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Drought Responsive Gene Expression Regulatory Divergence Between Upland And Lowland Ecotypes Of A Perennial C4 Grass, John T. Lovell, Scott Schwartz, David B. Lowry, Eugene V. Shakirov, Jason E. Bonnette, Xiaoyu Weng, Mei Wang, Jenifer Johnson, Avinash Sreedasyam, Christopher Plott, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Thomas E. Juenger 2019 Marshall University

Drought Responsive Gene Expression Regulatory Divergence Between Upland And Lowland Ecotypes Of A Perennial C4 Grass, John T. Lovell, Scott Schwartz, David B. Lowry, Eugene V. Shakirov, Jason E. Bonnette, Xiaoyu Weng, Mei Wang, Jenifer Johnson, Avinash Sreedasyam, Christopher Plott, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Thomas E. Juenger

Yevgeniy (Eugene) Shakirov

Climatic adaptation is an example of a genotype-by-environment interaction (G×E) of fitness. Selection upon gene expression regulatory variation can contribute to adaptive phenotypic diversity; however, surprisingly few studies have examined how genome-wide patterns of gene expression G×E are manifested in response to environmental stress and other selective agents that cause climatic adaptation. Here, we characterize drought-responsive expression divergence between upland (drought-adapted) and lowland (mesic) ecotypes of the perennial C4 grass, Panicum hallii, in natural field conditions. Overall, we find that cis-regulatory elements contributed to gene expression divergence across 47% of genes, 7.2% of which exhibit ...


Heterologous Expression Of Secreted Bacterial Bpp And Hap Phytases In Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis Thaliana Growth On Phytate., Lia R. Valeeva, Chuluuntsetseg Nyamsuren, Margarita R. Sharipova, Eugene V. Shakirov 2019 Marshall University

Heterologous Expression Of Secreted Bacterial Bpp And Hap Phytases In Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis Thaliana Growth On Phytate., Lia R. Valeeva, Chuluuntsetseg Nyamsuren, Margarita R. Sharipova, Eugene V. Shakirov

Yevgeniy (Eugene) Shakirov

Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family ...


Microbial Phytases And Phytate: Exploring Opportunities For Sustainable Phosphorus Management In Agriculture, Nelly P. Balaban, Aliya D. Suleimanova, Lia R. Valeeva, Inna B. Chastukhina, Natalia L. Rudakova, Margarita R. Sharipova, Eugene V. Shakirov 2019 Marshall University

Microbial Phytases And Phytate: Exploring Opportunities For Sustainable Phosphorus Management In Agriculture, Nelly P. Balaban, Aliya D. Suleimanova, Lia R. Valeeva, Inna B. Chastukhina, Natalia L. Rudakova, Margarita R. Sharipova, Eugene V. Shakirov

Yevgeniy (Eugene) Shakirov

Myo-inositol phosphates (phytates) are important biological molecules produced largely by plants to store phosphorus. Phytate is very abundant in many different soils making up a large portion of all soil phosphorus. This review assesses current phytase science from the perspective of its substrate, phytate, by examining the intricate relationship between the phytate-hydrolyzing enzymes and phytate as their substrate. Specifically, we examine available data on phytate’s structural features, distribution in nature and functional roles. The role of phytases and their localization in soil and plant tissues are evaluated. We provide a summary of the current biotechnological advances in using ...


Acute Systemic Inflammatory Response To Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Haibo Liu, Kristina M. Feye, Yet T. Nguyen, Anoosh Rakhshandeh, Crystal L. Loving, Jack C. M. Sekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Christopher K. Tuggle 2019 Old Dominion University

Acute Systemic Inflammatory Response To Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Haibo Liu, Kristina M. Feye, Yet T. Nguyen, Anoosh Rakhshandeh, Crystal L. Loving, Jack C. M. Sekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Christopher K. Tuggle

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

Background: It is unclear whether improving feed efficiency by selection for low residual feed intake (RFI) compromises pigs’ immunocompetence. Here, we aimed at investigating whether pig lines divergently selected for RFI had different inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, regarding to clinical presentations and transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood cells.

Results: LPS injection induced acute systemic inflammation in both the low-RFI and high-RFI line (n = 8 per line). At 4 h post injection (hpi), the low-RFI line had a significantly lower (p= 0.0075) mean rectal temperature compared to the high-RFI line. However, no significant differences in complete blood count ...


Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag 2019 Clark University

Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Chemical Epitope Targeting is a novel technology developed for designing peptide ligands with high affinity and specificity against specific regions of a protein that may be inaccessible to small molecules or antibodies. In this review, we summarize the key steps and significant applications of this technology. Operating on the same principles as antibody-antigen interactions, this technique involves chemically synthesizing the region of interest on the protein, called the epitope, as a polypeptide with a biotin detection tag and a strategically placed alkyne or azide presenting amino acid. The constructed epitope is screened against a comprehensive linear or cyclic One Bead ...


Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eugenics is the science of enhancing the human population through the management of breeding and hereditary traits. This thesis explores the history of eugenics and shows how eugenic practices continue in the 21st century with advancements in technology and positive eugenic goals that can result in adverse effects on the human body and society. When Sir Francis Galton coined the term eugenics in 1883, he intended to improve British society with the use of positive eugenics. Galton used positive eugenics to encourage people with good mental and physical qualities to produce more children. He avoided negative eugenics, which involved ...


Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to manipulate the phenotype of an organism by silencing the expression of specific genes and is viewed as a highly promising platform for treating undruggable targets and disorders where small molecule drugs and antibodies would fail. However, development of RNAi based therapies has faced major barriers including cellular and tissue-specific uptake of the Small Interfering RNA (siRNA). Utilizing different nanoparticles as RNAi excipients, cellular uptake and gene silencing potency can be greatly improved. The research in Dr. McDevitt groups has fibrillar carbon nanotubes (CNT) as carriers for siRNA for gene silencing in vitro ...


Total Rna Extraction From Transgenic Flies Misexpressing Foreign Genes To Perform Next Generation Rna Sequencing, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jian-Liang Li, Panagiotis A. Tsonis, Amit Singh 2019 University of Dayton

Total Rna Extraction From Transgenic Flies Misexpressing Foreign Genes To Perform Next Generation Rna Sequencing, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jian-Liang Li, Panagiotis A. Tsonis, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Due to absence of transgenic approaches in Notopthalmus Viridescens (newt), and conservation of genetic machinery across species, we generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster to misexpress unique genes from newt. Novel newt genes cloned, and inserted at attP site in Drosophila were misexpressed ubiquitously using tubulin Gal-4. Sample (total RNA) for RNA sequencing was collected at 3rd instar larval stage during which major developmental events takes place in Drosophila. Total RNA was extracted, and purified using RNA clean and ConcentratorTM. RNA quality was quantitated by calculating absorbance at 260 nm (A260) and 280 nm (A280) wavelengths using Nanodrop 2000 spectrophotometer. Good quality ...


Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis And Structure Prediction Of Novel Newt Proteins, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jian-Liang Li, Panagiotis A. Tsonis, Amit Singh 2019 University of Dayton

Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis And Structure Prediction Of Novel Newt Proteins, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jian-Liang Li, Panagiotis A. Tsonis, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Notophthalmus viridescens (Red-spotted Newt) possess amazing capabilities to regenerate their organs and other tissues. Previously, using a de novo assembly of the newt transcriptome combined with proteomic validation, our group identified a novel family of five protein members expressed in adult tissues during regeneration in Notophthalmus viridescens. The presence of a putative signal peptide suggests that all these proteins are secretory in nature. Here we employed iterative threading assembly refinement (I-TASSER) server to generate three-dimensional structure of these novel Newt proteins and predicted their function. Our data suggests that these proteins could act as ion transporters, and be involved in ...


Optimizing Crispr/Cas9 For Gene Silencing Of Sod1 In Mouse Models Of Als, Zachary C. Kennedy 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Optimizing Crispr/Cas9 For Gene Silencing Of Sod1 In Mouse Models Of Als, Zachary C. Kennedy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Mutations in the SOD1 gene are the best characterized genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and account for ~20% of inherited cases and 1-3% of sporadic cases. The gene-editing tool Cas9 can silence mutant genes that cause disease, but effective delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 to the central nervous system (CNS) remains challenging. Here, I developed strategies using canonical Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 to silence SOD1. In the first strategy, I demonstrate effectiveness of systemic delivery of guide RNA targeting SOD1 to the CNS in a transgenic mouse model expressing human mutant SOD1 and Cas9. Silencing was observed in both the brain ...


Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


Sequence Analysis Of The Ren1 Genomic Region From The Grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’, Dani Joseph 2019 Missouri State University

Sequence Analysis Of The Ren1 Genomic Region From The Grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’, Dani Joseph

MSU Graduate Theses

The REN1 region of the grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’ was mapped as the locus that confers resistance to the economically important disease, grape powdery mildew. The purpose of this work was to extend the nucleotide sequence information of this region. By sequencing a heretofore unknown bacterial artificial chromosome clone, the sequence information of this region was extended by 46,890 nucleotides. Sequencing was performed using the third-generation sequencing method, named Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT). In order to improve the accuracy of the sequence data, a modified ONT library preparation method was developed. ONT sequencing of a library prepared with the modified ...


Synthesis Of New Aliphatic Pseudo-Branched Polyester Co-Polymers For Biomedical Applications, Zachary Shaw 2019 Pittsburg State University

Synthesis Of New Aliphatic Pseudo-Branched Polyester Co-Polymers For Biomedical Applications, Zachary Shaw

Electronic Thesis Collection

In this study, a hyperbranched polyester co-polymer was designed using a proprietary monomer and diethylene glycol or triethylene glycol as monomers. The synthesis was carried out using standard melt polymerization technique and catalyzed by p-Tolulenesulfonic acid. The progress of the reaction was monitored with respect to time and negative pressure, with samples being subjected to standard characterization protocols. The resulting polymers were purified using the solvent precipitation method and characterized using various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods including GPC, MALDI-TOF, and NMR. We have observed polymers with a molecular weight of 29,643 kDa and 33,996 kDa, which is ideal ...


Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede 2019 University of California, Davis

Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. Van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede

Kurt Piepenbrink

The Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment would not have been possible without the prediction targets provided by the experimental structural biology community. In this article, selected crystallographers providing targets for the CASP11 experiment discuss the functional and biological significance of the target proteins, highlight their most interesting structural features, and assess whether these features were correctly reproduced in the predictions submitted to CASP11.


Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink

Kurt Piepenbrink

Bacterial uptake of DNA through type IV filaments is an essential component of natural competence in numerous gram-positive and gram-negative species. Recent advances in the field have broadened our understanding of the structures used to take up extracellular DNA. Here, we review seminal experiments in the literature describing DNA binding by type IV pili, competence pili and the flp pili of Micrococcus luteus; collectively referred to here as type IV filaments. We compare the current state of the field on mechanisms of DNA uptake for these three appendage systems and describe the current mechanistic understanding of both DNA-binding and DNA-uptake ...


Compositional Optimization Of Amyloid-Graphene Oxide Nanohybrids For Biomaterials, Claire L. Drewery 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Compositional Optimization Of Amyloid-Graphene Oxide Nanohybrids For Biomaterials, Claire L. Drewery

Materials Engineering

Amyloid nanofibrils are natural materials capable of self-assembling into precise structures with tunable functionalities, while exhibiting excellent mechanical properties. In combination with highly conductive graphene oxide (GO), the 1-D amyloid nanofibrils and 2-D nanosheets of GO can produce a robust and bio-functional nanohybrid, hypothesized to exhibit multi-domain functional properties useful for enzyme sensing, water purification, drug delivery, and tissue scaffolding applications. Here, we examine the properties of an amyloid-graphene oxide nanohybrid film made with amyloids derived from hen egg white lysozymes in an attempt to explore the diverse toolbox of amyloid derivatives and establish ideal fabrication methods and formulations of ...


Genetic Variation Of Human Leukocyte Antigen (Hla) Alleles Among Rheumatiod Arthritis Patients In Fujairah, Amna Abdulla Harib Al-Dhmanie 2019 United Arab Emirates University

Genetic Variation Of Human Leukocyte Antigen (Hla) Alleles Among Rheumatiod Arthritis Patients In Fujairah, Amna Abdulla Harib Al-Dhmanie

Biology Theses

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation that affects the joints. It occurs when the immune system attacks the body's own tissues and organs. The precise cause of RA is not fully understood but evidence suggests that genes, hormones and environmental factors could be involved. It has been established that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci is a strong risk factor of RA. Specifically, the shared epitope (SE) region of HLA-DRB1 and variations at position 11 and 13 of HLA-DRB1 and position 77 of HLA-A have shown strong association with RA. The hypothesis of this study ...


Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study demonstrated a technique for fabricating simple, low-cost Paper Microbial fuel cells (PMFC’s) in the model of a previous study to, for the first time, produce voltage from wastewater effluent. The PMFC’s were created by stacking and gluing the main components of an MFC together: reservoir layer; anode; cation exchange membrane (CEM); air cathode. A wax printer was used to create the hydrophobic borders of the PMFC’s on filter paper, and graphite paint was applied to the paper to create the anode. The CEM’s considered were filter paper, wax, and Nafion, with Nafion being the ...


Developing A Low Cost Biological Additive Manufacturing System For Fabricating Gel Embedded Cellular Constructs., Justin Stewart Minck 2019 California State University – San Bernardino

Developing A Low Cost Biological Additive Manufacturing System For Fabricating Gel Embedded Cellular Constructs., Justin Stewart Minck

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Organ transplantation has made great progress since the first successful kidney transplant in 1953 and now more than one million tissue transplants are performed in the United States every year (www.organdonor.gov/statistics-stories, 2015). However, the hope and success of organ transplants are often overshadowed by their reputation as being notoriously difficult to procure because of donor-recipient matching and availability. In addition, those that are fortunate enough to receive a transplant are burdened with a lifetime of immunosuppressants. The field of regenerative medicine is currently making exceptional progress toward making it possible for a patient to be their own ...


Cultivating Knowledge: Agrarian Science And Ecological Engagements In Southern Ontario Agriculture, Kelly Linton 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Cultivating Knowledge: Agrarian Science And Ecological Engagements In Southern Ontario Agriculture, Kelly Linton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Agriculture and climate change are interconnected processes, with agriculture implicated in rising green house gas emissions, deforestation, soil and water pollution, and reductions in biodiversity. Conversely, changes within ecology (including a warming climate), alter growing conditions for farmers. Farmers face changes in both temperature and precipitation, as well as an increase in adverse weather events that significantly threaten productivity and livelihoods.

Based on 40 unstructured interviews as well as informal conversations conducted among farmers in southern Ontario, Canada between the spring of 2014 and the winter of 2017, this dissertation seeks to contribute to a growing body of work that ...


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