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Role Of Translation Initiation In Regulation Of Epithelial Junctions And Cell Motility, Fahda Fawaz Alsharief 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Role Of Translation Initiation In Regulation Of Epithelial Junctions And Cell Motility, Fahda Fawaz Alsharief

Theses and Dissertations

The integrity and barrier properties of intestinal epithelium are determined by specialized adhesive structures known as intercellular junctions; composed of adherens junctions (AJs), tight junctions (TJs) and focal adhesions that mediate cell-cell and cell matrix interactions, respectively. These two types of epithelial cell adhesions regulate each other during disruption and restitution of the epithelial barrier. Inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) are elevated during intestinal inflammation. The most notable effects of IFNγ and TNFα on intestinal epithelial homeostasis involve disruption of apical junctions and attenuation of cell migration. Although molecular mechanisms underlying these ...


Signaling Components Involved In The Hormone Induced Translocation Of Enac In Cultured Adult Human Fungiform (Hbo) Taste Cells, Deanna Hojati 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Signaling Components Involved In The Hormone Induced Translocation Of Enac In Cultured Adult Human Fungiform (Hbo) Taste Cells, Deanna Hojati

Theses and Dissertations

The amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel, ENaC, is the Na+-specific salt taste receptor in rodents. Compared to rodents, human salt taste perception is amiloride-insensitive. In rodents the ENaC is composed of aβg-subunits. Whereas humans express an additional subunit, the d-ENaC subunit. ENaC in human taste cells is composed of aβg-subunits or dβg-subunits, with the latter being amiloride-insensitive. Currently, it is not known if dβg-ENaC expression and trafficking is regulated by hormones and their downstream intracellular signaling effectors. The aim of this study is to investigate if arginine vasopressin (AVP), aldosterone, and cAMP regulate d-ENaC expression and trafficking in cultured fungiform ...


Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts 2017 The University of Akron

Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Background: Biomarkers are taking the spotlight in becoming the norm for early diagnoses. Sepsis is an inflammatory disease that increases metabolic rate in children. The first biomarker is hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice, often observed in children with inflammatory disease and infection. Presence of hyponatremia is associated with electrical signaling imbalances, inflammation and renal dysfunction. The clinical value of hyponatremia in pediatric patients is unknown. The C-reactive protein is a second biomarker. Its presence signifies that necrotic cells and inflammation are present.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of biomarkers in children seen in the Emergency ...


Local Sensitivity Analysis Of Acute Inflammation, James Martin 2017 Marshall University

Local Sensitivity Analysis Of Acute Inflammation, James Martin

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The inflammatory response is the body's response to some pathogen or foreign invader. When infected by a pathogen, a healthy individual will mount a response with immunological factors to eliminate it. An inflammatory response that is either too strong or too weak can be detrimental to the individual's health. We will look at a qualitative mathematical model of the inflammatory response, in scenarios that represent varying disorders of the immune system. Using sensitivity analysis we determine which parameters of this model are most influential in the different scenarios. By determining which parameters are most influential we can suggest ...


Dynamics Of Mitotic Microtubules In Fission Yeast, Patrick Flynn 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Dynamics Of Mitotic Microtubules In Fission Yeast, Patrick Flynn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Microtubules (MTs) are cytoskeletal polymers that assemble into a biomechanical complex known as the mitotic spindle. The spindle is responsible for the equal partitioning of chromosomes during cell division; an event known as mitosis. The dependence of proper chromosome segregation on the dynamics of individual microtubules (MTs) is not well understood or easy to study due to their small size and quick dynamics. Mathematical models and simulations have been constructed in order to better understand the physical basis of how the mitotic spindle accurately, or inaccurately, divides duplicated chromosomes during mitosis. These models rely on the dynamics parameters of individual ...


Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman 2017 University of Kentucky

Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

It was once believed that the brain was immunologically privileged with no resident or infiltrating immune cells; however, now it is understood that the cells of the brain are capable of a wide range of inflammatory processes and phenotypes. Inflammation in the brain has been implicated in several disease processes such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID); however, the role of inflammation in these two dementias is poorly understood.

When we stimulated a pro-inflammatory phenotype with an adeno-associated viral vector in a transgenic mouse model of AD that develops Aβ plaques, we saw a ...


Effects Of Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen And High Fat Diet On Weight Gain, Ventricular Hypertrophy And Contractility, Shreya Chandrasekar, Melissa L. Bates, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Michael J. Hoover, Madison E. Sturgeon, Austin Murphy 2017 University of Iowa

Effects Of Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen And High Fat Diet On Weight Gain, Ventricular Hypertrophy And Contractility, Shreya Chandrasekar, Melissa L. Bates, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Michael J. Hoover, Madison E. Sturgeon, Austin Murphy

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Premature birth represents about 13% of live births each year. Since lungs of these infants are underdeveloped, they receive supplemental oxygen right after birth, but little is known about its effects on the development of normal physiological responses and whether it impacts long-term cardio-metabolic function. Based on previous studies from our lab that showed increased pulse wave velocity in 12 month old rats exposed to neonatal supplemental oxygen, we hypothesized that neonatal exposure to supplemental oxygen causes cardiac hypertrophy and decreased left ventricular contractility. We also hypothesized that these effects to supplemental oxygen would be enhanced by 10 weeks on ...


The [E]Motionless Body No Longer: Tracing The Historical Intersections Of Mental Illness And Movement In The American Asylum, Holly Adele Herzfeld 2017 Bard College

The [E]Motionless Body No Longer: Tracing The Historical Intersections Of Mental Illness And Movement In The American Asylum, Holly Adele Herzfeld

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Multidisciplinary Studies of Bard College.


Survival And Growth Of C57bl/6j Mice Lacking The Bk Channel, Kcnma1: Lower Adult Body Weight Occurs Together With Higher Body Fat, Susan T. Halm, Michael A. Bottomley, Mohammed M. Almutairi, Mauricio Di Fulvio, Dan R. Halm 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Survival And Growth Of C57bl/6j Mice Lacking The Bk Channel, Kcnma1: Lower Adult Body Weight Occurs Together With Higher Body Fat, Susan T. Halm, Michael A. Bottomley, Mohammed M. Almutairi, Mauricio Di Fulvio, Dan R. Halm

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Big conductance potassium (BK) channels contribute to K+ flow and electrical behavior in many cell types. Mice made null for the gene (Kcnma1) producing the BK channel (BKKO) exhibit numerous deficits in physiological functions. Breeding mice lacking a single allele of Kcnma1 (C57BL/6J background) had litter sizes of approximately eight pups. For the period of maternal care (P0– P21), pup deaths peaked at P1 with a second less severe interval of death peaking near P13. Early deaths were twice as likely during a 20-month period of building construction compared with the quiescent period after cessation of construction. Births ...


Perceptual Variations In Thermoregulation During Exercise In A Hot Environment, William C. Alger 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Perceptual Variations In Thermoregulation During Exercise In A Hot Environment, William C. Alger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Professionals are seeking to find ways to prevent exertional heat illness (EHI) in populations working in hot environments as well as populations that are physically active. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate individuals’ ability to accurately perceive core temperature ranges associated with homeothermic and EHI temperatures during exercise. Ten physically active males exercised on a treadmill at a self-selected rate until core temperature reached 39°C. Participants rated perceived core and skin temperature on 100 mm scales each time core temperature increased 0.25˚ C (37.5-39.0˚ C), along with thermal comfort and sweating sensation ...


The Effects Of Direct Peritoneal Resuscitation On Leukocyte Infiltration After Acute Brain Death., Jessica Lee Weaver 2016 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Direct Peritoneal Resuscitation On Leukocyte Infiltration After Acute Brain Death., Jessica Lee Weaver

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Brain death triggers an inflammatory response that is associated with worse outcomes for recipients of transplanted organs procured from brain dead donors. The intestine has been shown to release inflammatory mediators in other types of shock, but its role is brain death is not well described. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) improves visceral organ blood flow and has been shown to reduce inflammation after hemorrhagic shock. Better understanding of this inflammatory process within the peripheral organs, the effects of DPR, and the role of the intestine could aid in better resuscitation of potential organ donors. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were ...


Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Center for Integrative Research on Cardiovascular Aging, Aurora Research Institute

Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The guest editor introduces this specialty issue of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, which focuses on cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. The reality of an aging population has increased the need for better evidence-based medicine in older patients. However, randomized controlled trials frequently exclude such patients, especially those with comorbidities, from study. This practice ignores the fact that physiologic changes to the cardiovascular system caused by the aging process and aging-associated diseases create clinical dilemmas distinct from those in younger patients. Considering the rising costs of health care and growing incidence of cardiovascular disease, research efforts and resources ...


Effects Of Auditory Vection Speed And Directional Congruence On Perceptions Of Visual Vection, Isabella Alexis Gagliano 2016 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Auditory Vection Speed And Directional Congruence On Perceptions Of Visual Vection, Isabella Alexis Gagliano

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Spatial disorientation is a major contributor to aircraft mishaps. One potential contributing factor is vection, an illusion of self-motion. Although vection is commonly thought of as a visual illusion, it can also be produced through audition. The purpose of the current experiment was to explore interactions between conflicting visual and auditory vection cues, specifically with regard to the speed and direction of rotation. The ultimate goal was to explore the extent to which aural vection could diminish or enhance the perception of visual vection. The study used a 3 × 2 within-groups factorial design. Participants were exposed to three levels of ...


The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere 2016 Cardiology Resident Doctor, PhD Student Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania

The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Digestive cancer represents a severe public health problem, being one of the main causes of death. It is considered a multifactorial disease, with hereditary predisposition, environmental factors, and other factors involved in carcinogenesis. Both the evolution and the pathogenesis of digestive neoplasms remain incompletely elucidated. As a multifactorial disease, it can be approached by taking into account the biopsychosocial influences via enteric nervous system. Many peptides and non-peptides having a neurotransmitter role can be found in the enteric nervous system, which can influence the neoplastic process directly or indirectly by affecting some angiogenic, growth, and metastasis factors. However, neurotransmitters can ...


A Note Regarding The Mathematical Treatment Of A Class Of Steady-State Compartmental Models Of The Circulation, Ronald White 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

A Note Regarding The Mathematical Treatment Of A Class Of Steady-State Compartmental Models Of The Circulation, Ronald White

Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP)

A class of steady-state compartmental models of the circulation is examined and it is shown that the mathematical problem for this model class involves a single nonlinear equation. In an important subclass and with certain assumptions regarding the form of the Starling-type cardiac function curves, the single equation is of the form Z = μ + λ log[(1 − Z)/Z] where μ and λ are mathematical parameters related to the physiological parameters of the system and Z is proportional to the cardiac output. This result holds regardless of the number and arrangement of compartments within the model itself or of the ...


Respiratory Rate Variability In Sleeping Adults Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Guillermo Gutierrez, Jeffrey Williams, Ghadah Alrehaili, Anna McLean, Ramin Pirouz, Richard L. Amdur, Vivek Jain, Jalil Ahari, Amandeep Bawa, Shawn Kimbro 2016 George Washington University

Respiratory Rate Variability In Sleeping Adults Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Guillermo Gutierrez, Jeffrey Williams, Ghadah Alrehaili, Anna Mclean, Ramin Pirouz, Richard L. Amdur, Vivek Jain, Jalil Ahari, Amandeep Bawa, Shawn Kimbro

Surgery Faculty Publications

Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea‐hypopnea index <5, who underwent all‐night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 − H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid‐eye‐movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.


Neuropsychological Effects Of Pomegranate Supplementation Following Ischemic Stroke, John A. Bellone 2016 Loma Linda University

Neuropsychological Effects Of Pomegranate Supplementation Following Ischemic Stroke, John A. Bellone

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Polyphenols are compounds found in fruits and vegetables that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Mounting evidence suggests that dietary polyphenol intake can reduce the detrimental effects of various disease processes, and pomegranates have frequently been examined because of their particularly high polyphenol content. Since stroke induces both oxidative stress and inflammation and is currently the leading cause of long-term disability in the U.S., we sought to determine whether dietary supplementation with polyphenols could enhance cognitive recovery in individuals who had suffered an ischemic stroke. We administered polyphenols via 2 POMx pills containing polyphenols derived from pomegranates equivalent to the ...


Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva 2016 University of Louisville

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been observed to promote hypertension, but the mechanisms are unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is a cellular membrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types of the vasculature. TLR-4 activation has been shown to promote inflammation that has been associated with pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we hypothesize that HHcy induces hypertension by TLR-4 activation that promotes inflammatory cytokine up-regulation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death and chronic vascular inflammation. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used C57BL/6J mice (WT); Cystathionine-β-synthase deficient mice (CBS+/-) with genetic ...


Reduced Motor Neuron Excitability Is An Important Contributor To Weakness In A Rat Model Of Sepsis, Paul Nardelli, Jacob A. Vincent, Randall K. Powers, Timothy C. Cope, Mark M. Rich 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Reduced Motor Neuron Excitability Is An Important Contributor To Weakness In A Rat Model Of Sepsis, Paul Nardelli, Jacob A. Vincent, Randall K. Powers, Timothy C. Cope, Mark M. Rich

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

The mechanisms by which sepsis triggers intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) remain unclear. We previously identified difficulty with motor unit recruitment in patients as a novel contributor to ICUAW. To study the mechanism underlying poor recruitment of motor units we used the rat cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis. We identified striking dysfunction of alpha motor neurons during repetitive firing. Firing was more erratic, and often intermittent. Our data raised the possibility that reduced excitability of motor neurons was a significant contributor to weakness induced by sepsis. In this study we quantified the contribution of reduced motor neuron ...


Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, DO, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, II, PharmD, Samson Teka, MD 2016 Marshall University

Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Do, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, Ii, Pharmd, Samson Teka, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Title: Incidence of hypomagnesemia on proton pump inhibitors at the Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – IHOP

Purpose:

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), both prescription and over-the-counter, are widely used for the treatment of acid-related disease states such as dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflex disease, esophagitis, and peptic ulcers. These medications are generally considered safe in most patient populations; however, there are several adverse effects that may occur with long-term use. Hypomagnesemia is a newer complication arising in the literature following multiple case reports over the past several years, although the true incidence of hypomagnesemia associated with PPI use remains unclear at this ...


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