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Reversible Heparin Molecules And Methods Of Making And Using The Same, Jian Liu, Yongmei Xu, Robert J. Linhardt, Edward Harris 2018 Chapel Hill , NC

Reversible Heparin Molecules And Methods Of Making And Using The Same, Jian Liu, Yongmei Xu, Robert J. Linhardt, Edward Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Methods and systems for synthesizing heparin compounds are provided . The chemoenzymatic synthesis of structurally homogeneous low molecular weight heparins that have a reversible anticoagulant activity is provided . Also disclosed are heparin compounds having anticoagulant activity , including a binding affinity to antithrombin and an anti - Xa activity , but no detectable anti - lla activity . Additionally , provided are synthetic , low - molecular weight heparin com pounds with reversible anticoagulant activity , where the anticoagulant activity is reversible by protamine.


Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen 2018 Western Kentucky University

Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

RNA polymerase is the central enzyme in all gene expression. The rpoCY75N mutation in the zinc-binding domain of the β’ subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase blocks a unique RNA-based mechanism of transcription antitermination utilized by bacteriophage HK022 and its relatives. Here, we describe the characterization of mutant phage, orc0368, which overcomes the rpoCY75N mutation. The orc0368 genome varies from the wild type phage genome by 4 single base pair mutations. Three of these mutations were not characterized because they occur in intergenic regions but the fourth was chosen for study because of its location between a series ...


Algal Biofuel: The Future Of Green Jet Fuel In Air Transportation, Rajee Olaganathan 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Algal Biofuel: The Future Of Green Jet Fuel In Air Transportation, Rajee Olaganathan

Publications

The aviation industry is one of the major contributors for the greenhouse gases. As air travel has become inevitable in this modern era, and fossil fuel usage is not sustainable, it is essential to produce renewable fuel and commercialize it to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to produce an alternate aviation biofuel a lot of industrial and academic collaborations have been developed worldwide. The main concern of this collaborative research is to produce aviation biofuel from renewable resources with low environmental impacts, and which is sustainable at an economically viable price. This mini-review briefly discusses the biotechnological approaches ...


Effect Of Vitrification On Epigenetic Modifications And The Meiotic Spindle Of Bovine Oocytes, Emilio Jose Gutierrez-Castillo 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Vitrification On Epigenetic Modifications And The Meiotic Spindle Of Bovine Oocytes, Emilio Jose Gutierrez-Castillo

LSU Master's Theses

While oocyte vitrification has become a common practice, it still faces some challenges such as the low survival rates after warming, probably related to cryoinjuries and cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity. Evidence suggests that vitrification might have an effect on the patterns of some epigenetic marks including DNA methylation and histone acetylation. During fertilization and embryogenesis, key events for healthy and adequate embryo development take place, not only governed by the information contained within the DNA sequence, but also by epigenetic mechanisms.

This study was aimed at determining the effect of vitrification and CPA exposure, using a combination of ethylene glycol (EG ...


Intellectual Property, Surrogate Licensing, And Precision Medicine, Jacob S. Sherkow, Jorge L. Contreras 2018 New York Law School

Intellectual Property, Surrogate Licensing, And Precision Medicine, Jacob S. Sherkow, Jorge L. Contreras

IP Theory

The fruits of the biotechnology revolution are beginning to be harvested. Recent regulatory approvals of a variety of advanced therapies—Keytruda (pembrolizumab), Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel), and patisiran—have ushered in an age of “precision medicine” treatments that target patients’ specific genetic, physiological, and environmental profiles rather than generalized diagnoses of disease. Therapies like these may soon be supplemented by gene editing technologies such as CRISPR, which could enable the targeted eradication of deleterious genetic variants to improve human health. But the intellectual property (IP) surrounding precision therapies and their foundational technology remain controversial. Precision therapies ultimately rely—and are roughly congruent ...


Designer Babies: A Paired Analysis Of The Technological Advances And Ethical Implications Of Genetic Selection, Alexandra Schmerge 2018 DePauw University

Designer Babies: A Paired Analysis Of The Technological Advances And Ethical Implications Of Genetic Selection, Alexandra Schmerge

Student research

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of A Morphogenetic Furrow Specific Gal4 Driver In The Developing Drosophila Eye, Ankita Sarkar, Neha Gogia, Kevin Farley, Lydia C. Payton, Amit Singh 2018 University of Dayton

Characterization Of A Morphogenetic Furrow Specific Gal4 Driver In The Developing Drosophila Eye, Ankita Sarkar, Neha Gogia, Kevin Farley, Lydia C. Payton, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

The ability to express a gene of interest in a spatio-temporal manner using Gal4-UAS system has allowed the use of Drosophila model to study various biological phenomenon. During Drosophila eye development, a synchronous wave of differentiation called Morphogenetic furrow (MF) initiates at the posterior margin resulting in differentiation of retinal neurons. This synchronous differentiation is also observed in the differentiating retina of vertebrates. Since MF is highly dynamic, it can serve as an excellent model to study patterning and differentiation. However, there are not any Gal4 drivers available to observe the gain- of- function or loss- of- function of a ...


Prediction Of Lncrna-Disease Associations Based On Inductive Matrix Completion, Chengqian Lu, Mengyun Yang, Feng Luo, Fang-Xiang Wu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang 2018 Old Dominion University

Prediction Of Lncrna-Disease Associations Based On Inductive Matrix Completion, Chengqian Lu, Mengyun Yang, Feng Luo, Fang-Xiang Wu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Motivation: Accumulating evidences indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in various biological processes. Mutations and dysregulations of lncRNAs are implicated in miscellaneous human diseases. Predicting lncRNA–disease associations is beneficial to disease diagnosis as well as treatment. Although many computational methods have been developed, precisely identifying lncRNA–disease associations, especially for novel lncRNAs, remains challenging.

Results: In this study, we propose a method (named SIMCLDA) for predicting potential lncRNA– disease associations based on inductive matrix completion. We compute Gaussian interaction profile kernel of lncRNAs from known lncRNA–disease interactions and functional similarity of diseases based on disease ...


Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula 2018 Oregon State University

Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Herein, we report an efficient combinatorial therapy for metastatic ovarian cancer based on siRNA-mediated suppression of DJ-1 protein combined with a low dose of cisplatin. DJ-1 protein modulates, either directly or indirectly, different oncogenic pathways that support and promote survival, growth, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. To evaluate the potential of this novel therapy, we have engineered a cancer-targeted nanoplatform and validated that DJ-1 siRNA delivered by this nanoplatform after intraperitoneal injection efficiently downregulates the DJ-1 protein in metastatic ovarian cancer tumors and ascites. In vivo experiments revealed that DJ-1 siRNA monotherapy outperformed cisplatin alone by inhibiting tumor growth ...


The Role Of Vitamin D Receptors In Gastric Epithelial Homeostasis, Ifrah Ismail Ali 2018 United Arab Emirates University

The Role Of Vitamin D Receptors In Gastric Epithelial Homeostasis, Ifrah Ismail Ali

Biology Theses

The gastric epithelium consists of different types of cells, which are involved in gastric homeostasis by balancing cell proliferation and differentiation. This process involves several signaling molecules such as growth factors, hormones and vitamins. Vitamin D3 (VD3) is engaged in several biological activities. It plays a role in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, immune response and also regulates calcium homeostasis. The biological activities of VD3 are mediated by vitamin D receptor (VDR). Target tissues of VD3 in the gastrointestinal tract were identified earlier in intestine, colon and gastric cancer tissues; however, the normal expression of VDR in stomach is poorly studied ...


Structural Determinants For The Interactions Of Chemically Modified Nucleic Acids With The Stabilin‑2 Clearance Receptor, Hans Gaus, Colton M. Miller, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris 2018 Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Carlsbad, California

Structural Determinants For The Interactions Of Chemically Modified Nucleic Acids With The Stabilin‑2 Clearance Receptor, Hans Gaus, Colton M. Miller, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The Stabilin receptors are systemic clearance receptors for some classes of chemically modified nucleic acid therapeutics. In this study, the recombinant human secreted ecto-domain of the small isoform of Stabilin-2 (s190) was purified from cell culture and evaluated for direct binding with a multitude of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) using a fluorescence polarizationbased assay. The tested ASOs varied in their backbone composition, modification of the ribose 2′ position, overall length of the oligo, and sequence of the nucleotide bases. A fully phosphorothioate (PS) ASO with a 5−10−5 pattern of flanking 2′-O-methoxyethyl modifications was then used to test ...


Plant Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture: Opportunities And Challenges Emerging From The Science And Information Technology Revolution, Michael Halewood, Tinashe Chiurugwi, Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Brad Kurtz, Emily Marden, Eric Welch, Frank Michiels, Javad Mozafari, Muhamad Sabran, Nicola Patron, Paul Kersey, Ruth Bastow, Shawn Dorius, Sonia Dias, Susan McCouch, Wayne Powell 2018 Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

Plant Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture: Opportunities And Challenges Emerging From The Science And Information Technology Revolution, Michael Halewood, Tinashe Chiurugwi, Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Brad Kurtz, Emily Marden, Eric Welch, Frank Michiels, Javad Mozafari, Muhamad Sabran, Nicola Patron, Paul Kersey, Ruth Bastow, Shawn Dorius, Sonia Dias, Susan Mccouch, Wayne Powell

Sociology Publications

Over the last decade, there has been an ongoing revolution in the exploration, manipulation, and synthesis of biological systems, through the development of new technologies that generate, analyse and exploit big data. Users of Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) can potentially leverage these capacities to significantly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their efforts to conserve, discover and utilise novel qualities in PGR, and help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This review advances the discussion on these emerging opportunities and discusses how taking advantage of them will require data integration and synthesis across disciplinary, organisational and international boundaries, and the ...


Media Portrayal Of Gm Science And Citrus Greening In State And National Newspapers, Jeremy D'Angelo, Jason D. Ellis Ph.D., Katherine Burke Ph.D., Taylor Ruth 2018 Kansas State University

Media Portrayal Of Gm Science And Citrus Greening In State And National Newspapers, Jeremy D'Angelo, Jason D. Ellis Ph.D., Katherine Burke Ph.D., Taylor Ruth

Journal of Applied Communications

Huanglongbing (HLB), commonly known as citrus greening, is a bacterial disease severely affecting the profitability and continuation of the citrus industry in Florida and is threatening the citrus industry in other states as well. Currently, the disease only can be managed, not cured. Gene-based therapies, such as GM science, have been identified as a viable long-term solution. However, consumer acceptance of genetically modified food is low and their understanding and acceptance of new technologies is largely dependent on what they receive through mass media. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to understand news coverage of both citrus greening and ...


Evidence For A Unique Dna-Dependent Rna Polymerase In Cereal Crops, Joshua T. Trujillo, Arun S. Seetharam, Matthew B. Hufford, Mark A. Beilstein, Rebecca A. Mosher 2018 University of Arizona

Evidence For A Unique Dna-Dependent Rna Polymerase In Cereal Crops, Joshua T. Trujillo, Arun S. Seetharam, Matthew B. Hufford, Mark A. Beilstein, Rebecca A. Mosher

Genome Informatics Facility Publications

Gene duplication is an important driver for the evolution of new genes and protein functions. Duplication of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol) II subunits within plants led to the emergence of RNA Pol IV and V complexes, each of which possess unique functions necessary for RNA-directed DNA Methylation. Comprehensive identification of Pol V subunit orthologs across the monocot radiation revealed a duplication of the largest two subunits within the grasses (Poaceae), including critical cereal crops. These paralogous Pol subunits display sequence conservation within catalytic domains, but their carboxy terminal domains differ in length and character of the Ago-binding platform, suggesting unique ...


Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau 2018 Iowa State University

Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The substrate specificity of acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) plays an essential role in controlling the fatty acid profile produced by type II fatty acid synthases. Here we identify two groups of residues that synergistically determine different substrate specificities of two acyl-ACP TEs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvFatB1 and CvFatB2). One group (V194, V217, N223, R226, R227, and I268 in CvFatB2) is critical in determining the structure and depth of a hydrophobic cavity in the N-terminal hotdog domain that binds the substrate’s acyl moiety. The other group (255-RKLSKI-260 and 285-RKLPKL-289 in CvFatB2) defines positively charged surface patches that may facilitate binding of ...


Atypical Pkciota Contributes To Poor Prognosis Through Loss Of Apical-Basal Polarity And Cyclin E Overexpression In Ovarian Cancer, Astrid M. Eder, Xiaomei Sui, Daniel G. Rosen, Laura K. Nolden, Kwai Wa Cheng, John P. Lahad, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Karen H. Lu, Carla L. Warneke, Edward N. Atkinson, Isabelle Bedrosian, Khandan Keyomarsi, Wen-lin Kuo, Joe W. Gray, Jerry C. P. Yin, Jinsong Liu, Georg Halder, Gordon B. Mills 2018 University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Atypical Pkciota Contributes To Poor Prognosis Through Loss Of Apical-Basal Polarity And Cyclin E Overexpression In Ovarian Cancer, Astrid M. Eder, Xiaomei Sui, Daniel G. Rosen, Laura K. Nolden, Kwai Wa Cheng, John P. Lahad, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Karen H. Lu, Carla L. Warneke, Edward N. Atkinson, Isabelle Bedrosian, Khandan Keyomarsi, Wen-Lin Kuo, Joe W. Gray, Jerry C. P. Yin, Jinsong Liu, Georg Halder, Gordon B. Mills

Madhuri Kango-Singh

We show that atypical PKCι, which plays a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity, is genomically amplified and overexpressed in serous epithelial ovarian cancers. Furthermore, PKCι protein is markedly increased or mislocalized in all serous ovarian cancers. An increased PKCι DNA copy number is associated with decreased progression-free survival in serous epithelial ovarian cancers. In a Drosophila in vivo epithelial tissue model, overexpression of persistently active atypical PKC results in defects in apical-basal polarity, increased Cyclin E protein expression, and increased proliferation. Similar to the Drosophila model, increased PKCι proteins levels are associated with ...


Correlation Of Structure, Function And Protein Dynamics In Gh7 Cellobiohydrolases From Trichoderma Atroviride, T. Reesei And T. Harzianum, Anna S. Borisova, Elena V. Eneyskaya, Suvamay Jana, Silke F. Badino, Jeppe Kari, Antonella Amore, Magnus Karlsson, Henrik Hansson, Mats Sandgren, Michael E. Himmel, Peter Westh, Christina M. Payne, Anna A. Kulminskaya, Jerry Ståhlberg 2018 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden

Correlation Of Structure, Function And Protein Dynamics In Gh7 Cellobiohydrolases From Trichoderma Atroviride, T. Reesei And T. Harzianum, Anna S. Borisova, Elena V. Eneyskaya, Suvamay Jana, Silke F. Badino, Jeppe Kari, Antonella Amore, Magnus Karlsson, Henrik Hansson, Mats Sandgren, Michael E. Himmel, Peter Westh, Christina M. Payne, Anna A. Kulminskaya, Jerry Ståhlberg

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: The ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial conversion of lignocellulose. Its glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (GH7 CBH) TreCel7A constitutes nearly half of the enzyme cocktail by weight and is the major workhorse in the cellulose hydrolysis process. The orthologs from Trichoderma atroviride (TatCel7A) and Trichoderma harzianum (ThaCel7A) show high sequence identity with TreCel7A, ~ 80%, and represent naturally evolved combinations of cellulose-binding tunnel-enclosing loop motifs, which have been suggested to influence intrinsic cellobiohydrolase properties, such as endo-initiation, processivity, and off-rate.

Results: The TatCel7A, ThaCel7A, and TreCel7A ...


Mrub_1283, Mrub_1284 And Mrub_1285 Encode For A Glycine/Betaine Abc Transporter And Are Orthologs Of E. Coli Prov, Prow And Prox, Lan Dang, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_1283, Mrub_1284 And Mrub_1285 Encode For A Glycine/Betaine Abc Transporter And Are Orthologs Of E. Coli Prov, Prow And Prox, Lan Dang, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

ABC transporters are essential for cellular transport; contribute to maintain the homeostasis of the cells. Generally, ABC transporters are multi-subunit; contain essential cytoplasmic factors which are critical to ATP hydrolysis activity. In this paper, we would like to take a closer look to Mrub_1283, Mrub_1284 and Mrub_1285, three consecutive genes in Meiothermus ruber genome. We hypothesize that these genes are in the same operon and encode for ABC glycine/ betaine transporters. To confirm our hypothesis, we utilizes several bioinformatics tools to predict the potential function of Mrub_1283, Mrub_1284 and Mrub_1285 and to search for their orthologs in Escherichia coli genome ...


Multiple Factors Drive Variation Of Forest Root Biomass In Southwestern China, Hao Zhang, Kelin Wang, Zhaoxia Zeng, Zhigang Zou, Yanfang Xu, Fuping Zeng 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Multiple Factors Drive Variation Of Forest Root Biomass In Southwestern China, Hao Zhang, Kelin Wang, Zhaoxia Zeng, Zhigang Zou, Yanfang Xu, Fuping Zeng

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

The roots linking the above-ground organs and soil are key components for estimating net primary productivity and carbon sequestration of forests. The patterns and drivers of root biomass in forest have not been examined well at the regional scale, especially for the widely distributed forest ecosystems in southwestern China. We attempted to determine the spatial patterns of root biomass (RB, Mg/ha), annual increment root biomass (AIRB, Mg/ha/year), ratio of root and above-ground (RRA), and the relative contributions of abiotic and biotic factors that drive the variation of root biomass. Forest biomass and multiple factors (climate, soil, forest ...


Manipulation Of Genes Involved In Secondary Cell Wall Development During Wood Formation In Poplar, Kavitha Satish Kumar 2018 Michigan Technological University

Manipulation Of Genes Involved In Secondary Cell Wall Development During Wood Formation In Poplar, Kavitha Satish Kumar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Lignins are second most abundant components of vascular plant cell walls. They provide plants with structural rigidity and are polymers of monolignols. Lignin polymerization is catalyzed by peroxidases and/or laccases. These enzymes are suggested to share functional overlap and mechanism by which they coordinate this process is not clearly understood. There are about 100 peroxidases and 50 laccase genes known in poplar genome out of which some stem differentiating xylem-specific (SDX) enzymes were selected for our study. The main objective was to genetically manipulate genes expressed in the SDX region in the cell wall to see the effects on ...


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