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Prevention Of Harmful Algal Blooms By The Mitigation Of Phosphorus Nutrient Loading Via Filtration By Steel Wool And Activated Carbon, Ronald Simpson, Sara Kidd, Samantha Zidd 2019 The University of Akron

Prevention Of Harmful Algal Blooms By The Mitigation Of Phosphorus Nutrient Loading Via Filtration By Steel Wool And Activated Carbon, Ronald Simpson, Sara Kidd, Samantha Zidd

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are a devastating ecological and economic consequence of the abundance of nutrient-rich agricultural runoff entering aquatic ecosystems (Baker et al. 2014). Bio-available phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers is one of the major nutrients contributing to this global issue. Previous studies indicated that dissolved phosphorus can be removed from an aqueous environment when passed through a composite mixture of granular steel wool particles and activated carbon (Erickson, Gulliver, and Weiss, 2007). In this project, we conducted experiments using higher quality concentration measurements to determine what grades of steel wool (SW-0000, SW-000, SW-00) and types of activated carbon (granulated ...


Prevention Of Harmful Algal Blooms By The Mitigation Of Phosphorus Nutrient Loading Via Filtration By Steel Wool And Activated Carbon, Sara Kidd, Ronald Simpson, Samantha Zidd 2019 The University of Akron

Prevention Of Harmful Algal Blooms By The Mitigation Of Phosphorus Nutrient Loading Via Filtration By Steel Wool And Activated Carbon, Sara Kidd, Ronald Simpson, Samantha Zidd

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are a devastating ecological and economic consequence of the abundance of nutrient-rich agricultural runoff entering aquatic ecosystems (Baker et al. 2014). Bioavailable phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers is one of the major nutrients contributing to this global issue. Preliminary studies indicate that dissolved phosphorus can be removed from an aqueous environment when passed through a composite mixture of granular steel wool particles and activated carbon (Erickson, Gulliver, and Weiss (2007). Further research was conducted using higher quality concentration measurements to determine what grades of steel wool (0000, 000, 00) and types of activated carbon (GAC, PAC, EAC ...


A 3d Bioprinter Platform For Mechanistic Analysis Of Tumoroids And Chimeric Mammary Organoids, John A. Reid, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Peter A. Mollica, Nicole Northam, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno 2019 Old Dominion University

A 3d Bioprinter Platform For Mechanistic Analysis Of Tumoroids And Chimeric Mammary Organoids, John A. Reid, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Peter A. Mollica, Nicole Northam, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

The normal mammary microenvironment can suppress tumorigenesis and redirect cancer cells to adopt a normal mammary epithelial cell fate in vivo. Understanding of this phenomenon offers great promise for novel treatment and detection strategies in cancer, but current model systems make mechanistic insights into the process difficult. We have recently described a low-cost bioprinting platform designed to be accessible for basic cell biology laboratories. Here we report the use of this system for the study of tumorigenesis and microenvironmental redirection of breast cancer cells. We show our bioprinter significantly increases tumoroid formation in 3D collagen gels and allows for precise ...


Terpene Synthase Genes Originated From Bacteria Through Horizontal Gene Transfer Contribute To Terpenoid Diversity In Fungi, Qidong Jia, Xinlu Chen, Tobias G. Kollner, Jan Rinkel, Jianyu Fu, Jessy Labbe, Wangdan Xiong, Jeroen S. Dickschat, Jonathan Gershenzon, Feng Chen 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Terpene Synthase Genes Originated From Bacteria Through Horizontal Gene Transfer Contribute To Terpenoid Diversity In Fungi, Qidong Jia, Xinlu Chen, Tobias G. Kollner, Jan Rinkel, Jianyu Fu, Jessy Labbe, Wangdan Xiong, Jeroen S. Dickschat, Jonathan Gershenzon, Feng Chen

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Fungi are successful eukaryotes of wide distribution. They are known as rich producers of secondary metabolites, especially terpenoids, which are important for fungi-environment interactions. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism contributing to genetic innovation of fungi. However, it remains unclear whether HGT has played a role in creating the enormous chemical diversity of fungal terpenoids. Here we report that fungi have acquired terpene synthase genes (TPSs), which encode pivotal enzymes for terpenoid biosynthesis, from bacteria through HGT. Phylogenetic analysis placed the majority of fungal and bacterial TPS genes from diverse taxa into two clades, indicating ancient divergence. Nested ...


The Small Rna Teg41 Regulates Expression Of The Alpha Phenol-Soluble Modulins And Is Required For Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Rachel L. Zapf, Richard E. Wiemels, Rebecca A. Keogh, Donald L. Holzschu, Kayla M. Howell, Emily Trzeciak, Andrew R. Caillet, Kellie A. King, Samantha A. Selhorst, Michael J. Naldrett, Jeffrey L. Bose, Ronan K. Carroll 2019 Ohio University

The Small Rna Teg41 Regulates Expression Of The Alpha Phenol-Soluble Modulins And Is Required For Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Rachel L. Zapf, Richard E. Wiemels, Rebecca A. Keogh, Donald L. Holzschu, Kayla M. Howell, Emily Trzeciak, Andrew R. Caillet, Kellie A. King, Samantha A. Selhorst, Michael J. Naldrett, Jeffrey L. Bose, Ronan K. Carroll

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Small RNAs (sRNAs) remain an understudied class of regulatory molecules in bacteria in general and in Gram-positive bacteria in particular. In the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, hundreds of sRNAs have been identified; however, only a few have been characterized in detail. In this study, we investigate the role of the sRNA Teg41 in S. aureus virulence. We demonstrate that Teg41, an sRNA divergently transcribed from the locus that encodes the cytolytic alpha phenolsoluble modulin (αPSM) peptides, plays a critical role in αPSM production. Overproduction of Teg41 leads to an increase in αPSM levels and a corresponding increase in hemolytic ...


Delineating The Role Of Fanca In Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion In Β Cells Through Its Protein Interactome, Dragana Lagundzin, Wen-Feng Hu, Henry C. H. Law, Kimiko L. Krieger, Fangfang Qiao, Emalie J. Clement, Andjela T. Drincic, Olgica Nedic, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Nicholas T. Woods 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Delineating The Role Of Fanca In Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion In Β Cells Through Its Protein Interactome, Dragana Lagundzin, Wen-Feng Hu, Henry C. H. Law, Kimiko L. Krieger, Fangfang Qiao, Emalie J. Clement, Andjela T. Drincic, Olgica Nedic, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Nicholas T. Woods

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Hyperinsulinemia affects 72% of Fanconi anemia (FA) patients and an additional 25% experience lowered glucose tolerance or frank diabetes. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the dysfunction of FA pancreas β cells is unknown. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the functional role of FANCA, the most commonly mutated gene in FA, in glucosestimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This study reveals that FANCA or FANCB knockdown impairs GSIS in human pancreas β cell line EndoC-βH3. To identify potential pathways by which FANCA might regulate GSIS, we employed a proteomics approach to identify FANCA protein interactions in EndoC-βH3 differentially regulated in response to ...


Amelioration Of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology In 12-Month-Old Happ(Sweind) Transgenic Mice After Treatment With A Cysteine Rich Whey Supplement, Immunocal®, Srivalli Puttagunta 2019 University of Denver

Amelioration Of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology In 12-Month-Old Happ(Sweind) Transgenic Mice After Treatment With A Cysteine Rich Whey Supplement, Immunocal®, Srivalli Puttagunta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Deficits in Reelin expression and signaling play a pathogenic role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, strategies aimed at correcting Reelin deficits may provide a novel therapeutic approach to treating AD. The cysteine-rich, whey protein supplement, Immunocal®, has recently been shown to rescue Reelin expression in a mouse model of Schizophrenia. Given that Reelin-expressing neurons of the entorhinal cortex region are a highly vulnerable population of cells that are lost early in AD, we examined the effects of Immunocal® in the hippocampal-entorhinal cortex formation in a mouse model of AD. Glutathione levels and Reelin expression in the hippocampal-entorhinal cortex formation ...


Characterization Of Vps41 And Its Role In The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Christian Henry Burns 2019 University of Denver

Characterization Of Vps41 And Its Role In The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Christian Henry Burns

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Insulin secretory granules (SGs) mediate the regulated secretion of insulin, which is essential for glucose homeostasis. The basic machinery responsible for this regulated exocytosis consists of specific membrane proteins present both at the plasma membrane and on insulin SGs. The protein composition of insulin SGs thus dictates their release properties, yet the mechanisms controlling insulin SG formation, which determines this molecular composition, remain poorly understood. VPS41, a component of the endolysosomal tethering HOPS complex, was recently identified as a cytosolic factor involved in the formation of neuroendocrine/neuronal granules. We now find that a stable pool of VPS41 exists outside ...


The Ethics Of Big Data In Genomics: The Instructive Icelandic Saga Of The Incidentalome, Donna M. Gitter 2019 Baruch College, Zicklin School of Business, City University of New York

The Ethics Of Big Data In Genomics: The Instructive Icelandic Saga Of The Incidentalome, Donna M. Gitter

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

DeCODE Genetics, Inc., a pioneering Icelandic biotech firm, recently introduced a free website that permits Icelanders to learn whether they carry mutations in the BRCA2 gene that are known to increase cancer risk, even if these citizens have never participated in genetic testing. Approximately five thousand Icelanders have elected thus far to receive their status. This site is made possible by the consanguinity of Icelandic citizens, who number fewer than 350,000, and their detailed genealogical records dating back centuries, a set of circumstances that presents a unique opportunity to study genetic mutations and the medical disorders associated with them ...


Charting A New Frontier Of Science By Integrating Mathematical Modeling To Understand And Predict Complex Biological Systems, Katharine White, Kira McEntire, Nicole R. Buan, Kingshuk Ghosh, Lecia Robinson, Elisar Barbar 2019 University of Notre Dame

Charting A New Frontier Of Science By Integrating Mathematical Modeling To Understand And Predict Complex Biological Systems, Katharine White, Kira Mcentire, Nicole R. Buan, Kingshuk Ghosh, Lecia Robinson, Elisar Barbar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Biological systems are staggeringly complex. To untangle this complexity and make predictions about biological systems is a continuous goal of biological research. One approach to achieve these goals is to emphasize the use of quantitative measures of biological processes. Advances in quantitative biology data collection and analysis across scales (molecular, cellular, organismal, ecological) has transformed how we understand, categorize, and predict complex biological systems. Simultaneously, thanks to increased computational power, mathematicians, engineers and physical scientists -- collectively termed theoreticians -- have developed sophisticated models of biological systems at different scales. But there is still a disconnect between the two fields. This surge ...


Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Bacterial uptake of DNA through type IV filaments is an essential component of natural competence in numerous gram-positive and gram-negative species. Recent advances in the field have broadened our understanding of the structures used to take up extracellular DNA. Here, we review seminal experiments in the literature describing DNA binding by type IV pili, competence pili and the flp pili of Micrococcus luteus; collectively referred to here as type IV filaments. We compare the current state of the field on mechanisms of DNA uptake for these three appendage systems and describe the current mechanistic understanding of both DNA-binding and DNA-uptake ...


Downregulation Of A Cyp74 Rubber Particle Protein Increases Natural Rubber Production In Parthenium Argentatum, Dante F. Placido, Niu Dong, Chen Dong, Von Mark V. Cruz, David A. Dierig, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Byung-guk Kang, Trinh Huynh, Maureen Whalen, Grisel Ponciano, Colleen McMahan 2019 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Downregulation Of A Cyp74 Rubber Particle Protein Increases Natural Rubber Production In Parthenium Argentatum, Dante F. Placido, Niu Dong, Chen Dong, Von Mark V. Cruz, David A. Dierig, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Byung-Guk Kang, Trinh Huynh, Maureen Whalen, Grisel Ponciano, Colleen Mcmahan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We report functional genomics studies of a CYP74 rubber particle protein from Parthenium argentatum, commonly called guayule. Previously identified as an allene oxide synthase (AOS), this CYP74 constitutes the most abundant protein found in guayule rubber particles. Transgenic guayule lines with AOS gene expression down-regulated by RNAi (AOSi) exhibited strong phenotypes that included agricultural traits conducive to enhancing rubber yield. AOSi lines had higher leaf and stem biomass, thicker stembark tissues, increased stem branching and improved net photosynthetic rate. Importantly, the rubber content was significantly increased in AOSi lines compared to the wild-type (WT), vector control and AOS overexpressing (AOSoe ...


Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Evaluated At Five Locations Revealed Individuals With Exceptional Potential, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Evaluated At Five Locations Revealed Individuals With Exceptional Potential, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

To breed improved biomass cultivars of Miscanthus ×giganteus, it will be necessary to select the highest‐yielding and best‐adapted genotypes of its parental species, Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus. We phenotyped a diverse clonally propagated panel of 569 M. sinensis and nine natural diploid M. ×giganteus at one subtropical (Zhuji, China) and five temperate locations (Sapporo, Japan; Leamington, Ontario, Canada; Fort Collins, CO; Urbana, IL; and Chuncheon, Korea) for dry biomass yield and 14 yield‐component traits, in trials grown for 3 years. Notably, dry biomass yield of four Miscanthus accessions exceeded 80 Mg/ha in Zhuji, China, approaching ...


The Mitochondrial Nad+ Transporter (Ndt1) Plays Important Roles In Cellular Nad+ Homeostasis In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Izabel de Souza Chaves, Elias Feitosa-Araujo, Alexandra Florian, David B. Medeiros, Paula da Fonseca-Pereira, Lennart Charton, Elmien Heyneke, Jorge A. C. Apfata, Marcel V. Pires, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Wagner L. Arajuo, H. Ekkehard Neuhaus, Ferdinando Palmieri, Toshihiro Obata, Andreas P. M. Weber, Nicole Linka, Alisdair R. Femie, Adriano Nunes-Nesi 2019 Universidade Federal de Vicosa

The Mitochondrial Nad+ Transporter (Ndt1) Plays Important Roles In Cellular Nad+ Homeostasis In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Izabel De Souza Chaves, Elias Feitosa-Araujo, Alexandra Florian, David B. Medeiros, Paula Da Fonseca-Pereira, Lennart Charton, Elmien Heyneke, Jorge A. C. Apfata, Marcel V. Pires, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Wagner L. Arajuo, H. Ekkehard Neuhaus, Ferdinando Palmieri, Toshihiro Obata, Andreas P. M. Weber, Nicole Linka, Alisdair R. Femie, Adriano Nunes-Nesi

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential coenzyme required for all living organisms. In eukaryotic cells, the final step of NAD+ biosynthesis is exclusively cytosolic. Hence, NAD+ must be imported into organelles to support their metabolic functions. Three NAD+ transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) have been biochemically characterized in plants. AtNDT1 (At2g47490), focus of the current study, AtNDT2 (At1g25380), targeted to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and AtPXN (At2g39970), located in the peroxisomal membrane. Although AtNDT1 was presumed to reside in the chloroplast membrane, subcellular localization experiments with green fluorescent protein ...


An Arabidopsis Protoplast Isolation Method Reduces Cytosolic Acidification And Activation Of The Chloroplast Stress Sensor Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christian G. Elowsky, Rebecca Roston 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Arabidopsis Protoplast Isolation Method Reduces Cytosolic Acidification And Activation Of The Chloroplast Stress Sensor Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christian G. Elowsky, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Chloroplasts adapt to freezing and other abiotic stresses in part by modifying their membranes. One key-remodeling enzyme is SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2). SFR2 is unusual because it does not respond to initial cold stress or cold acclimation, instead it responds during freezing conditions in Arabidopsis. This response has been shown to be sensitive to cytosolic acidification. The unique lipid products of SFR2 have also been detected in response to non-freezing stresses, but what causes SFR2 to respond in these stresses is unknown. Here, we investigate protoplast isolation as a representative of wounding stress. We show that SFR2 oligogalactolipid products accumulate ...


Looking For Maize Genes Involved In Cold Response: Producing Knockouts For Arabidopsis Homologs Of Maize Candidate Genes Using A Crispr/Cas9 Approach, Katie Hillmann 2019 Hamline University

Looking For Maize Genes Involved In Cold Response: Producing Knockouts For Arabidopsis Homologs Of Maize Candidate Genes Using A Crispr/Cas9 Approach, Katie Hillmann

Departmental Honors Projects

Most of today’s maize is cultivated outside its original climate zone, where yields are constrained by the changes in climate. Maize is especially vulnerable to high temperatures and drought stress, both of which negatively affect corn yields. An important strategy to combat this is early sowing, which avoids the effects of summer droughts and high temperatures in many places around the globe. However, maize is a cold sensitive species (Sanghera et al., 2011), making improvement to cold stress crucial for its adaption. The relatively new system CRISPR (Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 offers the potential to study cold-stress ...


Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang 2019 University of Kentucky

Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) is the type species of the genus nucleorhabdovirus which is typified by its nucleotropic characters of the members. The virus accomplishes its replication and morphogenesis in the nuclei of infected cells. Two strains, Constricta strain (CYDV) and Sanguinolenta strain (SYDV) have been described at the level of vector-specificity. CYDV is vectored by Agallia constricta and SYDV is transmitted by Aceratagllia sanguinolenta. The full-length genome of CYDV was sequenced. The 12,792 nt antisense genome encodes seven open reading frames in the order of, nucleocapsid protein (N), unknown protein (X), phosphoprotein (P), movement protein (Y), matrix ...


Autologous Skin Cell Spray-Transplantation As An Innovative Alternative To Autologous Split- Thickness Skin Grafts For Deep Partial Thickness Burn Wounds: An Integrative Literature Review, Alexandria M. Beaudet 2019 University of Central Florida

Autologous Skin Cell Spray-Transplantation As An Innovative Alternative To Autologous Split- Thickness Skin Grafts For Deep Partial Thickness Burn Wounds: An Integrative Literature Review, Alexandria M. Beaudet

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Burn wounds tend to be a critical problem with a complicated healing process. Although advancements have been made and the treatment of burn wounds has improved significantly, the healing process for deep-partial thickness burn wounds remains problematic. The purpose of this thesis is to review the available literature on an innovate biotechnology, autologous skin cell-spray transplantation, to more effectively treat burn wounds and potentially other injuries in the future. This study was conducted by critically researching and comparing (N=7) peer-reviewed research articles focusing not only on burn wounds using traditional treatments, but also the treatment of burn wounds using ...


Method Development For Structural Assessment Of Nanolipoprotein Particles With And Without Cross-Linked Lipids, Emma J. Mullen, Wei He, Sean Gilmore, Matthias Frank, Matthew Coleman, Megan Shelby 2019 University of Oregon

Method Development For Structural Assessment Of Nanolipoprotein Particles With And Without Cross-Linked Lipids, Emma J. Mullen, Wei He, Sean Gilmore, Matthias Frank, Matthew Coleman, Megan Shelby

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Membrane proteins make up approximately 30% of the cellular proteome and account for over 60% of pharmaceutical targets.1 Determining the structures of this class of proteins is critical to our understanding of disease states and will advance rational drug design. But membrane proteins have limited solubility, rarely form large crystals that diffract well, and often misfold outside of a bilayer, hindering crystallographic studies.1 Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) have arisen as a platform to readily solubilize membrane proteins while mimicking a native lipid environment. NLPs consist of a discoidal phospholipid bilayer encircled by an apolipoprotein belt. In an effort to ...


Agent Based Model Of Cavitation In Spinal Cord Injury, Rahma Ahmed 2019 Bard College

Agent Based Model Of Cavitation In Spinal Cord Injury, Rahma Ahmed

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Annually, approximately 375,000 people suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI) worldwide and many SCI patients develop secondary health conditions such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and urinary/bowel complications which negatively impact their daily lives. SCI occurs when there is damage to the spinal cord resulting in decreased motor functions, decreased sensory functions, or paralysis. Days to weeks after initial impact, the lesion (area of injury) continues to increase in size in a process called progressive cavitation which demyelinates axons and inhibits effective axonal regeneration. In an in vitro model of progressive cavitation, Fitch et al. showed that activated macrophages cause ...


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