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From Synthesis To Utilization: The Ins And Outs Of Mitochondrial Heme, Samantha A. Swenson, Courtney M. Moore, Jason R. Marcero, Amy E. Medlock, Amit R. Reddi, Oleh Khalimonchuk 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

From Synthesis To Utilization: The Ins And Outs Of Mitochondrial Heme, Samantha A. Swenson, Courtney M. Moore, Jason R. Marcero, Amy E. Medlock, Amit R. Reddi, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Heme is a ubiquitous and essential iron containing metallo-organic cofactor required for virtually all aerobic life. Heme synthesis is initiated and completed in mitochondria, followed by certain covalent modifications and/or its delivery to apo-hemoproteins residing throughout the cell. While the biochemical aspects of heme biosynthetic reactions are well understood, the trafficking of newly synthesized heme—a highly reactive and inherently toxic compound—and its subsequent delivery to target proteins remain far from clear. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about heme biosynthesis and trafficking within and outside of the mitochondria.


Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada 2020 Claremont Colleges

Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada

CMC Senior Theses

This study aims to provide insight on how availability of antimalarial drugs can help alleviate the economic burden of malaria. Much of the existing literature that looks into the effects of antimalarial drug availability focuses on the associated health benefits, but fails to draw a link to the economic benefits that may also be incurred. Using data from the 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey, this study performs a series of multiple regressions to observe how increased availability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), a front-line antimalarial drug in most African countries, affects likelihood of work absenteeism ...


Development Of A Novel Highly-Sensitive Brucellosis Sensor Based On Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy, Amal Kasry, Ihab Adly, Asharf Sayour, Hossam Sayour 2020 The British University in Egypt

Development Of A Novel Highly-Sensitive Brucellosis Sensor Based On Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy, Amal Kasry, Ihab Adly, Asharf Sayour, Hossam Sayour

Nanotechnology Research Centre

Brucellosis is considered a significant health threat, it is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Brucella, which can spread from animals to humans causing severe diseases. Through this project, we aim to develop a very highly sensitive biosensor to detect Brucella early before spreading. This sensor is based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique, which is used to analyze kinetics of interaction between biomolecules. It can detect down to picomolar concentrations of some proteins.


Systematic Age-, Organ-, And Diet-Associated Ionome Remodeling And The Development Of Ionomic Aging Clocks, Bohan Zhang, Dmitriy I. Podolskiy, Marco Mariotti, Javier Seravalli, Vadim N. Gladyshev 2020 Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

Systematic Age-, Organ-, And Diet-Associated Ionome Remodeling And The Development Of Ionomic Aging Clocks, Bohan Zhang, Dmitriy I. Podolskiy, Marco Mariotti, Javier Seravalli, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Aging involves coordinated yet distinct changes in organs and systems throughout life, including changes in essential trace elements. However, how aging affects tissue element composition (ionome) and how these changes lead to dysfunction and dis-ease remain unclear. Here, we quantified changes in the ionome across eight organs and 16 age groups of mice. This global profiling revealed novel interactions between elements at the level of tissue, age, and diet, and allowed us to achieve a broader, organismal view of the aging process. We found that while the entire ionome stead-ily transitions along the young-to-old trajectory, individual organs are characterized by ...


Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann

Theses & Dissertations

RATIONALE: Our laboratories birthed the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) theranostics. The new field allows simultaneous detection (diagnostics) and treatment (therapeutic) for the identification, treatment and inevitable elimination of virus in cell and tissue compartments. By employing theranostics, antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) can be tracked in lymph nodes, gut, spleen and liver. Cellular viral reservoirs including CD4+ T cell populations and mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes, macrophages, microglia and dendritic cells) along with subcellular endosomal structures can now be targeted for drug delivery bringing therapeutics to areas where virus replicates. The overarching idea rests in improving precision targeted ARV delivery. Bringing ...


Total Phenolic And Flavonoid Contents Of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Link Plant Extracts And Their Antioxidant Activity, Hanane Elazzouzi, Nadia Zekri, Touriya Zair, Mohamed Alaoui El Belghiti 2019 University Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences Rabat

Total Phenolic And Flavonoid Contents Of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Link Plant Extracts And Their Antioxidant Activity, Hanane Elazzouzi, Nadia Zekri, Touriya Zair, Mohamed Alaoui El Belghiti

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In this study, Anacyclus pyrethrm Link (roots) is a medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family, endemic to Morocco and is widely used in traditional medicine; was investigated for their total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities. The quantitative estimation of total flavonoids and phenols by the colorimetric method showed that the extracts were prepared by fractionation of the crude hydromethanolic extract (ethyl acetate and n-butanol). The phenol content of various extracts, estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, was between 1,44 and 12,82 mg EAG / g extract of A. pyrethrum. Moreover, it is clear that ethyl acetate was the ...


Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-ameen Dr. 2019 Dep. Biology/Plant Pathology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq

Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between disease incidence of both Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (FCR) and physiochemical parameters for soil samples and environmental factors in 14 selected wheat fields in the North of Basra province. The results showed that both diseases were occurred in all surveyed fields. The level of FCR incidence was higher than FHB. The incidence of both diseases was increased with favourable weather conditions (high humidity and temperature ˃15 °C), reaching the highest levels in crucial periods before and during the ripening stage. The percentage of disease incidence ranged between 6 ...


Structural Basis Of Non-Canonical Transcriptional Regulation By The A-Bound Iron-Sulfur Protein Whib1 In M. Tuberculosis, Tao Wan, Shanren Li, Daisy Guiza Beltran, Andrew Schacht, Lu Zhang, Donald F. Becker, Limei Zhang 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Structural Basis Of Non-Canonical Transcriptional Regulation By The A-Bound Iron-Sulfur Protein Whib1 In M. Tuberculosis, Tao Wan, Shanren Li, Daisy Guiza Beltran, Andrew Schacht, Lu Zhang, Donald F. Becker, Limei Zhang

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

WhiB1 is amonomeric iron–sulfur cluster-containing transcription factor in the WhiB-like family that is widely distributed in actinobacteria including the notoriously persistent pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). WhiB1 plays multiple roles in regulating cell growth and responding to nitric oxide stress inM. tuberculosis, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report a 1.85 A° -resolution crystal structure of the [4Fe–4S] cluster-bound (holo- )WhiB1 in complex with the C-terminal domain of the 70-family primary sigma factor A of M. tuberculosis containing the conserved region 4 (A 4). Region 4 of the 70-family primary sigma factors is commonly used ...


High-Throughput Nano-Scale Characterization Of Membrane Proteins Using Fluorescence-Detection Size-Exclusion Chromatography, Alex J. Vecchio, Robert M. Stroud 2019 University of California, San Francisco & University of Nebraska–Lincoln

High-Throughput Nano-Scale Characterization Of Membrane Proteins Using Fluorescence-Detection Size-Exclusion Chromatography, Alex J. Vecchio, Robert M. Stroud

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Structural biology has revealed predicting heterologous expression levels, homogeneity, and stability of a protein from its primary structure are exceedingly difficult. Membrane proteins, in particular, present numerous challenges that make obtaining milligram quantities of quality samples problematic. For structural and functional investigation of these molecules, however, this is what is required. Fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography (F-SEC), a technique where a protein of biological interest is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and monitored, circumvents many bottlenecks inherent to membrane protein structural biology. In vivo expression yields, as well as in vitro homogeneity and stability, can be rapidly evaluated utilizing nanogram quantities ...


Deepep: A Deep Learning Framework For Identifying Essential Proteins, Min Zeng, Min Li, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yaohang Li, Yi Pan 2019 Old Dominion University

Deepep: A Deep Learning Framework For Identifying Essential Proteins, Min Zeng, Min Li, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yaohang Li, Yi Pan

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Essential proteins are crucial for cellular life and thus, identification of essential proteins is an important topic and a challenging problem for researchers. Recently lots of computational approaches have been proposed to handle this problem. However, traditional centrality methods cannot fully represent the topological features of biological networks. In addition, identifying essential proteins is an imbalanced learning problem; but few current shallow machine learning-based methods are designed to handle the imbalanced characteristics. Results: We develop DeepEP based on a deep learning framework that uses the node2vec technique, multi-scale convolutional neural networks and a sampling technique to identify essential proteins ...


Genome-Wide Scans Identify Known And Novel Regions Associated With Prolificacy And Reproduction Traits In A Sub-Saharan African Indigenous Sheep (Ovis Aries), Asrat Tera Dolebo, Negar Khayatzadeh, Aberra Melesse, David Wragg, Mourad Rekik, Aynalem Haile, Barbara Rischkowsky, Max F. Rothschild, Joram M. Mwacharo 2019 Southern Agricultural Research Institute (SARI)

Genome-Wide Scans Identify Known And Novel Regions Associated With Prolificacy And Reproduction Traits In A Sub-Saharan African Indigenous Sheep (Ovis Aries), Asrat Tera Dolebo, Negar Khayatzadeh, Aberra Melesse, David Wragg, Mourad Rekik, Aynalem Haile, Barbara Rischkowsky, Max F. Rothschild, Joram M. Mwacharo

Animal Science Publications

Maximizing the number of offspring born per female is a key functionality trait in commercial- and/or subsistence-oriented livestock enterprises. Although the number of offspring born is closely associated with female fertility and reproductive success, the genetic control of these traits remains poorly understood in sub-Saharan Africa livestock. Using selection signature analysis performed on Ovine HD BeadChip data from the prolific Bonga sheep in Ethiopia, 41 candidate regions under selection were identified. The analysis revealed one strong selection signature on a candidate region on chromosome X spanning BMP15, suggesting this to be the primary candidate prolificacy gene in the breed ...


Comparison Of Montage With Conventional Stereoscopic Seven‑Field Photographs For Assessment Of Etdrs Diabetic Retinopathy Severity, Nam V. Nguyen, Erin M. Vigil, Muhammad Hassan, Muhammad S. Halim, Sean C. Baluyot, Hugo A. Guzman, Rubbia Afridi, Diana V. Do, Yasir J. Sepah 2019 Stanford University & Ocular Imaging Research and Reading Center & University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparison Of Montage With Conventional Stereoscopic Seven‑Field Photographs For Assessment Of Etdrs Diabetic Retinopathy Severity, Nam V. Nguyen, Erin M. Vigil, Muhammad Hassan, Muhammad S. Halim, Sean C. Baluyot, Hugo A. Guzman, Rubbia Afridi, Diana V. Do, Yasir J. Sepah

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: The ETDRS stereoscopic seven-field (7F) has been a standard imaging and grading protocol for assessment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity score in many clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, the comparison between montage and stereoscopic 7F has not been reported in the literature. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to compare agreement between montage and stereoscopic seven-field (7F) photographs in the assessment of DR severity.

Methods: Stereoscopic 7F photographs were captured from subjects with DR. Montages of monoscopic 7F images were created using Adobe Photoshop CS6 Extended©. The best quality image of each stereo pair ...


#17 - Detecting The Presence Of Gmos In Tortilla Chips Served U.S. Major Restaurant Chains, Kristen Donahue, Kenneth Levenson, John Senat, Stephany Sifuentes 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

#17 - Detecting The Presence Of Gmos In Tortilla Chips Served U.S. Major Restaurant Chains, Kristen Donahue, Kenneth Levenson, John Senat, Stephany Sifuentes

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Today, consumers are more aware and demand more information about the foods they consume. Transgenic crops, such as BT-corn, are a popular topic of concern among an ever-growing population of health-conscious consumers. Additionally, many U.S. consumers are regularly going out to eat at restaurants instead of cooking at home, with about half of all U.S. food expenditures accounting for food-away-from home. Specifically, chips are becoming a staple of the current American diet and are popular amongst diverse demographics. This study is an attempt to discover if tortilla chips served in common U.S. restaurant chains are genetically modified ...


#18 - Popular Unlabelled Cornmeal Brands Expected To Be Labeled As ‘Bioengineered’ By 2022 In The U.S.: Due To Detection Of Genetic Material, Elvia Encarnacion-Thomas, Jenai DaCosta, Farinaz Panah, Lilly Dishmey-Garrido, Tsion Adula 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

#18 - Popular Unlabelled Cornmeal Brands Expected To Be Labeled As ‘Bioengineered’ By 2022 In The U.S.: Due To Detection Of Genetic Material, Elvia Encarnacion-Thomas, Jenai Dacosta, Farinaz Panah, Lilly Dishmey-Garrido, Tsion Adula

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

There is a growing concern in the U.S. about genetically modified (GM) or GMO foods and consumers are demanding proper disclosure. Public Law 114-216 passed July 29, 2016 also known as the ‘GMO labeling bill’, where the USDA established a National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard (NBFDS) stating manufacturers are not required to label products if genetic material is undetected3. Bioengineered food is defined as a food that has been modified through the insertion of in vitro recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid techniques, per NBFDS. Because corn is currently in the bioengineered lists of crops and 93% of corn produced in ...


#19 - Testing Usda Certified Organic Soy Noodles For Genetic Modifications, Dhwani Mistry, Kyra Brewer, Salsabile Ibrahim, Vedanti Patel 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

#19 - Testing Usda Certified Organic Soy Noodles For Genetic Modifications, Dhwani Mistry, Kyra Brewer, Salsabile Ibrahim, Vedanti Patel

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Screening USDA Certified Organic Soy noodles for genetic modifications using various DNA and protein analysis tools like DNA isolation, PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Nano-drop, and ELISA.


Forensic Evaluation Of 6-Dye Chemistry Kit Composed Of 23 Loi With Casework Samples, Naeema Saleh Al Janaahi 2019 United Arab Emirates University

Forensic Evaluation Of 6-Dye Chemistry Kit Composed Of 23 Loi With Casework Samples, Naeema Saleh Al Janaahi

Biology Theses

Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are short nucleotide sequence repeats consisting of 2-8 base pairs (bp), representing approximately 3% of human DNA. Markers of STRs have been widely used as genetic markers in forensic DNA analysis and have proven to be an extremely discriminating method for human identification in forensics. The main objective of this research was to evaluate a six-dye STR multiplex assay (Virifiler™ Plus) composed of 23 autosomal STR loci, one insertion/deletion polymorphic marker on the Y chromosome, Amelogenin and two internal quality control markers (IQCS and IQCL) using biological stains found in different crime scenes. The study ...


In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Camel Milkproteins And Its Fractions On Insulin Receptor Function, Arshida Ashraf 2019 United Arab Emirates University

In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Camel Milkproteins And Its Fractions On Insulin Receptor Function, Arshida Ashraf

Biology Theses

Camel milk (CM) has been reported to have anti-diabetic properties in many in vitro and in vivo studies but the molecular basis of such beneficial properties are still elusive. Recently, camel milk whey proteins (CWPs) have been shown to positively affect the activity of the human insulin receptor (hIR) in cell lines. In this study, we profiled crude CWPs and their hydrolysates as well as camel milk lactoferrin (CMLF) for their pharmacological and functional effects on hIR activity and its downstream signaling in both human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. For this, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET ...


Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Technology For Blood Pressure Assessment: Challenges And Recommendations, Gabriel Chan, Rachel Cooper, Manish Hosanee, Kaylie Welykholowa, Panayiotis A. Kyriacou, Dingchang Zheng, John Allen, Derek Abbott, Nigel H. Lovell, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi 2019 University of British Columbia

Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Technology For Blood Pressure Assessment: Challenges And Recommendations, Gabriel Chan, Rachel Cooper, Manish Hosanee, Kaylie Welykholowa, Panayiotis A. Kyriacou, Dingchang Zheng, John Allen, Derek Abbott, Nigel H. Lovell, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi

Open Access Articles

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases and is often called the "silent killer" because there are usually no early symptoms. Hypertension is also associated with multiple morbidities, including chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Early detection and intervention are therefore important. The current routine method for diagnosing hypertension is done using a sphygmomanometer, which can only provide intermittent blood pressure readings and can be confounded by various factors, such as white coat hypertension, time of day, exercise, or stress. Consequently, there is an increasing need for a non-invasive, cuff-less, and continuous blood pressure monitoring device. Multi-site photoplethysmography (PPG ...


Label-Free Microrna Optical Biosensors, Meimei Lai, Gymama Slaughter 2019 Old Dominion University

Label-Free Microrna Optical Biosensors, Meimei Lai, Gymama Slaughter

Bioelectrics Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression. Many studies show that miRNAs have been linked to almost all kinds of disease. In addition, miRNAs are well preserved in a variety of specimens, thereby making them ideal biomarkers for biosensing applications when compared to traditional protein biomarkers. Conventional biosensors for miRNA require fluorescent labeling, which is complicated, time-consuming, laborious, costly, and exhibits low sensitivity. The detection of miRNA remains a big challenge due to their intrinsic properties such as small sizes, low abundance, and high sequence similarity. A label-free biosensor can simplify the assay and enable the direct detection ...


Investigating The Role Of Lbh During Early Embryonic Development In Xenopus Laevis, Emma Weir 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating The Role Of Lbh During Early Embryonic Development In Xenopus Laevis, Emma Weir

Masters Theses

LBH is a highly conserved protein whose role during vertebrate development is relatively under-studied. In collaboration with the Albertson lab, our lab has previously shown that it is necessary for cranial neural crest cell migration in the zebrafish and in Xenopus laevis. The molecular mechanisms through which it acts are not well understood.

In Xenopus, LBH is a maternally deposited protein. As such, studying its role in early development has not been feasible through the morpholino-mediated knockdown techniques that prevent translation of target genes. Recently, a technique for degrading endogenous proteins was developed, called Trim-Away. This was developed in mammalian ...


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