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Hippo Signaling In Cancer: Lessons From Drosophila Models, Kirti Snigdha, Karishma Sanjay Gangwani, Gauri Vijay Lapalikar, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh 2019 University of Dayton

Hippo Signaling In Cancer: Lessons From Drosophila Models, Kirti Snigdha, Karishma Sanjay Gangwani, Gauri Vijay Lapalikar, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Hippo pathway was initially identified through genetic screens for genes regulating organ size in fruitflies. Recent studies have highlighted the role of Hippo signaling as a key regulator of homeostasis, and in tumorigenesis. Hippo pathway is comprised of genes that act as tumor suppressor genes like hippo (hpo) and warts (wts), and oncogenes like yorkie (yki). YAP and TAZ are two related mammalian homologs of Drosophila Yki that act as effectors of the Hippo pathway. Hippo signaling deficiency can cause YAP- or TAZ-dependent oncogene addiction for cancer cells. YAP and TAZ are often activated in human malignant cancers. These transcriptional ...


Loss Of Id4 Promotes Stemness In Prostate Cancer Cells, Dhanushka Hewabostanthirige 2019 Atlanta University Center

Loss Of Id4 Promotes Stemness In Prostate Cancer Cells, Dhanushka Hewabostanthirige

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4), a member of the helix-loop-helix family of transcriptional regulators has emerged as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). Recent studies have shown that Id4 is highly expressed in the normal prostate and decreases in prostate cancer due to epigenetic silencing. Id4 knockdown in androgen sensitive LNCaP cells has been shown to lead to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in vitro and in vivo. Id4-/- mice leads to underdeveloped prostate with PIN like lesions without the loss of Androgen Receptor (AR) expression. In this study we demonstrate that the loss of ID4 expression in PCa ...


Accuracy And Usability Of A Novel Algorithm For Detection Of Irregular Pulse Using A Smartwatch Among Older Adults: Observational Study, Eric Y. Ding, Dong Han, Cody Whitcomb, Syed Khairul Bashar, Oluwaseun Adaramola, Apurv Soni, Jane Saczynski, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Majaz Moonis, Steven A. Lubitz, Darleen M. Lessard, Mellanie True Hills, Bruce A. Barton, Ki Chon, David D. McManus 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Accuracy And Usability Of A Novel Algorithm For Detection Of Irregular Pulse Using A Smartwatch Among Older Adults: Observational Study, Eric Y. Ding, Dong Han, Cody Whitcomb, Syed Khairul Bashar, Oluwaseun Adaramola, Apurv Soni, Jane Saczynski, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Majaz Moonis, Steven A. Lubitz, Darleen M. Lessard, Mellanie True Hills, Bruce A. Barton, Ki Chon, David D. Mcmanus

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often paroxysmal and minimally symptomatic, hindering its diagnosis. Smartwatches may enhance AF care by facilitating long-term, noninvasive monitoring.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the accuracy and usability of arrhythmia discrimination using a smartwatch.

METHODS: A total of 40 adults presenting to a cardiology clinic wore a smartwatch and Holter monitor and performed scripted movements to simulate activities of daily living (ADLs). Participants' clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing different domains of the device's usability. Pulse recordings were analyzed blindly using a real-time realizable algorithm and ...


Simplicity Diffexpress: A Bespoke Cloud-Based Interface For Rna-Seq Differential Expression Modeling And Analysis, Cintia C. Palu, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Yanxin Wu, Brendan Lawlor, Pavel V. Baranov, Brian Kelly, Paul Walsh 2019 NSilico Life Science Ltd. and School of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Simplicity Diffexpress: A Bespoke Cloud-Based Interface For Rna-Seq Differential Expression Modeling And Analysis, Cintia C. Palu, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Yanxin Wu, Brendan Lawlor, Pavel V. Baranov, Brian Kelly, Paul Walsh

Department of Computer Science Articles

One of the key challenges for transcriptomics-based research is not only the processing of large data but also modeling the complexity of features that are sources of variation across samples, which is required for an accurate statistical analysis. Therefore, our goal is to foster access for wet lab researchers to bioinformatics tools, in order to enhance their ability to explore biological aspects and validate hypotheses with robust analysis. In this context, user-friendly interfaces can enable researchers to apply computational biology methods without requiring bioinformatics expertise. Such bespoke platforms can improve the quality of the findings by allowing the researcher to ...


A Ph-Sensitive Delivery System For The Prevention Of Dental Caries Using Salivary Proteins, Yi Zhu 2019 The University of Western Ontario

A Ph-Sensitive Delivery System For The Prevention Of Dental Caries Using Salivary Proteins, Yi Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Salivary proteins such as histatins have demonstrated biological functions directly related to tooth homeostasis and prevention of dental caries. However, histatins are susceptible to the high proteolytic activities in the oral environment. Therefore, pH-sensitive chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) have been proposed as potential carriers to target major oral diseases that occur under acidic conditions (e.g. dental caries and dental erosion). Four different types of chitosan polymers were investigated and the optimized CNs successfully loaded histatin 3 and released it selectively under acidic conditions. Through loading the survival time of ...


Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan 2019 Collin College

Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...


Analyzing The Effect Of Apoptotic Mutations On The State Of The Nascent-Polypeptide Associated Complex In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Monica Gerber 2019 James Madison University

Analyzing The Effect Of Apoptotic Mutations On The State Of The Nascent-Polypeptide Associated Complex In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Monica Gerber

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Cells experiencing misfolded protein stress can become debilitated and die, contributing to the onset of disease. The nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) is a heterodimeric translational chaperone that protects against misfolded protein stress by mediating proper protein folding and localization during translation. Depletion of this complex results in misfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To determine the importance of the NAC to proteostasis, we have previously depleted the complex in C.elegans via RNA interference and observed numerous dose-dependent effects, including apoptosis of neuronal cells and changes in gene expression of hypodermal cells. While we have observed these cell-specific ...


Loop-Ligation Of Dna Nanoswitch For Sensitivity Increase, Lillie Carnell 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Loop-Ligation Of Dna Nanoswitch For Sensitivity Increase, Lillie Carnell

CURCE Annual Undergraduate Conference

DNA nanoswitches are tools to detect nucleic acids such as microRNAs and viral RNAs. The DNA nanoswitch is a linear duplex structure created from single-stranded circular viral M13 DNA using a DNA origami approach. Each nanoswitch can be designed to have explicit detector strands that bind to a specific DNA sequence. In the presence of a particular target sequence, the DNA nanoswitch will undergo a conformational change in which it switches from a linear “off” state to a looped “on” state. The shape of the DNA nanoswitch can then be detected using standard gel electrophoresis, a cheap and simple test ...


Examining The Effect Of Interstitial Space On Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica): Applications Of Photogrammetry And Three-Dimensional Modeling, Bailie Lavan 2019 James Madison University

Examining The Effect Of Interstitial Space On Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica): Applications Of Photogrammetry And Three-Dimensional Modeling, Bailie Lavan

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Global oyster populations have decreased by as much as 99% in the past century. Oysters are known ecosystem engineers, providing benthic habitat for macrofauna, linking benthic and pelagic food webs, improving water quality, and mitigating shoreline erosion. Restoration efforts are critical in re-establishing native oyster populations. In the Chesapeake Bay, where oyster loss is primarily due to severe over harvest, artificial substrates with geometric shapes are widely used in restoration efforts. However, natural oyster reefs form emergent shapes with a high degree of aggregation and many interstitial spaces (three-dimensional volumetric spaces between oysters within a reef). The lack of interstitial ...


Multimodality Somatostatin Analog For Fluorescence-Guided Surgery In Cancer, Servando Hernandez Vargas 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Multimodality Somatostatin Analog For Fluorescence-Guided Surgery In Cancer, Servando Hernandez Vargas

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer surgery remains the primary curative treatment for most solid cancers and has major therapeutic implications for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Anatomical and functional imaging technologies are widely used during the pre- and postoperative stages, but intraoperative disease recognition relies on direct visual inspection and the hands of surgeons. The limited number of clinical tools for real-time intraoperative visual feedback restricts the ability to remove the complete cancer source and is partially responsible for the high rate of disease recurrence in patients. Intraoperative imaging with fluorescent contrast agents has the potential to improve the ability of surgeons to detect ...


The Characterization Of T-Cell Manufacturing For Adoptive T-Cell Therapies, amir ALPERT 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Characterization Of T-Cell Manufacturing For Adoptive T-Cell Therapies, Amir Alpert

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adoptive T-cell therapy using genetically modified T cells has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for several malignancies. Central to the production of the cellular therapy is the manufacturing using a stimulation, genetic engineering, and expansion methodology. Within this framework, there is a delicate balance between expansion of the cells to a therapeutically relevant dosage and the need to retain the proliferative potential of the ‘living drug’. I show that as T-cells are expanded for elongated periods of time, they lose their proliferative potential and become functionally senescent despite the presence of multiple proliferative cytokines. In addition, I show that ...


Elucidating The Mechanism Of Action Of Experimental Compound Sw33 In Toxoplasma Gondii, Sean Watson 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Elucidating The Mechanism Of Action Of Experimental Compound Sw33 In Toxoplasma Gondii, Sean Watson

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

In recent years, antimicrobial drug resistance has become widespread and thus triggered an ever-growing need for the development of new, efficacious drug treatments. As an antimicrobial drug is developed, its mechanism of action is often identified before it becomes a potential candidate for clinical use. One potential method for identifying mechanism of action is chemical mutagenesis, in which induction of drug-resistant populations is followed by whole-genome sequencing of several clonal isolates. The subsequent observation of identical point mutations in the same gene across multiple drug-resistant populations can indicate a likely molecular target. However, this technique lacks the capacity to facilitate ...


Zika Virus-Induced Lysis Of Cervical Cancer Cells, Harini Krishnapura 2019 University of Central Florida

Zika Virus-Induced Lysis Of Cervical Cancer Cells, Harini Krishnapura

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019

Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 570,000 new cases globally in 2018. Treatment of advanced cervical cancer is often unsuccessful leading to high cancer-related mortality rates, especially in under-resourced countries. Recently, a possible role for the cell surface glycoprotein CD24 in host cell specificity of Zika virus was reported. As an extension of this work, Zika viruses have been proposed as oncolytic therapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma and other CD24 positive tumors. To determine the permissiveness of cervical cancer cells to Zika virus infection and its association with CD24, we assessed ...


The Use Of Foundational Mathematical Modeling Techniques To Inform Understanding & Design Of Complex Biological Systems, Callan Monette 2019 William & Mary

The Use Of Foundational Mathematical Modeling Techniques To Inform Understanding & Design Of Complex Biological Systems, Callan Monette

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Synthetic biology is a relatively new and diverse field with the potential to revolutionize our command over biological systems via the modification or de novo construction of biological networks and tools. Precise and predictable control over the foundational properties of gene expression and genetic circuit behavior will be critical to the application of synthetic biology in the relevant contexts (for instance, in vivo for therapeutic applications). This level of control can be achieved via the interplay between mathematical modeling and empirical observation. The following work will highlight not only the massive potential of synthetic biology in both bacterial and mammalian ...


Design And Application Of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Responsive Peptide Nanostructures, Jiye Son 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Design And Application Of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Responsive Peptide Nanostructures, Jiye Son

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-responsive materials have been investigated since the late 1990’s as scaffolds for tissue engineering and since then, have evolved into sophisticated nanomaterials for cancer-targeting therapy. In this thesis titled, “Design and Application of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Responsive Peptide Nanostructures,” we aim to answer the following key questions: can MMP-responsive nanomaterials improve the efficacy of anti-cancer treatments? How can we achieve specificity towards MMPs using nanomaterials? Finally, what are the advantages in using peptides as building blocks to create MMP-responsive nanostructures? Each chapter in the thesis will address one or more of the key questions and draw conclusions at ...


Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent 2019 University of Louisville

Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the development of a novel lectin-Fc fusion protein and its antiviral and anti-cancer activity. The molecule, Avaren-Fc (AvFc), is a fusion of a variant of the actinomycete lectin actinohivin (Avaren) and the Fc region of human IgG1, and is selective for the terminal α1,2-mannose residues found at the ends of high-mannose-type glycans that can be found on the surface of certain heavily glycosylated viruses and cancer cells. Here, AvFc was found to be able to neutralize simian immunodeficiency virus as well as Hepatitis C virus with nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, AvFc recognizes a number of ...


Uptake And Persistence Of Bacterial Magnetite Magnetosomes In A Mammalian Cell Line: Implications For Medical And Biotechnological Applications., Jefferson Cypriano, Jacques Werckmann, Gabriele Vargas, Adrana Lopes dos Santos, Karen T. Silva, Pedro Leao, Fernando P. Almeida, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Marcos Farina, Ulysses Lins, Fernanda Abreu 2019 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Uptake And Persistence Of Bacterial Magnetite Magnetosomes In A Mammalian Cell Line: Implications For Medical And Biotechnological Applications., Jefferson Cypriano, Jacques Werckmann, Gabriele Vargas, Adrana Lopes Dos Santos, Karen T. Silva, Pedro Leao, Fernando P. Almeida, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Marcos Farina, Ulysses Lins, Fernanda Abreu

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize intracellular magnetic nanocrystals surrounded by a lipid bilayer called magnetosomes. Due to their unique characteristics, magnetite magnetosomes are promising tools in Biomedicine. However, the uptake, persistence, and accumulation of magnetosomes within mammalian cells have not been well studied. Here, the endocytic pathway of magnetite magnetosomes and their effects on human cervix epithelial (HeLa) cells were studied by electron microscopy and high spatial resolution nano-analysis techniques. Transmission electron microscopy of HeLa cells after incubation with purified magnetosomes showed the presence of magnetic nanoparticles inside or outside endosomes within the cell, which suggests different modes of internalization, and that ...


Space Race, Siri And The Central Dogma: A Contemporary Nursing Analysis Of Antibiotics Resistance, Donovan Lucibello 2019 Carroll College

Space Race, Siri And The Central Dogma: A Contemporary Nursing Analysis Of Antibiotics Resistance, Donovan Lucibello

Nursing Undergraduate Theses

In the age of information, antibiotic resistance is still a black-box problem in clinical practice; pathogens are often defined in terms of which pharmaceuticals are no longer effective, and treatment protocols are prescribed prophylactically; often at strengths that are in excess of what is known about the pathogen’s susceptibilities or even its identity. All antibiotic resistance mechanisms involve the expression of proteins that provide resistance capabilities. These modified proteins should be detectable by analyzing DNA (or RNA intermediates) that code for them in order to determine a pathogen’s threat profile. Next-Generation and nanopore DNA sequencing technologies are capable ...


Study Of Autosomal Str Markers In United Arab Emirates Population, Mohammed Naji Mohammed 2019 United Arab Emirates University

Study Of Autosomal Str Markers In United Arab Emirates Population, Mohammed Naji Mohammed

Biology Theses

A study of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population is important due to high consanguineous marriage, which may affect the power of discrimination of some loci. The genetic polymorphisms of 23 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci including D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, CSF1PO, TPOX, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D2S441, D19S433, TH01, FGA, D22S1045, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D10S1248, D1S1656, D12S391, D2S1338, D6S1043, Penta D and Penta E were evaluated in 571 random unrelated UAE Arabs population. Blood samples were collected on FTA cards. Targeted loci were amplified using Verifiler Express PCR Amplification Kit. PCR products were run on the ABI 3500 Genetic analyzer ...


1. Microarray Analysis Identifies Potential Genes Associated With Botrytis Cinerea And Hormonal Stresses., Kenna Marie Whitley 2019 United Arab Emirates University

1. Microarray Analysis Identifies Potential Genes Associated With Botrytis Cinerea And Hormonal Stresses., Kenna Marie Whitley

Biology Theses

Biotic and abiotic stresses critically influence plant survival and growth; survival depends on the ability to correctly sense and react to their environment. Certain environmental stresses must be overcome through careful manipulation of internal levels, and of the resulting signaling cascades. Hormones signaling networks and the crosstalk among each respective hormone signaling pathway are principle for response mediation via transcriptional reprogramming or altered signaling pathways. The long-term objective is to determine how plants sense biotic stresses, and how hormone signaling networks control and direct plant responses to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. This research aims to identify commonly regulated genes ...


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