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Does A Nir System Provide Low-Cost Alternative To On-Farm Feed And Forage Testing? A Techno-Economic Analysis, Sai K. Ramaswamy, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gretchen A. Mosher 2018 Iowa State University

Does A Nir System Provide Low-Cost Alternative To On-Farm Feed And Forage Testing? A Techno-Economic Analysis, Sai K. Ramaswamy, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gretchen A. Mosher

Gretchen A. Mosher

Improperly balanced diet not only impacts the quality of animal products but also the quantity of profits of a livestock operation. Typically, the nutrient and chemical content of feed ingredients and forages are determined using well-established wet chemistry tests. However, these tests can be expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the increasing use of distiller’s by-products which are known to have large variations in chemical and nutrient content warrants a real-time on-farm feed and forage testing system. Near Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy systems have been documented as a quick and effective on-site testing tool across several industries. While NIR systems are being ...


Postharvest Practices And Mycotoxins Of Maize In Three Agro-Ecological Zones Of Tanzania, R. A. Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater, B. Chove 2018 Sokoine University of Agriculture

Postharvest Practices And Mycotoxins Of Maize In Three Agro-Ecological Zones Of Tanzania, R. A. Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater, B. Chove

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Maize is a major cereal crop in Tanzania and it is grown in diverse agro-ecological zones. Like other sub-Saharan countries, postharvest losses of maize during storage in Tanzania remain significantly high, especially for smallholder farmers. Unpredictable weather and poor postharvest practice contribute to rapid deterioration of grain and mold contamination, and subsequent production of mycotoxins. The purpose of this study was to assess the postharvest practices, awareness and knowledge of mycotoxin contamination in maize grain in three agro-ecological zones (Eastern, Central, and Northern) of Tanzania between November 2015 and February 2016. A survey using semi-structured questionnaires was administered to farmers ...


Economic And Environmental Impact Analysis Of Vegetable Production In Bamboo Polyhouse Vs Galvanized Iron Pipe Polyhouse, Harishchandra Jadhav, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 Iowa State University

Economic And Environmental Impact Analysis Of Vegetable Production In Bamboo Polyhouse Vs Galvanized Iron Pipe Polyhouse, Harishchandra Jadhav, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

In the attempt to reduce the capital cost of a metal polyhouse, the bamboo polyhouse was designed and constructed for vegetable production suitable for the hot and humid climate. The economic analysis (EA) of the bamboo polyhosue was performed for tomato production and results were compared with the similar but hypothetical galvanized iron (GI) polyhosue. Further, the environmental impact analysis (EIA) was carried out on the both bamboo and GI polyhouses limited to the construction of the polyhouses. The initial/construction cost of bamboo polyhouse was found about 72% of the GI polyhouse. The BC ratios of GI and bamboo ...


Does A Nir System Provide Low-Cost Alternative To On-Farm Feed And Forage Testing? A Techno-Economic Analysis, Sai K. Ramaswamy, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gretchen A. Mosher 2018 Iowa State University

Does A Nir System Provide Low-Cost Alternative To On-Farm Feed And Forage Testing? A Techno-Economic Analysis, Sai K. Ramaswamy, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gretchen A. Mosher

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Improperly balanced diet not only impacts the quality of animal products but also the quantity of profits of a livestock operation. Typically, the nutrient and chemical content of feed ingredients and forages are determined using well-established wet chemistry tests. However, these tests can be expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the increasing use of distiller’s by-products which are known to have large variations in chemical and nutrient content warrants a real-time on-farm feed and forage testing system. Near Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy systems have been documented as a quick and effective on-site testing tool across several industries. While NIR systems are being ...


Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Six fluorescein-labeled peptide nucleic acid oligomers targeting Listeria-specific sequences on the 16S ribosomal subunit were evaluated for their abilities to hybridize to whole cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Four of these probes yielded weak or no fluorescent signals after hybridization and were not investigated further. The remaining two FISH-compatible probes, LisUn-3 and LisUn-11, were evaluated for their reactivities against 22 Listeria strains and 17 other bacterial strains belonging to 10 closely related genera. Hybridization with BacUni-1, a domain-specific eubacterial probe, was used as a positive control for target accessibility in both Listeria spp. and nontarget cells. RNase ...


Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 University of Wyoming

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc.) have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1) of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present ...


Sodium Polyphosphate And Polyethylenimine Enhance The Antimicrobial Activities Of Plant Essential Oils, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Sodium Polyphosphate And Polyethylenimine Enhance The Antimicrobial Activities Of Plant Essential Oils, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Plant extracts have been used for millennia for treatment of disease, with much recent interest focusing on the antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils (EOs). Although EOs are active against common microbial pathogens, their effective use as topical, environmental, or food antimicrobials will require EO-based formulations with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, two polyionic compounds, sodium polyphosphate (polyP, a polyanion) and polyethylenimine (PEI, a polycation), were evaluated for their abilities to enhance the antimicrobial activities of six EOs against the human pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Minnesota, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and ...


Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans ...


Wide-Spectrum Biomimetic Antimicrobial Systems, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Wide-Spectrum Biomimetic Antimicrobial Systems, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective components of the host immune response and are widely distributed throughout nature. Recently, nontoxic antimicrobial polymers that mimic the structures of naturally occurring AMPs have been designed and are under development commercially as novel therapeutics. These compounds have several potential advantages over natural AMPs, including greater stability and reduced immunogenicity compared to natural peptides, relatively simple and scalable syntheses and the ability to tailor or “fine tune” their activities through combinatorial approaches. In previous work, we demonstrated the utility of certain generally regarded as safe (GRAS) flavorant and aroma compounds as enhancers of uptake and ...


Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek MPH 2018 Iowa State University

Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek Mph

Donna Winham

Objectives: We determined knowledge of the health benefits of consuming beans, and assessed if awareness varied by acculturation status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic low-income women. Methods: We used a self-administered survey with Iowa women aged 18-65 years who were eligible to receive income-based services through 2 healthcare clinics, a WIC clinic, and Extension Outreach. Chi-square and ANOVA were used to compare bean health benefit knowledge, demographics, health-risk factors, nutrition information seeking, and self-efficacy by acculturation categories. Results: Of the 158 women who completed the survey, 58% were Hispanic, with a mean age of 36 years. In terms of acculturation, 24 ...


Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps In Knowledge Of Bean Health Benefits, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson, Mariah K. Dougherty 2018 Iowa State University

Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps In Knowledge Of Bean Health Benefits, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson, Mariah K. Dougherty

Donna Winham

Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health ...


Glycemic Response To Black Beans And Chickpeas As Part Of A Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson 2018 Iowa State University

Glycemic Response To Black Beans And Chickpeas As Part Of A Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson

Donna Winham

Legumes, such as black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women ...


Preparation And Characterization Of Whey Protein Isolate Films Reinforced With Porous Silica Coated Titania Nanoparticles, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Mahendra Thunga, Sheng Wang, Michael R. Kessler, David A. Grewell, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Chenxu Yu 2018 Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology

Preparation And Characterization Of Whey Protein Isolate Films Reinforced With Porous Silica Coated Titania Nanoparticles, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Mahendra Thunga, Sheng Wang, Michael R. Kessler, David A. Grewell, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Chenxu Yu

Chenxu Yu

Whey protein isolate (WPI) films embedded with TiO2@@SiO2 (porous silica (SiO2) coated titania (TiO2)) nanoparticles for improved mechanical properties were prepared by solution casting. A WPI solution of 1.5 wt% TiO2@@SiO2 nanoparticles was subjected to sonication at amplitudes of 0, 16, 80 and 160 μm prior to casting in order to improve the film forming properties of protein and to obtain a uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the WPI films. The physical and mechanical properties of the films were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile testing. Water vapor permeability (WVP) measurements revealed ...


Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. DiSpirito 2018 Iowa State University

Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, Aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. Dispirito

Angela M. Shaw

Statement of the Problem: In recent years several disease outbreaks were linked to unpasteurized juices contaminated with human enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CDC 2011; EFSA 2015). While heat pasteurization and canning can inactivate vegetative pathogens, such processes can destroy heat labile nutrients and negatively alter sensory characteristics of juices. Also growing consumer demands for foods which are nutritious, fresh-like, and devoid of synthetic preservatives, have forced juice manufacturers to explore non-thermal processes and natural antimicrobials for pathogen control in juices. The present study investigated the effect of low concentrations of cinnamaldehyde combined with ...


The Effects Of Produce Washes On The Quality And Shelf Life Of "Cantaloupe" (Cucumis Melo Var. Cantalupensis) And "Watermelon" (Cirtullus Lantus Var. Lanatus), Amanda Svoboda, Angela M. Shaw, Lester A. Wilson, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Ajay Nair, Aura Daraba 2018 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Produce Washes On The Quality And Shelf Life Of "Cantaloupe" (Cucumis Melo Var. Cantalupensis) And "Watermelon" (Cirtullus Lantus Var. Lanatus), Amanda Svoboda, Angela M. Shaw, Lester A. Wilson, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Ajay Nair, Aura Daraba

Angela M. Shaw

Our research objective was to evaluate the ability of produce washes to maintain the texture and color quality attributes of watermelon and cantaloupe while reducing the levels of natural fungi population on the melon surface. Melons were submerged for 2 min into either water control or water containing quaternary ammonium chloride (300 ppm) or an 18% hydrogen peroxide and 12% peroxyacetic acid combination (100 ppm), or an acetic acid, peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide combination (0.78%). Microbial analysis and instrumental measurements were utilized to assess the melons on day 0, 7, 14 and 21 in three separate trials. The ...


"Clickers" And Haccp: Educating A Diverse Food Industry Audience With Technology, Angela M. Shaw, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Aura Daraba 2018 Iowa State University

"Clickers" And Haccp: Educating A Diverse Food Industry Audience With Technology, Angela M. Shaw, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Aura Daraba

Angela M. Shaw

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to food safety education for the food industry. To receive a HACCP certificate, participants must receive an 80% or higher on the final examination. Language barriers, educational levels, and age have been noted as primary reasoning's for not passing the final examination. Clicker technology has been shown to improve knowledge transfer to students in various classroom settings. Incorporation of mock final examination questions using Clickers into a traditional HACCP course has been shown in a small pilot study to increase the pass rate.


Knowledge Gained From Good Agricultural Practices Courses For Iowa Growers, Angela M. Shaw, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Linda L. Naeve, Paul A. Domoto, Lester A. Wilson 2018 Iowa State University

Knowledge Gained From Good Agricultural Practices Courses For Iowa Growers, Angela M. Shaw, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Linda L. Naeve, Paul A. Domoto, Lester A. Wilson

Angela M. Shaw

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) educational courses provide produce growers with the fundamental information for producing and processing safe produce. To determine the effectiveness of the current 7- hour GAP course provided in Iowa, growers were surveyed before and 7-14 days after the course to determine changes in knowledge and opinions. Results show that growers positively changed their knowledge and opinions on key food safety principles and regulations, which provides evidence that Extension programming is an effective method to educate small growers. Food safety educators should focus their training on practical methods for documentation, sanitation, and facilities.


Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps In Knowledge Of Bean Health Benefits, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson, Mariah K. Dougherty 2018 Iowa State University

Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps In Knowledge Of Bean Health Benefits, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson, Mariah K. Dougherty

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health ...


Mitigating Ammonia Emissions From Liquid-Sprayed Litter Of Cage-Free Hen House With A Solid Litter Additive, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Michelle Soupir, Kai Liu 2018 Iowa State University

Mitigating Ammonia Emissions From Liquid-Sprayed Litter Of Cage-Free Hen House With A Solid Litter Additive, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Michelle Soupir, Kai Liu

Hongwei Xin

A number of restaurant chains, retailers, and grocers in the US have pledged to source cage-free (CF) eggs only in the foreseeable future (e.g., by 2025 or 2030) due to marketing reasons or concerns over animal welfare. However, CF housing has some inherent challenges and a predominant one is poor air quality (ammonia gas – NH3 and particulate matter – PM) and increased emissions. The high NH3 levels primarily arise from the extended accumulation of manure on the litter floor, whereas the high PM levels are generated from dustbathing and foraging activities of the birds on the ...


Understanding Postharvest Practices, Knowledge, And Actual Mycotoxin Levels In Maize In Three Agro-Ecological Zones In Tanzania, R. A. Suleiman, K. A. Rosentrater, B. Chove 2018 Sokoine University of Agriculture

Understanding Postharvest Practices, Knowledge, And Actual Mycotoxin Levels In Maize In Three Agro-Ecological Zones In Tanzania, R. A. Suleiman, K. A. Rosentrater, B. Chove

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Maize is a major cereal crop in Tanzania and it is grown in diverse agro-ecological zones. Like other sub-Saharan countries, postharvest losses of maize during storage in Tanzania remain significantly high, especially for smallholder farmers. Unpredictable weather and poor postharvest practice contribute to rapid deterioration of grain and mold contamination, and subsequent production of mycotoxins. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge regarding mycotoxin contamination in maize grain in three agro-ecological zones (Eastern, Central, and Northern) of Tanzania between November 2015 and February 2016. A survey using questionnaires was administered to farmers, traders, and consumers of ...


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