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A Pbpk Model Of Low-Concentration Vitamin D Supplementation In The Absence Of Sunlight, Megan Sawyer 2019 Southern New Hampshire University

A Pbpk Model Of Low-Concentration Vitamin D Supplementation In The Absence Of Sunlight, Megan Sawyer

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


An Exploratory Study Examining The Associations Between Sunlight Exposure, Sleep Behaviours And Sleep Outcomes During An Arctic Summer, Margaret M. Lubas, Ralitsa S. Maduro, Mariana Szklo-Coxe 2019 Old Dominion University

An Exploratory Study Examining The Associations Between Sunlight Exposure, Sleep Behaviours And Sleep Outcomes During An Arctic Summer, Margaret M. Lubas, Ralitsa S. Maduro, Mariana Szklo-Coxe

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Few evidence-based recommendations exist for maintaining healthy sleep during Arctic summers. Our study aimed to examine associations between sleep hygiene, sunlight exposure and sleep outcomes in workers living in and/or near the Arctic Circle during a 24-h light period. A survey was administered July 2017 to 19 workers at 3 Arctic base camps in Northeastern Alaska. Participants with poorer sleep hygiene reported increased sleepiness (r=.62, p=0.01); this correlation remained moderately strong, albeit not statistically significant (NS), after controlling for shift work (r=.46, p=0.06). No other statistically significant correlations between sleep hygiene and sleep ...


Targeting Maladaptive Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury To Prevent The Development Of Autonomic Dysreflexia, Khalid C. Eldahan 2019 University of Kentucky

Targeting Maladaptive Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury To Prevent The Development Of Autonomic Dysreflexia, Khalid C. Eldahan

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Vital autonomic and cardiovascular functions are susceptible to dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI), with cardiovascular dysregulation contributing to morbidity and mortality in the SCI population. Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a condition that develops after injury to the sixth thoracic spinal segment or higher and is characterized by potentially dangerous and volatile surges in arterial pressure often accompanied with irregular heart rate, headache, sweating, flushing of the skin, and nasal congestion. These symptoms occur in response to abnormal outflow of sympathetic activity from the decentralized spinal cord typically triggered by noxious, yet unperceived nociceptive stimulation beneath the level of lesion ...


Using Pair Approximation Methods To Analyze Behavior Of A Probabilistic Cellular Automaton Model For Intracellular Cardiac Calcium Dynamics, Robert J. Rovetti 2018 Loyola Marymount University

Using Pair Approximation Methods To Analyze Behavior Of A Probabilistic Cellular Automaton Model For Intracellular Cardiac Calcium Dynamics, Robert J. Rovetti

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, Naomi Burke 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, Naomi Burke

MD theses

The concept for this thesis arose after a collaboration between the Platelet Biology Laboratory and the Department of Obstetrics and Gyanecology in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. They discovered a significant difference in platelet aggregation in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel platelet assay. This posed the question as to whether or not this platelet assay would eludicate different platelet reactivity at different time points in a normal, heathy pregnancy. The objective was to critically evaluate platelet reactivity in normal pregnancy using this assay which assessed platelet aggregation to several agonists at multiple ...


Effects Of Omega-3s And Vitamin E Prophylactic Diets And The Implications Of Lipid Transport In Spinal Cord Injury, Kathia Cordero-Caban 2018 Loma Linda University

Effects Of Omega-3s And Vitamin E Prophylactic Diets And The Implications Of Lipid Transport In Spinal Cord Injury, Kathia Cordero-Caban

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS) presents a devastating problem to our society. Although current interventions are promising, no effective treatments are available. The neural membrane fatty acid composition is markedly altered during the first few days after spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI results in autonomic dysfunction, paralysis, spasticity, and significant chronic neuropathic pain. The trauma leads to significantly increased levels of free radical and oxidative stress that contribute to obstructing tissue healing and recovery. A growing body of evidence shows that administration of hydrophobic molecules such as Vitamin E and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3PUFAs) are ...


Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price

Theses & Dissertations

Alcohol abuse, which can impair clearance of pathogens and debris from the airway, is associated with an increase in complications and a higher mortality rate during the progression of pneumonia. With prolonged alcohol exposure, mucociliary clearance (MCC), which depends on the coordinated beating of cilia, is dysfunctional. Effective MCC relies on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF). PKA activation and stimulation of CBF are blunted with chronic exposure to alcohol. This phenomenon is known as alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD). Previous studies have shown that concomitant feeding of mice with alcohol and antioxidants prevents AICD, suggesting a ...


Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer 2018 Missouri State University

Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer

MSU Graduate Theses

Progressive accumulation of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins within renal glomeruli have implications for or result in renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, with both events culminating in renal failure. To model this accumulation the Col1a2-deficient mouse model was used. The Col1a2-deficientmouse model is characterized by a mutation in the a2(I) chain, preventing incorporation into the type I collagen molecule. As a result, an α1(I) collagen chain incorporates into the collagen triple helix forming homotrimeric type I collagen, as opposed to heterotrimeric type I collagen. This change is due to the secondary wound healing response in response to ...


Otologic Blast Injuries, Michelle Singer 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Otologic Blast Injuries, Michelle Singer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The otologic system functions as a highly sensitive pressure transducer. Because of this, the ear is the most commonly affected organ in primary blast injury. Frequently encountered symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, and tympanic membrane perforations. The ear is repeatedly overlooked during triage and easily forgotten in subjects with multiple injuries after major catastrophic events such as explosions. This systematic review provides an overview of the most common otologic injuries observed after blast exposure in a variety of settings and populations. An analysis of 35 studies and an additional 23 reviews was performed in attempt to uncover patterns of otologic ...


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas 2018 Huntington VA Medical Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consist of over twenty possible symptoms that can be divided into six broad categories. These categories correlate with specific brain networks that regulate emotions, behaviors, and autonomic function. Normal functioning of these networks depends on two key regions; the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex provides top-down executive control over amygdala, whereas the amygdala is critical for threat detection and activation of the ‘fight or flight’ response. Events that trigger extreme and/or prolonged fear can cause persisting dysregulation within the prefrontal-amygdala circuit ...


Factors Involved In Suppression Of Human Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes And Impact Of Checkpoint Blockades On The Effector Functions Of Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes, MinJi Choi, Andrew Wiemer, Andrea Hubbard, Brian Aneskievich 2018 School of Pharmacy

Factors Involved In Suppression Of Human Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes And Impact Of Checkpoint Blockades On The Effector Functions Of Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes, Minji Choi, Andrew Wiemer, Andrea Hubbard, Brian Aneskievich

University Scholar Projects

Chronic antigenic stimulation leads to T cell exhaustion, which drastically dampens T cell effector functions. Upon exhaustion, T cells progressively lose their proliferative capacity, cytokine production, and cytotoxic effector functions against tumors. T cell exhaustion involves programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which is an inhibitory co-stimulation receptor. Limited scope of studies has been done regarding impact of PD-1 expression on the effector functions of γδ T cells. In this study, we investigated expression of PD-1 and its impact on effector functions of human γδ T cells. When γδ T cells were stimulated with phosphoantigens (HMBPP and POM2-C-HMBP) and analyzed ...


Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith 2018 University of Connecticut

Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith

Honors Scholar Theses

The ability of the brain to extract meaningful information from complex sounds is what allows mammals to understand species-specific communication as well as important environmental cues such as the sound of water or of potential predators or prey. The auditory cortex of humans and other mammals contains multiple cortical regions that unique sensitivities to both spectral and temporal sound cues. This discourse will explore three main factors proposed to determine these distinct processing capabilities in regard to temporal sound cues; the distribution of glutamate transporters in the thalamus, the architecture of afferent pathways between the thalamus and auditory cortex, and ...


Maternal Psychological Distress And Cortsiol, Jenna Schroeder 2018 DePaul University

Maternal Psychological Distress And Cortsiol, Jenna Schroeder

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Background: Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal maternal distress and negative health outcomes for the unborn. There are gaps within this body of knowledge and inconsistencies in the research which make the relevant relationships unclear. If changes in maternal cortisol cause alterations in fetal development, it is important to gain an adequate understanding of how, and if, maternal psychological distress predicts maternal cortisol levels. This study is an integrative literature review that looks at the research investigating a connection between maternal psychological distress and maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy. Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) Transactional Model of Stress ...


Dual-Transmitter Systems Regulating Arousal, Attention, Learning And Memory, Sherie Ma, Balázs Hangya, Christopher S. Leonard, William Wisden, Andrew L. Gundlach 2018 New York Medical College

Dual-Transmitter Systems Regulating Arousal, Attention, Learning And Memory, Sherie Ma, Balázs Hangya, Christopher S. Leonard, William Wisden, Andrew L. Gundlach

NYMC Faculty Publications

An array of neuromodulators, including monoamines and neuropeptides, regulate most behavioural and physiological traits. In the past decade, dramatic progress has been made in mapping neuromodulatory circuits, in analysing circuit dynamics, and interrogating circuit function using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic and imaging methods This review will focus on several distinct neural networks (acetylcholine/GABA/glutamate; histamine/GABA; orexin/glutamate; and relaxin-3/GABA) that originate from neural hubs that regulate wakefulness and related attentional and cognitive processes, and highlight approaches that have identified dual transmitter roles in these behavioural functions. Modulation of these different neural networks might be effective treatments of diseases related ...


Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña 2018 Sandia National Laboratories, NM

Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Exposure to extreme environments is both mentally and physically taxing, leading to suboptimal performance and even life-threatening emergencies. Physiological and cognitive monitoring could provide the earliest indicator of performance decline and inform appropriate therapeutic intervention, yet little research has explored the relationship between these markers in strenuous settings. The Rim-to-Rim Wearables at the Canyon for Health (R2RWATCH) study is a research project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to identify which physiological and cognitive phenomena collected by non-invasive wearable devices are the most related to performance in extreme environments. In a pilot study, data were ...


Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, Bishoy Hanna 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, Bishoy Hanna

Theses and Dissertations

Using a semi-PBPK modeling/quantitative meta-analysis approach, this project investigated what factors affect pulmonary and systemic exposures of Budesonide (BUD), Tobramycin (TOB), and Ciprofloxacin (CIP) after inhalation:

Three structurally different pulmonary disposition models were developed for each drug, including pulmonary absorption (all three), excretion (TOB and CIP) and sequestration (TOB) in a peripheral and central lung compartment. Systemic disposition parameters were estimated using available human mean plasma (cp(t)) and sputum (cs(t)) concentration profiles after IV administration, and GI absorption parameters were estimated from these profiles after oral administration. Pulmonary disposition parameters were estimated from cp ...


Age-Dependent Changes In Oxygen Supply And Demand Of Rat Spinotrapezius Muscle, Sami C. Dodhy 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Age-Dependent Changes In Oxygen Supply And Demand Of Rat Spinotrapezius Muscle, Sami C. Dodhy

Theses and Dissertations

Because of the aerobic nature of cellular metabolism in mammalian organisms, a continuous supply of oxygen is necessary to maintain normal physiological function. As organisms age, their metabolic rates generally decline and there are accompanying alterations in the structure and function of the microcirculation, as this part of the cardiovascular system is especially important for oxygen exchange. The overall Oxygen Transport System can be considered as being composed of two complementary components: one for Oxygen Demand and one for Oxygen Supply. The purpose of the current work is to describe the age-dependent changes in both oxygen demand and oxygen supply ...


Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Exposure Promotes Multiple Myeloma Development In Black/6 Mice, Sandeep Kowkuntla 2018 University of Iowa

Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Exposure Promotes Multiple Myeloma Development In Black/6 Mice, Sandeep Kowkuntla

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy of bone marrow plasma B cells and is associated with obesity. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to MM risk remains unclear, however, we speculate the linking factor to be sleep apnea which we simulated by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). 5TGM1 cells are a murine MM cell line derived from the KaLwRij strain that fail to routinely engraft in Black6 mice. To test the hypothesis that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) promotes the development of MM, we exposed MM-resistant C57BL/6 mice to 10h/day of CIH during the light cycle (AHI=10-12/h ...


Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader 2018 University of Iowa

Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Adequate sleep duration and sleep quality are essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. Short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, less is known about whether sleep quality, independent of sleep duration, is associated with CVD risk. Anxiety is also an independent risk factor for development of CVD, but how anxiety leads to CVD is unclear. Our overall hypothesis is that higher anxiety and vascular biomarkers of CVD risk (arterial stiffness and altered 24-hour blood pressure patterns) will be associated with poor sleep quality (PSQ) in healthy adults. Specifically, we hypothesize that independent of sleep duration, adults ...


Prebiotic Diet Modulates Disruptions In Sleep, Core Body Temperature, And Locomotor Activity Produced By Circadian Disruption, Brooke Bower 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Prebiotic Diet Modulates Disruptions In Sleep, Core Body Temperature, And Locomotor Activity Produced By Circadian Disruption, Brooke Bower

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) provide beneficial roles for the host including communication with the central nervous system. Recent evidence, for example, suggests that gut-brain signaling may modulate sleep patterns. Since sleep disorders are prevalent in military personnel due to chronic stressors including circadian disruption (CDR), this study was designed to explore a potential intervention known to be efficacious in preventing several negative physiological impacts of acute intense stressor exposure, including disturbed sleep and reduced alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. Prebiotic diets are rich in plant fibers that stimulate growth and activity of healthy promoting gut ...


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