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Guidance For Regulated Biotech Trials In The U.S., Lisa Baker 2020 Iowa State University

Guidance For Regulated Biotech Trials In The U.S., Lisa Baker

Creative Components

This creative component provides an overview of what must be done to comply with U.S. regulations for conducting regulated biotech trials in a field setting which are different than the requirements for contained facility studies (lab or greenhouse). Many risks must be assessed and addressed by an organization wishing to conduct the regulated biotech trials, and the USDA must approve of these methods to address risk.

The audience for this creative component is those with a background in agriculture and knowledge of biotech materials. The information addresses how to manage regulated biotech trials per USDA requirements in the United ...


Spatial And Temporal Genetic Structure Of Winter-Run Steelhead (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Returning To The Mad River, California, Steven R. Fong 2020 Humboldt State University

Spatial And Temporal Genetic Structure Of Winter-Run Steelhead (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Returning To The Mad River, California, Steven R. Fong

HSU theses and projects

Distinct populations of steelhead in the wild are in decline. The propagation of steelhead in hatcheries has been used to boost population numbers for recreational fisheries and for use in conservation. However, hatchery breeding practices of steelhead can result in changes in genetic structure. I investigated the genetic structure of winter-run steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) returning to the Mad River, California, where a hatchery has been used enhance production for recreational fisheries since 1971. Genetic variability in Mad River steelhead was evaluated using 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 4203 individuals, including the Mad River and nearby locations, and spanning 44 ...


Neurodegenerative Modeling: Tau Protein, Degradative Pathways, And Gene Expression Profiling Of Human Ipsc-Derived Neural Precursors And Differentiated 3-D Neural Sphere Versus 2-D Monolayer Cultures, Kyle H. Anthoney 2020 Humboldt State University

Neurodegenerative Modeling: Tau Protein, Degradative Pathways, And Gene Expression Profiling Of Human Ipsc-Derived Neural Precursors And Differentiated 3-D Neural Sphere Versus 2-D Monolayer Cultures, Kyle H. Anthoney

HSU theses and projects

Human induced pluripotent stem cells offer a model for human brain development and disease by differentiation into brain organoids; however, current neural culture systems lack the microenvironment, neuronal circuits and connectivity, vascular circulation, and immune system that exist in vivo. After differentiation and development of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types within two formats of cell cultures, we can visualize and recapitulate in vivo protein accumulation, gene expression, and degradative processes such as autophagy. Using RNA extraction, purification methods and reverse transcription I compared traditional monolayer cultures and novel 3-D neural sphere cultures via gene expression analysis. This analysis indicated variable ...


Functional Characterization Of Petiolule-Like Pulvinus (Plp) Gene In Abscission Zone Development In Medicago Truncatula And Its Application To Genetic Improvement Of Alfalfa, Juan Du, Shaoyun Lu, Maofeng Chai, Chuanen Zhou, Liang Sun, Yuhong Tang, Jin Nakashima, Jaydeep Kolape, Zhaozhu Wen, Marjan Behzadirad, Tianxiu Zhong, Juan Sun, Yunwei Zhang, Zeng-Yu Wang 2020 Noble Research Institute, Ardmore, OK

Functional Characterization Of Petiolule-Like Pulvinus (Plp) Gene In Abscission Zone Development In Medicago Truncatula And Its Application To Genetic Improvement Of Alfalfa, Juan Du, Shaoyun Lu, Maofeng Chai, Chuanen Zhou, Liang Sun, Yuhong Tang, Jin Nakashima, Jaydeep Kolape, Zhaozhu Wen, Marjan Behzadirad, Tianxiu Zhong, Juan Sun, Yunwei Zhang, Zeng-Yu Wang

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops throughout the world. Maximizing leaf retention during the haymaking process is critical for achieving superior hay quality and maintaining biomass yield. Leaf abscission process affects leaf retention. Previous studies have largely focused on the molecular mechanisms of floral organ, pedicel and seed abscission but scarcely touched on leaf and petiole abscission. This study focuses on leaf and petiole abscission in the model legume Medicago truncatula and its closely related commercial species alfalfa. By analysing the petiolule-like pulvinus (plp) mutant in M. truncatula at phenotypic level (breakstrength and shaking ...


Brassinosteroids Inhibit Autotropic Root Straightening By Modifying Filamentous-Actin Organization And Dynamics, Louise de Bang, Ana Paez-Garcia, Ashley E. Cannon, Sabrina Chin, Jaydeep Kolape, Fuqi Liao, J. Alan Sparks, Qingzhen Jiang, Elison B. Blancaflor 2020 University of Copenhagen

Brassinosteroids Inhibit Autotropic Root Straightening By Modifying Filamentous-Actin Organization And Dynamics, Louise De Bang, Ana Paez-Garcia, Ashley E. Cannon, Sabrina Chin, Jaydeep Kolape, Fuqi Liao, J. Alan Sparks, Qingzhen Jiang, Elison B. Blancaflor

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

When positioned horizontally, roots grow down toward the direction of gravity. This phenomenon, called gravitropism, is influenced by most of the major plant hormones including brassinosteroids. Epi-brassinolide (eBL) was previously shown to enhance root gravitropism, a phenomenon similar to the response of roots exposed to the actin inhibitor, latrunculin B (LatB). This led us to hypothesize that eBL might enhance root gravitropism through its effects on filamentous-actin (F-actin). This hypothesis was tested by comparing gravitropic responses of maize (Zea mays) roots treated with eBL or LatB. LatB- and eBL-treated roots displayed similar enhanced downward growth compared with controls when vertical ...


Numerical Modeling Of Submicron Particles For Acoustic Concentration In Gaseous Flow, Jizhou Liu, Xiaodong Li, Fang Q. Hu 2020 Old Dominion University

Numerical Modeling Of Submicron Particles For Acoustic Concentration In Gaseous Flow, Jizhou Liu, Xiaodong Li, Fang Q. Hu

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

This paper intends to explore the rationality and feasibility of modeling dispersed submicron particles in air by a kinetic-based method called the unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) and apply it to the simulation of particle concentration under a transverse standing wave. A gas-particle coupling scheme is proposed where the gas phase is modeled by the two-dimensional linearized Euler equations (LEE) and, through the analogous behavior between the rarefied gas molecules and the air-suspended particles, a modified UGKS is adopted to estimate the particle dynamics. The Stokes' drag force and the acoustic radiation force applied on particles are accounted for by introducing ...


Development Of A Crispr-Spycas9 In-Vitro Cleavage Assay, Adam Ahmed Fallah 2020 Bard College

Development Of A Crispr-Spycas9 In-Vitro Cleavage Assay, Adam Ahmed Fallah

Senior Projects Spring 2020

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) were discovered within bacteria as a self-defense mechanism against invading viruses by using CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins to cleave viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Since then the CRISPR-Cas9 system has rapidly evolved into one of the most efficient and effective means of genome editing. Utilizing a single-guide RNA complementary to the target genome DNA sequence, the Cas9 enzyme from Streptococcus Pyogenes (SpyCas9) is able to recognize and cleave dsDNA. The goal of this research is to develop an in-vitro cleavage assay for the CRISPR-SpyCas9 system for further studies into the effects of RNA binding drugs ...


Innovation In Meat Production: A Problem And An Opportunity, Christopher J. Bryant 2020 University of Bath

Innovation In Meat Production: A Problem And An Opportunity, Christopher J. Bryant

Animal Sentience

Innovation in meat production has enabled modern humans to inflict far greater harm on animals, the environment, and public health than was possible just a few decades ago. Wiebers & Feigin aptly express the urgency with which these issues must be addressed. Those advocating for animals on moral grounds face resistance from omnivores citing taste, price and convenience. Further innovation in meat production (plant-based and cultured meat) will enable us to preserve the experience of eating meat whilst phasing out the many problems caused by industrial animal farming.


Microbial Degradation Of Urea Oligomers: Potential Slow Release Nitrogen Fertilizers, Maddy Bygd 2020 Hamline University

Microbial Degradation Of Urea Oligomers: Potential Slow Release Nitrogen Fertilizers, Maddy Bygd

Departmental Honors Projects

Urea is the most commonly used nitrogen compound in fertilizers across the world. It provides the most nitrogen at the lowest cost. However, with the size and solubility of this compound, it is easily washed out of the soil. This results in the need to continuously add fertilizer to fields, creating adverse effects on the environment due to nitrogen runoff and leading to increased expenses for farmers. Triuret, a urea oligomer, is a compound with promising potential for use as a nitrogen source, providing a slower release of nitrogen into the soil. It is hypothesized that this compound can be ...


Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada 2020 Claremont Colleges

Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada

CMC Senior Theses

This study aims to provide insight on how availability of antimalarial drugs can help alleviate the economic burden of malaria. Much of the existing literature that looks into the effects of antimalarial drug availability focuses on the associated health benefits, but fails to draw a link to the economic benefits that may also be incurred. Using data from the 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey, this study performs a series of multiple regressions to observe how increased availability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), a front-line antimalarial drug in most African countries, affects likelihood of work absenteeism ...


A Cloning Strategy For Expression Of Fungal Hemicellulases In Plant Systems, Amer Alrudayan 2020 Eastern Illinois University

A Cloning Strategy For Expression Of Fungal Hemicellulases In Plant Systems, Amer Alrudayan

Masters Theses

Lignocellulosic biomass is notoriously difficult to deconstruct into lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose fractions without the use of biochemical, chemical, and/or mechanical pretreatments. These pretreatment strategies add operational cost and in some cases produce hazardous waste that poses health and safety risks. Direct biological pretreatment from biomass-degrading bacteria and fungi may significantly reduce the costs and risks associated with these traditional strategies due to the innate ability of these organisms to modify plant cell walls. An additional measure that could further reduce the expenses associated with lignocellulosic biomass fractionation is genetic modification of the lignocellulosic feedstocks, which can be accomplished ...


Evaluation Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Glyphosate, Glufosinate And Dicamba Tolerant Soybeans, Addison Spolyar 2020 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Glyphosate, Glufosinate And Dicamba Tolerant Soybeans, Addison Spolyar

Creative Components

As herbicide resistance increases in the tri-state area of Michigan, Ohio and Indiana, soybeans with tolerance to multiples herbicide modes of action are increasing in popularity. This project looks at soybeans with tolerance to glyphosate, glufosinate and dicamba to determine best practices for utilizing this technology. Eleven different herbicide treatments with variations across pre, post and late post applications, as well as an untreated control, were evaluated at three different timings across three sites to showcase differences between weed control efficacies. Soybeans were taken to harvest to showcase differences not only in weed control at this time but also in ...


Seed Soak Bioassay For Identifying The Roundup Readytm Gene In Sugar Beet Seed, James Terry 2020 Iowa State University

Seed Soak Bioassay For Identifying The Roundup Readytm Gene In Sugar Beet Seed, James Terry

Creative Components

ABSTRACT

Herbicide bioassay methods that involve paper media are successfully used in crops like soybeans, corn, canola and cotton. The spray bioassay method is the current industry standard for herbicide trait testing in commercial sugar beets. The duration of this spray bioassay takes 30 or more days to complete, depending on greenhouse conditions. Herbicide bioassays are an important tool to determine the presence or level of herbicide traits in a seed lot. The timeliness of receiving herbicide trait purity data on a seed lot is essential for the production, manufacturing and marketing of sugar beet seed. Based on different herbicide ...


Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros) Mediated Degradation Of Organophosphate T Pesticides By The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea☆, Timothy J Nicodemus, Concetta C. DiRusso, Mark A. Wilson, Paul N. Black 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros) Mediated Degradation Of Organophosphate T Pesticides By The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea☆, Timothy J Nicodemus, Concetta C. Dirusso, Mark A. Wilson, Paul N. Black

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The aim of this study was to define the mechanism allowing the green alga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea to break down organophosphates from agricultural run-off. This study found that metabolically active cultures of the microalga C. subellipsoidea breakdown organophosphates (paraoxon, malathion and diazinon) with differing structural conformations in freshwater through a mechanism that requires the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with little to no toxic effects on the algae. Under these conditions, organophosphate levels were reduced to 0.1 mg/mL or less over the 8–10 day experimental period. These findings demonstrate a biological- based system can be tailored for ...


From Synthesis To Utilization: The Ins And Outs Of Mitochondrial Heme, Samantha A. Swenson, Courtney M. Moore, Jason R. Marcero, Amy E. Medlock, Amit R. Reddi, Oleh Khalimonchuk 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

From Synthesis To Utilization: The Ins And Outs Of Mitochondrial Heme, Samantha A. Swenson, Courtney M. Moore, Jason R. Marcero, Amy E. Medlock, Amit R. Reddi, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Heme is a ubiquitous and essential iron containing metallo-organic cofactor required for virtually all aerobic life. Heme synthesis is initiated and completed in mitochondria, followed by certain covalent modifications and/or its delivery to apo-hemoproteins residing throughout the cell. While the biochemical aspects of heme biosynthetic reactions are well understood, the trafficking of newly synthesized heme—a highly reactive and inherently toxic compound—and its subsequent delivery to target proteins remain far from clear. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about heme biosynthesis and trafficking within and outside of the mitochondria.


Differences In Blood-Derived Francisella Tularensis Type B Strains From Clinical Cases Of Tularemia, Marilyn A. Larson, Baha Abdalhamid, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, David W. Kelley, Peter C. Iwen 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Differences In Blood-Derived Francisella Tularensis Type B Strains From Clinical Cases Of Tularemia, Marilyn A. Larson, Baha Abdalhamid, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, David W. Kelley, Peter C. Iwen

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Francisella tularensis can cause the zoonotic disease tularemia and is partitioned into subspecies due to differences in chromosomal organization and virulence. The subspecies holarctica (type B) is generally considered more clonal than the other subpopulations with moderate virulence compared to the hypervirulent A.I clade. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on six type B strains isolated from the blood of patients with tularemia within a one-year period from the same United States region, to better understand the associated pathogenicity. The WGS data were compared to the prototype strain for this subspecies, specifically FSC200, which was isolated from a patient ...


Sestrin2 Phosphorylation By Ulk1 Induces Autophagic Degradation Of Mitochondria Damaged By Copper-Induced Oxidative Stress, Heejeong Kim, Byeong Tak Jeon, Isaac M. Kim, Sydney Townsend, Carolyn M. Lorch, Martonio Viana, Jacob F. Myers, Caroline J. Trupp, Zachary T. Whipps, Mondira Kundu, Soonkyu Chung, Xinghui Sun, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jaekwon Lee, Seung-Hyun Ro 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sestrin2 Phosphorylation By Ulk1 Induces Autophagic Degradation Of Mitochondria Damaged By Copper-Induced Oxidative Stress, Heejeong Kim, Byeong Tak Jeon, Isaac M. Kim, Sydney Townsend, Carolyn M. Lorch, Martonio Viana, Jacob F. Myers, Caroline J. Trupp, Zachary T. Whipps, Mondira Kundu, Soonkyu Chung, Xinghui Sun, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jaekwon Lee, Seung-Hyun Ro

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Selective autolysosomal degradation of damaged mitochondria, also called mitophagy, is an indispensable process for maintaining integrity and homeostasis of mitochondria. One well-established mechanism mediating selective removal of mitochondria under relatively mild mitochondria-depolarizing stress is PINK1-Parkin-mediated or ubiquitin-dependent mitophagy. However, additional mechanisms such as LC3-mediated or ubiquitin-independent mitophagy induction by heavy environmental stress exist and remain poorly understood. The present study unravels a novel role of stress-inducible protein Sestrin2 in degradation of mitochondria damaged by transition metal stress. By utilizing proteomic methods and studies in cell culture and rodent models, we identify autophagy kinase ULK1-mediated phosphorylation sites of Sestrin2 and demonstrate ...


Genome Biology Of The Paleotetraploid Perennial Biomass Crop Miscanthus, Therese Mitros, Adam M. Session, Brandon T. James, Guohong Albert Wu, Katarzyna Glowacka, Kankshita Swaminathan, Daniel S. Rokhsar, 35 additional co-authors 2020 University of California, Berkeley

Genome Biology Of The Paleotetraploid Perennial Biomass Crop Miscanthus, Therese Mitros, Adam M. Session, Brandon T. James, Guohong Albert Wu, Katarzyna Glowacka, Kankshita Swaminathan, Daniel S. Rokhsar, 35 Additional Co-Authors

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Miscanthus is a perennial wild grass that is of global importance for paper production, roofing, horticultural plantings, and an emerging highly productive temperate biomass crop. We report a chromosome-scale assembly of the paleotetraploid M. sinensis genome, providing a resource for Miscanthus that links its chromosomes to the related diploid Sorghum and complex polyploid sugarcanes. The asymmetric distribution of transposons across the two homoeologous subgenomes proves Miscanthus paleo-allotetraploidy and identifies several balanced reciprocal homoeologous exchanges. Analysis of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus populations demonstrates extensive interspecific admixture and hybridization, and documents the origin of the highly productive triploid bioenergy crop M ...


Connecting Theory To Practice: Using Self-Determination Theory To Better Understand Inclusion In Stem, Michael E. Moore, Dulce M. Vega, Katie M. Wiens, Natalia Caporale 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Connecting Theory To Practice: Using Self-Determination Theory To Better Understand Inclusion In Stem, Michael E. Moore, Dulce M. Vega, Katie M. Wiens, Natalia Caporale

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

In the United States, persistence for women and ethnic minorities in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers is strongly impacted by affective factors such as science identity, agency, and sense of belonging. Policies aimed at increasing the diversity of the national STEM student population and workforce have recently focused on fostering inclusive learning environments that can positively impact the experi-ences of underrepresented minorities (URMs) in STEM, thus increasing their retention. While research on inclusion in STEM in higher education is relatively new, inclusion research has a rich history in several other disciplines. These fields have developed theoretical frameworks and ...


Sestrins Are Evolutionarily Conserved Mediators Of Exercise Benefits, Myungjin Kim, Alyson Sujkowski, Sim Namkoong, Bondong Gu, Tyler Cobb, Boyoung Kim, Allison H. Kowalsky, Chun-Seok Cho, Ian Semple, Seung-Hyun Ro, Carol Davis, Susan V. Brooks, Michael Karin, Robert J. Wessells, Jun Hee Lee 2020 University of Michigan

Sestrins Are Evolutionarily Conserved Mediators Of Exercise Benefits, Myungjin Kim, Alyson Sujkowski, Sim Namkoong, Bondong Gu, Tyler Cobb, Boyoung Kim, Allison H. Kowalsky, Chun-Seok Cho, Ian Semple, Seung-Hyun Ro, Carol Davis, Susan V. Brooks, Michael Karin, Robert J. Wessells, Jun Hee Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Exercise is among the most effective interventions for age-associated mobility decline and metabolic dysregulation. Although long-term endurance exercise promotes insulin sensitivity and expands respiratory capacity, genetic components and pathways mediating the meta- bolic benefits of exercise have remained elusive. Here, we show that Sestrins, a family of evolutionarily conserved exercise-inducible proteins, are critical mediators of exercise ben- efits. In both fly and mouse models, genetic ablation of Sestrins prevents organisms from acquiring metabolic benefits of exercise and improving their endurance through training. Conversely, Sestrin upregulation mimics both molecular and physiological effects of exercise, suggesting that it could be a major ...


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