Characterizing Reactive Glutamines In Fibrinogen And Elucidating Factor Xiii Substrate Specificity., 2017 University of Louisville
Characterizing Reactive Glutamines In Fibrinogen And Elucidating Factor Xiii Substrate Specificity., Kelly Njine Mouapi
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Fibrinogen is the most abundant protein involved in blood coagulation and has been associated with many pathological implications in cardiovascular disease. At the final stages of blood clot formation, the transglutaminase Factor XIIIa introduces γ-glutamyl-ε-lysinyl covalent bonds between reactive glutamines and lysines in fibrin, which results in a tighter clot network that is resistant to fibrinolysis. Factor XIIIa crosslinks specific reactive glutamines on fibrinogen, selecting more reactive glutamines in the αC region of fibrinogen than any other chain. Although crosslinking pairs in the αC region have been identified, little is known about the extent of crosslinking and the role played ...
The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, 2017 Florida International University
The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, Mohannad Garoub
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the United States and the World, therefore, early effective prevention, diagnosis, and therapy is needed. Estrogens play a major role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Elevated lifetime exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Estrogens through influencing mitochondria contribute to estrogen induced breast carcinogenesis; however, the exact mitochondrial mechanisms underlying the estrogen carcinogenic effect in breast tissue are not clearly understood. For this dissertation, the mitotoxic and cytotoxic effects of triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP) and Origanum majorana organic extract (OME) as well as ...
Characterization Of An 18f-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Probe For Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Of The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Characterization Of An 18f-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Probe For Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Of The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, Ahmed Abbas
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Cardiovascular disease affects 1.6 million Canadians, of whom one-third have heart failure (HF). HF is diagnosed by imaging investigations and detection of circulating biomarkers. Most of the current imaging strategies study morphologic and gross functional changes, but fall short of imaging molecular abnormalities associated with HF. Biomarkers offer molecular targets; however, clinical biomarkers circulate systemically and are not cardiac-specific. Thus, there is critical need for a biomarker that is endogenous to myocardial tissues. The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which binds the hormone ghrelin, is expressed by cardiomyocytes and is elevated in HF patients. This study characterized the ...
The Effect Of Insulin Treatment And Exercise Modality On Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size In Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
The Effect Of Insulin Treatment And Exercise Modality On Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size In Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats, John Z. Nickels
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Severe Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is known to have several negative effects on skeletal muscle mass, a condition known as diabetic myopathy. One of these effects is the atrophy of the glycolytic muscle fibers. However, the role of intensity of insulin treatment and exercise modality in attenuating this loss in fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) specifically has yet to be determined. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of differing intensity of insulin therapy and exercise modality on the CSA of plantaris muscle fibers, identified by myosin heavy chain (MHC) of STZ-induced T1DM rats ...
Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, Stacy Star Habroun
Master's Theses and Project Reports
Neurogenesis is an important and vastly under-explored area in reptiles. While the ability to generate new brain cells in the adult mammalian brain is limited, reptiles are able to regenerate large populations of neuronal cells. Pythons exhibit a characteristic specific dynamic action (SDA) response after food intake with an increase in metabolic rate that facilitates processing the meal. Associated with this change in SDA, pythons (Python spp.) also exhibit impressive plasticity in their digestive and cardiovascular physiology due to the sheer magnitude of the increase in organ growth that occurs after a meal to speed digestion, absorption, and assimilation of ...
Characterization Of Zic2 As An Oncoprotein In Prostate Cancer, 2017 Clark Atlanta University
Characterization Of Zic2 As An Oncoprotein In Prostate Cancer, Keira C. Davis
Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University
The field of prostate cancer research is in need of biological markers that predict which cancers do not need treatment, those that can be treated successfully with a localized treatment and more specific cases in which patients are likely to have an aggressive form of cancer that will require more aggressive surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments. ZIC2 is one of five members of a family of proteins that play critical roles in neural crest and mesoderm growth in normal embryonic brain development and in the adult cerebellum of vertebrates. Found throughout the animal kingdom, ZIC1-5 genes encode five distinct ZIC proteins ...
B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, 2017 Seton Hall University
B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...
Mrna Decay Pathways Use Translation Fidelity And Competing Decapping Complexes For Substrate Selection, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Mrna Decay Pathways Use Translation Fidelity And Competing Decapping Complexes For Substrate Selection, Alper Celik
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
mRNA decay is an important step in gene regulation, environmental responsiveness, and mRNA quality control. One such quality control pathway, Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay (NMD), targets transcripts whose translation terminates prematurely. However, the scope and the defining features of NMD-targeted transcripts remain elusive. To address these issues, we re-evaluated the genome-wide expression of annotated transcripts in yeast cells harboring deletions of the UPF1, UPF2, or UPF3 genes. The vast majority of NMD-regulated transcripts are normal-looking protein-coding mRNAs. Our bioinformatics analyses reveal that this set of NMD-regulated transcripts generally have lower translational efficiency, lower average codon optimality scores, and higher ratios of ...
Immunology Of The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum During Pregnancy And Prenatal Development, 2017 University of New Mexico
Immunology Of The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum During Pregnancy And Prenatal Development, Victoria L. Hansen
Vertebrate species that bear live young have overcome the evolutionary challenge of maintaining both a functional adaptive immune system and viviparous life cycle. In normal pregnancy, viviparous mothers are able sustain and nourish a fetus that is genetically half non-self without mounting an immunological attack. In 1953 Sir Peter Medawar brought attention to the “enigma of the fetal graft” and immunologists have been puzzling out the intricacies of fetal tolerance ever since. Although viviparity has evolved in all jawed vertebrate lineages aside from Aves, the vast majority of reproductive immunology research has been limited to eutherian mammals. There are insights ...
Rat Hind Limb Nociceptive Withdrawal Response To Heat And Mechanical Stimuli Depends On Initial Position Of The Paw But Not Stimulus Location, Giavanna Verdi
Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current
Mammals rapidly withdraw their hind limb in response to noxious stimulation, which is a protective movement known as the nociceptive withdrawal response (NWR). The NWR has been previously studied in spinalized, decerebrated and anesthetized non-human and human mammals; however, there is minimal information on the NWR in intact, unanesthetized non-human mammals.
The first specific aim was to identify the factors that determine the direction and magnitude of the NWR in intact, unanesthetized rats. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the location of stimulation and the initial position of the paw preceding the NWR will influence the direction and magnitude ...
Epigenetic Modifications Of Human Placenta Associated With Preterm Birth, 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Epigenetic Modifications Of Human Placenta Associated With Preterm Birth, Drissa Toure
Theses & Dissertations
Preterm birth is a complex multifactorial process. Despite the well-known role of the placenta in supporting the fetal development and maternal-fetal tolerance, the placental epigenetic modifications and preterm birth (PTB) remains poorly understood and under investigated. Various maternal and environment factors can influence epigenetic programming during fetal development to affect the functioning and structures of organs, including the placenta, which can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB. The understanding of the placental epigenetic alterations and maternal determinants associated with PTB are apparently indispensable for the development of actual diagnosis and methods of prevention and treatment of premature labor. The ...
Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, 2017 James Madison University
Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, Kevin Decker
Decker K. P., M. J. Saunders, N. D. Luden, C. J. Womack, and N. J. Hladick. Mouth Exposure to Carbohydrate Prior to Exercise Possibly Impairs the Efficacy of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing during Exercise. Purpose: Carbohydrate mouth-rinsing (CHO-MR) during intense endurance exercise has been associated with improved cycling performance, due to neurological influences. However, prior studies have reported the efficacy of CHO-MR is attenuated following a pre-exercise meal. To determine if this outcome is related to desensitization of CHO receptors (rather than metabolic effects following digestion), this study will investigate whether CHO-MR prior to exercise influences cycling performance when CHO-MR is ...
The Role Of The Diras Family Members In Regulating Ras Function, Cancer Growth And Autophagy, 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
The Role Of The Diras Family Members In Regulating Ras Function, Cancer Growth And Autophagy, Margie Nicole Sutton
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
DIRAS3 is a maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated by multiple mechanisms across several tumor types. When re-expressed, DIRAS3 decreases proliferation, inhibits motility, and induces autophagy and tumor dormancy. DIRAS3 encodes a 26 kDa small GTPase with 60% homology to Ras and Rap, differing from oncogenic Ras family members by a 34-amino acid N-terminal extension that is required for its tumor suppressive function in ovarian cancer. By assessing the structure-function relationship, I found that DIRAS3 inhibits Ras-induced transformation and is a natural antagonist of Ras/MAPK signaling. DIRAS3 binds directly to Ras and disrupts cluster formation inhibiting the ...
Evaluating The Impact Of Post-Translational Modifications By The Secreted Zinc Metalloprotease, Gele, On The Major Autolysin Of E. Faecalis, Atla, And A Stress-Induced Protein, Salb, 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Evaluating The Impact Of Post-Translational Modifications By The Secreted Zinc Metalloprotease, Gele, On The Major Autolysin Of E. Faecalis, Atla, And A Stress-Induced Protein, Salb, Emily K. Stinemetz
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
AtlA is the major peptidoglycan hydrolase of E. faecalis involved in cell separation of dividing cells. SalB is a secreted stress-induced protein regulated by the CroRS system. In addition, these two proteins also appear to be affected by the virulence factor, gelatinase (GelE). GelE is a secreted zinc metalloprotease known to impact various cellular functions by post- translational modification of protein substrates. The overall objective of this work was to understand how GelE cleavage of secreted proteins, specifically AtlA and SalB, changes their function. Herein, I discovered that GelE modifies both AtlA and SalB. As visualized by Western blot analysis ...
Investigation Of The Roles Of Asf1 And Caf-1-Mediated Chromatin Assembly In The Human Dna Damage Response, 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Investigation Of The Roles Of Asf1 And Caf-1-Mediated Chromatin Assembly In The Human Dna Damage Response, Ting-Hsiang Huang
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
The access-repair-restore model for the role of chromatin in DNA repair infers that chromatin is a mere obstacle to DNA repair. However, here we show that blocking chromatin assembly of newly-synthesized histones, via knockdown of the histone chaperones ASF1A, CAF-1 or a mutation that specifically prevents ASF1 binding to histones, hinders loading of Rad51 onto ssDNA during homologous recombination, as a consequence of reduced recruitment of the Rad51 loader MMS22L/TONSL to ssDNA, resulting in persistent RPA foci, extensive DNA end-resection, and persistent activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway. By contrast, ASF1 and CAF-1 render the rapid inactivation of ATM Chk2 ...
Denoising Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data, 2017 East Tennessee State Universtiy
Denoising Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data, Felix Offei
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Protein identification using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has proven to be an effective way to identify proteins in a biological sample. An observed spectrum is constructed from the data produced by the tandem mass spectrometer. A protein can be identified if the observed spectrum aligns with the theoretical spectrum. However, data generated by the tandem mass spectrometer are affected by errors thus making protein identification challenging in the field of proteomics. Some of these errors include wrong calibration of the instrument, instrument distortion and noise. In this thesis, we present a pre-processing method, which focuses on the removal of ...
Biographical Feature: Thomas F. Smith, Ph.D., 2017 Marquette University
Biographical Feature: Thomas F. Smith, Ph.D., Erik Munson
Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications
No abstract provided.
Elucidating The Effects Of Thiamethoxam Neonicotinoid On Honey Bee Learning Using The Proboscis Extension Response, 2017 East Tennessee State University
Elucidating The Effects Of Thiamethoxam Neonicotinoid On Honey Bee Learning Using The Proboscis Extension Response, David J. Shepherd
Undergraduate Honors Theses
In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, are examined through the Proboscis Extension Response (PER) in honey bees (Apis mellifera). PER is a form of classical conditioning applied to honey bees through scent and reward association which quantifies learning rates. Results between groups treated with thiamethoxam did not differ significantly from untreated control groups. Potential reasons for these results are discussed. The method and experimental apparatus for testing the PER assay are also discussed.
Assessing The Rate And Extent Of Transgenerational Acclimation And Adaptation To Ocean Warming, 2017 Nova Southeastern University
Assessing The Rate And Extent Of Transgenerational Acclimation And Adaptation To Ocean Warming, Abby C. Nease
HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations
A primary goal of climate change research is to determine if species will be able to persist in a warmer environment. Most studies predict climate change will cause many species to become extinct. However, these predictions are based on experiments where only a single life stage or generation of a species was exposed to predicted future conditions (i.e. shock treatments), and thus overlook the possibility of species adapting or acclimatizing to new environmental conditions over multiple generations. As a result, current projections of species persistence through climate change are likely to overestimate species extinction. In this study, the rate ...
E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, 2017 Cedarville University
E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...