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382 full-text articles. Page 4 of 16.

Synapse Formation In Monosynaptic Sensory–Motor Connections Is Regulated By Presynaptic Rho Gtpase Cdc42, Fumiyasu Imai, David R. Ladle, Jennifer R. Leslie, Xin Duan, Tilat A. Rizvi, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Yi Zheng, Yutaka Yoshida 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Synapse Formation In Monosynaptic Sensory–Motor Connections Is Regulated By Presynaptic Rho Gtpase Cdc42, Fumiyasu Imai, David R. Ladle, Jennifer R. Leslie, Xin Duan, Tilat A. Rizvi, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Yi Zheng, Yutaka Yoshida

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal reflex circuit development requires the precise regulation of axon trajectories, synaptic specificity, and synapse formation. Of these three crucial steps, the molecular mechanisms underlying synapse formation between group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons is the least understood. Here, we show that the Rho GTPase Cdc42 controls synapse formation in monosynaptic sensory–motor connections in presynaptic, but not postsynaptic, neurons. In mice lacking Cdc42 in presynaptic sensory neurons, proprioceptive sensory axons appropriately reach the ventral spinal cord, but significantly fewer synapses are formed with motor neurons compared with wild-type mice. Concordantly, electrophysiological analyses show diminished EPSP amplitudes in ...


Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger 2016 Dickinson College

Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger

Student Honors Theses By Year

Hypometabolism is an important energy saving, highly regulated physiological response for some mammals; however, its mechanisms of control have yet to be fully described. It induces a reduction in metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. Although the degree and rate of body temperature decrease is subject to ambient temperatures, mammals still maintain control over the whole process. A major goal of hypometabolism appears to be maintaining energetic stores within the body as external food sources become sparse. Uncovering the mechanisms by which these mammals control this process is of interest as organ and tissue damage following hypometabolism ...


Physiological And Social Stress On Cognitive Performance, Doreet Nagatti, Daniele Anina, Maria Daigle, Kymberlee M. O'Brien 2016 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Physiological And Social Stress On Cognitive Performance, Doreet Nagatti, Daniele Anina, Maria Daigle, Kymberlee M. O'Brien

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Humans are highly social creatures and this provides us with a number of benefits, such as protection and support, but it also brings new avenues for stress from social sources. Basic and translational neuroendocrine research has yielded a rich set of findings and a general understanding of how acute and chronic stress can result in reduced health, earlier aging, and earlier death. Although stress can be indexed by level of cortisol, the major stress hormone in humans, many interrelated physiological systems are involved in a stress response, including the cardio and vascular systems. Research toward greater understanding of stress buffering ...


A Reduced Order Model For Efficient Physiological Flow Analysis In Aneurysms By Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Gary Han Chang, Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Reduced Order Model For Efficient Physiological Flow Analysis In Aneurysms By Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Gary Han Chang, Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Simulating physiological flows using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) remains to be computationally expensive and difficult for clinical usage because of the physiological flow and geometrical complexity involved in patient specific situations. We use the reduced order modeling (ROM) of such systems with high nonlinearity and geometrical non-uniformity to replace the full, nonlinear model with a low-degrees of freedom ROM model. We construct ROM models by the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to estimate the flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) and pressure loading of a simplified abdominal aortic aneurysm and a bifurcation cerebral aneurysm. This method allows us to investigate a ...


Mechanisms Of Lateral-Inhibitory Feedback From Horizontal Cells To Cone Photoreceptors At The First Synapse Of The Retina, Ted J. Warren 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Mechanisms Of Lateral-Inhibitory Feedback From Horizontal Cells To Cone Photoreceptors At The First Synapse Of The Retina, Ted J. Warren

Theses & Dissertations

Polarization of the horizontal cell (HC) membrane potential causes changes in the synaptic cleft pH that result in inhibitory feedback from HCs to cone photoreceptors (PRs). HCs average signals from many PRs and so negative feedback onto PR terminals from HCs subtracts the average luminance of the visual scene from the light responses of an individual cone. This feedback operates by changing the voltage-dependence and amplitude of the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) that regulates synaptic release. Feedback regulation of PR Ca2+ channels involves protons but the mechanism by which this pH change occurs is unclear. We investigated ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Franklin D. Shuler

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan MD, Prasanna Santhanam MD, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Joan C Edwards School of Medicine

Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan Md, Prasanna Santhanam Md, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Joseph I Shapiro MD

Objectives To analyze correlations between major determinants of blood pressure (BP), in efforts to generate and compare predictive models that explain for variance in systolic, diastolic, and mean BP amongst participants of the Intersalt study. Methods Data from the Intersalt study, consisting of nearly 10,000 subjects from 32 different countries, were reviewed and analyzed. Published mean values of 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion (Na+, K+), 24 hour urine creatinine excretion, body mass index (BMI, kg/m^2), and blood pressure data were extracted and imported into Matlab™ for stepwise linear regression analysis. Results As shown earlier, strong correlations between ...


Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan MD, Prasanna Santhanam MD, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Joan C Edwards School of Medicine

Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan Md, Prasanna Santhanam Md, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Zeid J. Khitan

Objectives To analyze correlations between major determinants of blood pressure (BP), in efforts to generate and compare predictive models that explain for variance in systolic, diastolic, and mean BP amongst participants of the Intersalt study. Methods Data from the Intersalt study, consisting of nearly 10,000 subjects from 32 different countries, were reviewed and analyzed. Published mean values of 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion (Na+, K+), 24 hour urine creatinine excretion, body mass index (BMI, kg/m^2), and blood pressure data were extracted and imported into Matlab™ for stepwise linear regression analysis. Results As shown earlier, strong correlations between ...


The Mind Body Problem, Part Three: Ascension Of Sexual Function To Cerebral Level, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2016 Carol Davila University, Department of Surgery and Psychiatry

The Mind Body Problem, Part Three: Ascension Of Sexual Function To Cerebral Level, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Physiologically, the somatic nervous system intervenes in external interaction between the body and environment, while autonomic nervous system ensures the functioning of internal organs. We present in this paper a psycho-physiological perspective suggesting that mental function (somatic in nature, because coordinates environmental interaction) is closer to and more aligned with the physiologic functioning of autonomic nervous system (due to autonomy, duality, etc.). At opposite end, sexual function (autonomic in nature, erection for example being a parasympathetic vasodilatory reflex) seems to be compatible and even dependent by a somatic participation (erectile response is rather induced by environmental stimuli than internal visceral ...


Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra 2016 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Caffeine and its derivatives have been used, alone and in combination with other phytochemicals, as weight-loss supplements. Caffeine impacts several physiological and behavioral aspects of energy balance. Here, we investigate the potential for caffeine to enhance non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) even when activity level is held constant. To do this, muscle thermogenesis and energy expenditure (EE) were measured in rats during treadmill walking regimens, with and without caffeine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Muscle heat dissipation was significantly increased by caffeine only at the end of the 25-min treadmill test. Activity-related EE, on the other hand, was significantly increased throughout ...


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan MD, Prasanna Santhanam MD, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Joan C Edwards School of Medicine

Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan Md, Prasanna Santhanam Md, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Objectives

To analyze correlations between major determinants of blood pressure (BP), in efforts to generate and compare predictive models that explain for variance in systolic, diastolic, and mean BP amongst participants of the Intersalt study.

Methods

Data from the Intersalt study, consisting of nearly 10,000 subjects from 32 different countries, were reviewed and analyzed. Published mean values of 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion (Na+, K+), 24 hour urine creatinine excretion, body mass index (BMI, kg/m^2), and blood pressure data were extracted and imported into Matlab™ for stepwise linear regression analysis.

Results

As shown earlier, strong correlations between ...


Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Homeostatic regulation is essential for the maintenance of synaptic strength within the physiological range. The current study is the first to demonstrate that both induction and reversal of homeostatic upregulation of synaptic vesicle release can occur within seconds of blocking or unblocking acetylcholine receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Our data suggest that the homeostatic upregulation of release is due to Ca2+-dependent increase in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). Blocking vesicle refilling prevented upregulation of quantal content (QC), while leaving baseline release relatively unaffected. This suggested that the upregulation of QC was due to mobilization ...


Medical Interns', Residents' And Attending Physicians' Attitudes Towards Integrative Medicine And Recommended Treatments For Patients With Psoriasis, Jennifer L. Pacyon 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Medical Interns', Residents' And Attending Physicians' Attitudes Towards Integrative Medicine And Recommended Treatments For Patients With Psoriasis, Jennifer L. Pacyon

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Background: Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease that effect approximately 7.5 million Americans. There are a variety of traditional treatments for psoriasis (e.g. topical medications, biologics) that for many, are effective in combating the disease. However, traditional treatments often have aversive side effects and may not be appropriate for every patient (e.g. pregnant women). Additionally, the efficacy of these medications are variable leaving some looking for adjunctive treatment options. There is increasing evidence to support the use of adjunctive treatments for psoriatic patients (e.g. psychotherapy, mindfulness). However, research is variable in regards to medical professionals’ attitudes towards ...


The Relationship Between Problem-Solving Ability/Eating Motivation And Perceived Quality Of Life In Individuals Diagnosed With Celiac Disease, Vincenzo Zaccheo 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Relationship Between Problem-Solving Ability/Eating Motivation And Perceived Quality Of Life In Individuals Diagnosed With Celiac Disease, Vincenzo Zaccheo

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Celiac disease (CD) is a digestive disorder resulting from gluten intolerance that leads to damage of the small intestine. The only current available treatment for CD involves adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Due to the restrictive nature of this treatment diet, and the increasing prevalence of CD in recent years, much research has been conducted examining factors that impact the quality of life (QOL) of individuals with CD. However, there has been a dearth of literature identifying those factors which can be modified within a treatment setting. Thus, a need for further research in this area was identified. Through ...


Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott 2016 Chapman University

Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPAR𝛼 and/or PPAR𝛿 as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPAR𝛼 inhibitor (GW-6471 ...


Role Of Vav2 In Podocyte Inflammasome Activation And Glomerular Injury During Hyperhomocysteinemia, Sabena Conley 2016 VCU

Role Of Vav2 In Podocyte Inflammasome Activation And Glomerular Injury During Hyperhomocysteinemia, Sabena Conley

Theses and Dissertations

Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) is a widely known pathogenic factor in the progression of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and it is also associated with an increased risk for injurious cardiovascular pathologies during ESRD. HHcys is linked to the formation and activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, characterized as a critical early mechanism initiating the inflammatory response. NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in podocytes in response to elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcys) in vitro and in vivo. However, it remains unknown how NLRP3 inflammasome activation is triggered by NOX. The ...


Book Review Of Cure, David Yells 2016 Walden University

Book Review Of Cure, David Yells

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

In Cure: A Journey Into The Science of Mind Over Body, Dr. Jo Marchant explores the world of complementary and alternative medicine. The context for her exploration is the limitations of standard, Western medicine. In some cases, traditional Western medicine has been unable to provide reliably effective treatment for medical conditions. In other cases, the treatment may result in intolerable side effects. Marchant addresses approaches such as hypnotherapy, virtual reality, and even the power of belief (as reflected in the placebo effect) in the treatment of such disparate conditions as Parkinson’s disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Fibromyalgia. She combines ...


The Effects Of Allergies And Anaphylaxis On The Body And Mind: A Survey Of Opinions And Knowledge On These Disorders, Kathryn E. O'Brien 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The Effects Of Allergies And Anaphylaxis On The Body And Mind: A Survey Of Opinions And Knowledge On These Disorders, Kathryn E. O'Brien

Honors Program: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Despite common knowledge, allergies and anaphylaxis are considered disabilities. As such, these disorders affect the daily lives of those who have them, including one's mental health. In this paper, all the nuances of allergies and anaphylaxis will be discussed as the etiology and scientific aspects of allergies, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity are distinguished from one another. Furthermore, the findings are reported from two surveys; an assessment of how well educated and prepared teachers are for students with allergies and whether other students with food allergies have had similar experiences to the author's and those described in research by other ...


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