species exhibit karyotypes with 2n=16 …


Teaching Evolutionary Principles With Ai Image Generators, Jacqueline Garnett 2024 Washington University in St. Louis

Teaching Evolutionary Principles With Ai Image Generators, Jacqueline Garnett

Generative AI Teaching Activities

The purpose of this assignment is for students to practice constructing phylogenies using the principle of parsimony. In this activity, students will use an AI Image Generator to create a grid of images of the same organism and identify a series of traits that vary to build a possible phylogenetic tree.


Climate Change-Associated Declines In Water Clarity Impair Feeding By Common Loons, Walter H. Piper, Max R. Glines, Kevin C. Rose 2024 Chapman University

Climate Change-Associated Declines In Water Clarity Impair Feeding By Common Loons, Walter H. Piper, Max R. Glines, Kevin C. Rose

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Climate change has myriad impacts on ecosystems, but the mechanisms by which it affects individual species can be difficult to pinpoint. One strategy to discover such mechanisms is to identify a specific ecological factor related to survival or reproduction and determine how that factor is affected by climate. Here we used Landsat imagery to calculate water clarity for 127 lakes in northern Wisconsin from 1995 to 2021 and thus investigate the effect of clarity on the body condition of an aquatic visual predator, the common loon (Gavia immer). In addition, we examined rainfall and temperature as potential predictors …


Ornithofauna Diversity Of Tehsil Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan, Muhammad Amir Sial 2024 Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Ornithofauna Diversity Of Tehsil Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan, Muhammad Amir Sial

Journal of Bioresource Management

Tehsil Pakpattan is situated in the Doab region of Punjab, Pakistan, along the Sutlej River. The present study aimed to evaluate the avian biodiversity of Tehsil Pakpattan. The study included the evaluation of species diversity, IUCN Red List status, migratory description, and feeding habits of the bird populations of Tehsil Pakpattan. Regular surveys were conducted at ten different localities in Tehsil Pakpattan, including Islam Colony, Kanipur, Farid Kot, 14 S/P, Chak Khagga, Musewal, 8 S/P, Noorpur, Green Town, and Bonga Niaz Khan, from January 2022 to April 2023. The Shannon‒Wiener diversity index value (R' = 3.41) indicated the notable diversity …


Use Of Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle (Drones) Based Remote Sensing To Model Platform Topography And Identify Human-Made Earthen Barriers In Salt Marshes, Joshua J. Ward 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Use Of Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle (Drones) Based Remote Sensing To Model Platform Topography And Identify Human-Made Earthen Barriers In Salt Marshes, Joshua J. Ward

Masters Theses

Elevation is a foundational driver of salt marsh morphology. Elevation governs inundation and hydrological patterns, vegetation distribution, and soil health. Anthropogenic impacts at grand scales (e.g., rising sea levels) and local scales (e.g., infrastructure) have altered the elevation of the salt marsh surface, changing the topography and morphology of these ecosystems. This study establishes and assesses means to document and analyze these impacts using Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing to model platform topography. This thesis’s first and primary study presents and compares methods of producing high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) with UAV-based Digital Aerial Photogrammetry (DAP) and Light …


Effectiveness Of Frog Skin Secretions Against Uv-B Radiation, Connor McGaha, Kinkade McMurray, Lee B. Kats 2024 Pepperdine University

Effectiveness Of Frog Skin Secretions Against Uv-B Radiation, Connor Mcgaha, Kinkade Mcmurray, Lee B. Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

As an increasing number of their species face possible extinction, amphibian populations have been steadily declining over the past decades (IUCN). While various factors have been suggested or proven to be partially responsible for this reduction, increased ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) appears to be one of the more prominent explanations, especially when considering the continual thinning of the Earth’s ozone layer due to anthropogenic climate change. However, it has also been discovered that skin secretions, which are reported to function as a component of amphibians’ innate immune systems, may have an effect on UVBR (Cramp and Franklin). With this in …


The Impacts Of Environment And Host Evolutionary Relationships On Lemur Microbiota, Rachel B. Burten 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Impacts Of Environment And Host Evolutionary Relationships On Lemur Microbiota, Rachel B. Burten

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent studies have shown that the mammal microbiome is modified by environmental conditions, and that reduced microbiome functionality is associated with host health issues. Microbiome data in wild and captive primate populations can therefore be used to assess their health as they encounter a variety of environments. Comparative studies of the microbiome can also inform disease ecology, conservation, and captive management strategies tailored to different primate species. Therefore, this study examines how the hair, oral, and gut microbiota of nine wild and captive lemur species are determined by host phylogenetic relationships and host environment. I found that host species identity …


The Wild Tomato Clade Offers Insights Into Fleshy Fruit Trait Evolution At The Phenotypic And Molecular Levels, Jacob R. Barnett 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Wild Tomato Clade Offers Insights Into Fleshy Fruit Trait Evolution At The Phenotypic And Molecular Levels, Jacob R. Barnett

Doctoral Dissertations

Biologists have long been fascinated by the diversity of fleshy fruits, yet questions remain as to how this variety has evolved. According to the dispersal syndrome hypothesis, flowering plants improved their reproductive success by producing fleshy fruits with appealing combinations of traits that attract animal dispersers. However, animal preferences may not be the only selective pressure driving fruit trait diversity—conflicting forces include damage-inflicting seed predators and pathogens, abiotic habitat conditions, or constraints stemming from non-adaptive mechanical, developmental, or phylogenetic limitations. Few studies have examined the early stages of fleshy fruit evolution across an entire clade of recently diverged plant species. …


Drone Imagery Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Effects On Coastal Primary Productivity On Coral Reefs In Maunalua Bay, Hawai'i, Lulu Wang, Florybeth Flores La Valle, Grace Kim 2024 Pepperdine University

Drone Imagery Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Effects On Coastal Primary Productivity On Coral Reefs In Maunalua Bay, Hawai'i, Lulu Wang, Florybeth Flores La Valle, Grace Kim

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) plays a crucial role in coastal ecosystems, especially coral reefs, by introducing terrestrial nutrients and freshwater, significantly affecting the primary productivity of coastal ecosystems and potentially altering ecological balances. La Valle et al. (2023) emphasized the importance of SGD in nutrient distribution and algal productivity, highlighting the need for comprehensive understanding and management strategies in the face of increasing nutrient runoff due to land use changes due to increased population. To better understand the impact, our experiments utilize remote sensing and data science by using a DJI Mavic 3 Enterprise drone with a thermal imaging camera …


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