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Laboratory and Basic Science Research Commons

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Hiv-1 Group M Subtype Fitness, Disease Progression, And Entry Efficiency, Colin M. Venner 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Hiv-1 Group M Subtype Fitness, Disease Progression, And Entry Efficiency, Colin M. Venner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) emerged in the human population shortly after the turn of the 19th century. Distribution of HIV-1 across the globe over the past 30–35 years can be traced to founder events with primordial HIV strains from sub-Saharan Africa. Even considering the burden of HIV in Africa, our knowledge of HIV-1 disease is still largely limited to subtype B HIV-1, a strain responsible for 3 million infections in North America and Europe as compared to the 33 million that are infected with HIV-1 subtypes A, C, D, and circulating and unique recombinant forms.

This dissertation ...


2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'Annah Jones, DeLawnia Comer-Hagans 2019 Governors State University

2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'annah Jones, Delawnia Comer-Hagans

GSU Research Day

This research poster details the relationship between cancer treatments and alternative approaches, such as mindfulness. The purpose of this study was to determine the methodology used by doctors to treat breast cancer and their willingness to try a holistic approach. This study was conducted on site at the UIC Cancer Center as well as remotely within hospitals around the Chicagoland area. We determined that mindfulness is in fact a worthwhile asset to breast cancer patients and that the field of oncology could support further research.


Publication Reform To Safeguard Wildlife From Researcher Harm, Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle A. Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook, Chris T. Darimont 2019 University of Victoria

Publication Reform To Safeguard Wildlife From Researcher Harm, Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle A. Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook, Chris T. Darimont

Professional Science Research Ethics Collection

Despite abundant focus on responsible care of laboratory animals, we argue that inattention to the maltreatment of wildlife constitutes an ethical blind spot in contemporary animal research. We begin by reviewing significant shortcomings in legal and institutional oversight, arguing for the relatively rapid and transformational potential of editorial oversight at journals in preventing harm to vertebrates studied in the field and outside the direct supervision of institutions. Straightforward changes to animal care policies in journals, which our analysis of 206 journals suggests are either absent (34%), weak, incoherent, or neglected by researchers, could provide a practical, effective, and rapidly imposed ...


Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers

Senior Theses

Iron dysregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases, such as anemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia, sideroblastic-like microcytic anemia, and myopathy. Thus, it is vitally important to understand the mechanisms for regulating intracellular iron. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy techniques in live cells to study interactions of the yeast proteins Grx3/4, Aft1/2, and Bol2, which have been shown to be involved in turning off iron import when the cell has adequate iron. Modified versions of genes encoding these proteins have been incorporated into several yeast backgrounds to use fluorescence to monitor interactions under varying ...


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

David Grünwald

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, our method enables state estimation on multivariate Gaussian signals. We validate our approach using simulated data, and benchmark the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We ...


Day To Day And Leg To Leg Variation In Gene Expression, Zohal Alizai 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Day To Day And Leg To Leg Variation In Gene Expression, Zohal Alizai

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle biopsies are extensively used in research to determine the effects of exercise. Usually, sequential biopsies are taken before and after exercise in order to determine the influence of exercise on gene expression. Often it is not clear if the results are due to exercise or as a result of damage cause by the biopsy to the muscle. Previous studies have proven that multiple biopsies in the same leg cause stress to the muscle and such stress leads to inflammation and other response pathways that alter the gene expression. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine ...


Relación Entre La Grasa Subcutánea Y Desempeño Maternal En Vacas Angus Primerizas, Esteban Mendoza de la Pava, Adel David Kalil Rey 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Relación Entre La Grasa Subcutánea Y Desempeño Maternal En Vacas Angus Primerizas, Esteban Mendoza De La Pava, Adel David Kalil Rey

Zootecnia

El objetivo del presente estudio, tuvo como finalidad lograr identificar el porcentaje de grasa dorsal que se moviliza en vacas Angus primerizas posterior al parto y cómo este podría verse relacionado con el desempeño maternal y el peso al destete del ternero. Para poder lograr este objetivo, se evaluaron doce vacas primerizas de la raza Angus del CIC (centro de investigación y capacitación) San Miguel en Facatativá, Cundinamarca, con diversos parámetros productivos como: peso corporal, puntaje de condición corporal del preparto y al destete, espesor de grasa dorsal (preparto y destete), espesor de grasa en el anca (preparto y destete ...


The Master Synaptic Regulator: Activity Regulated Cytoskeleton Associated Protein, Arc, In Normal Aging And Diseases With Cognitive Impairment, Amber Khan 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Master Synaptic Regulator: Activity Regulated Cytoskeleton Associated Protein, Arc, In Normal Aging And Diseases With Cognitive Impairment, Amber Khan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with complex underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Epidemiological studies have forecasted that in the next 3 decades, the number of AD cases will rise to epidemic proportions with enormous medical, emotional and financial burdens impacting individuals affected and society. Among many risk factors for AD, advancing age is clearly essential and necessary. Revelation of molecular changes in synaptic activities leading to the prodromal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage may help illuminate the course of pathogenic progression and its cause-effect relationship with various targets thereby enabling target-driven disease-modifying therapeutic agents for AD.

Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated ...


Andrews University Receives Naacls Accreditation, Hannah Gallant 2019 Andrews University

Andrews University Receives Naacls Accreditation, Hannah Gallant

Andrews Agenda: Campus News

No abstract provided.


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, our method enables state estimation on multivariate Gaussian signals. We validate our approach using simulated data, and benchmark the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We ...


Undergraduate Research And Teaching At Oak Lake Field Station, Lan Xu 2019 South Dakota State University

Undergraduate Research And Teaching At Oak Lake Field Station, Lan Xu

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Manipulating Vertical Motion On Running Economy, Claire Copriviza 2019 Humboldt State University

The Effect Of Manipulating Vertical Motion On Running Economy, Claire Copriviza

HSU theses and projects

While several biomechanical factors have been identified as key determinants of running economy (i.e. metabolic cost), the influence of individual mechanical factors such as center of mass vertical motion (ΔCoMz) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine how manipulating ΔCoMz effects running economy. Twelve runners used a visual biofeedback system to control their ΔCoMz during running as we measured the metabolic, kinematic, and muscle activation responses to the different levels of ΔCoMz. Running economy was strongly correlated to ΔCoMz and was optimized at an intermediate center of mass vertical motion of ...


Effects Of A Race Timer On The Three Minute All-Out Test For Critical Power, Paul K. Mandell 2019 Humboldt State University

Effects Of A Race Timer On The Three Minute All-Out Test For Critical Power, Paul K. Mandell

HSU theses and projects

Maximal exercise testing is commonly employed by exercise scientists in order to assess an athlete's’ capabilities and inform future training goals and tactics. The Critical Power (CP) concept provides a novel perspective on the physiological capacity of an individual to perform work. The 3 Minute All-Out Test (3MT) for critical power was developed by Vanhatalo, Doust, & Burnley in 2006. Concerns about pacing during the test lead to the development of protocol which blinds participants to time during the test. Twelve healthy active males were recruited to participate in the current study on the effects of a race timer on ...


The Changing Paradigm In Preclinical Toxicology: In Vitro And In Silico Methods In Liver Toxicity Evaluations, Fozia Noor 2019 Université du Luxembourg

The Changing Paradigm In Preclinical Toxicology: In Vitro And In Silico Methods In Liver Toxicity Evaluations, Fozia Noor

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

In vitro methods, based on human primary cells, cell lines, and genetically modified reporter cell lines, have greatly expanded the scope of in vitro toxicology. Other significant progress in the area of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) (Asgari et al., 2010; Schwartz et al., 2014; Shinde et al., 2016; Shtrichman, Germanguz and Itskovitz-Eldor, 2013) is allowing the application of patient and disease-specific hiPSCs (Ghodsizadeh et al., 2010; McCracken et al., 2014; Siller et al., 2013). Moreover, the tools of precise genome editing with engineered nucleases, such as the zinc finger nucleases (zfns), the transcription activator-like effecter nucleases (talens) and, more ...


Contesting Animal Experiments Through Ethics And Epistemology: In Defense Of A Political Critique Of Animal Experimentation, Arianna Ferrari 2019 Futurium gGmbH

Contesting Animal Experiments Through Ethics And Epistemology: In Defense Of A Political Critique Of Animal Experimentation, Arianna Ferrari

Professional Science Research Ethics Collection

Generally, an animal experiment can be defined as an intervention on an animal, which causes suffering, harm, and distress, for scientific purposes. In this definition, animal experiments differ from more general scientific investigations concerning animals, such as observational studies in the wild in the fields of ethology or conservation, in which animals are involved but may not be harmed. Nowadays, the use of the term vivisection, in the case of animal experiments, is very controversial. This term originally referred to the cutting of living bodies for scientific purposes and has a long conceptual history (Maehle, 1992). In ancient times, it ...


Replacing Animal Tests To Improve Safety For Humans, Kathy Archibald, Robert Coleman, Tamara Drake 2019 Safer Medicines Trust

Replacing Animal Tests To Improve Safety For Humans, Kathy Archibald, Robert Coleman, Tamara Drake

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

In this chapter, we propose a new, pragmatic approach that could accelerate the replacement of most, if not all, regulatory animal tests with superior tests based on human biology. We also propose that changes to the requirements for safety testing, issued by the us Food and Drug Administration (fda), must be made in order to enable the use of superior new tests, which are currently disadvantaged by the outdated language of the regulations. But first, it is imperative to establish some level of understanding of the efficacy of existing animal-based methods in order to know whether any possible replacement is ...


Recent Developments In Alternatives To Animal Testing, Katy Taylor 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Developments In Alternatives To Animal Testing, Katy Taylor

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

Methods that replace techniques that use live animals, or methods of testing substances without live animal use, are known as alternatives, replacements or non-animal methods. Some prefer the term advanced technologies given the fact that they often rely on more sophisticated technology and are more human- relevant than the animal test they replace (see Langley et al., 2015). There have been efforts to replace animal tests since the 1960s. Significant progress initially came in replacing animals used to diagnose human disease; to produce biological drugs (such as vaccines); and to safety test batches of these drugs as they were produced ...


Refinement On The Way Towards Replacement: Are We Doing What We Can?, Kathrin Herrmann 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Refinement On The Way Towards Replacement: Are We Doing What We Can?, Kathrin Herrmann

Humane Science Movement Collection

No abstract provided.


The Potential Of Organ On Chip Technology For Replacing Animal Testing, Malcolm Wilkinson 2019 Kirkstall Ltd.

The Potential Of Organ On Chip Technology For Replacing Animal Testing, Malcolm Wilkinson

Human Clinical Trials Collection

The term organ on a chip is used to describe the latest stage of development of in vitro cell culture technology. Figure 26.1 shows its steady development since the 1960s. Each step forward has improved our ability to model human-clinical response to new drugs or therapies and has enabled safety risk assessment of existing cosmetics, personal care products, or other chemicals in the environment. Scientific evidence that the predictive power of in vitro tests is superior to the use of animals will trigger a major shift in the way that medical research, in many areas, is carried out. In ...


Research And Testing Without Animals: Where Are We Now And Where Are We Heading?, Thomas Hartung 2019 Johns Hopkins University

Research And Testing Without Animals: Where Are We Now And Where Are We Heading?, Thomas Hartung

Humane Science Movement Collection

Experiments involving non-human animals (hereinafter referred to as animals) were the predominant technology in the life sciences from the 1920s to the 1970s. Increasingly, animal-based procedures have been complemented and superseded by other approaches; yet, they still have an enormous reputation as an apparent definitive answer to many scientific and, especially, regulatory questions. They have been questioned first for ethical reasons: Can we justify making animals suffer for scientific inquiry? Simply said, people have different views on this question, but the general public views animal experimentation more and more critically. The animal research community has sought a compromise between those ...


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