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The Effect Of Dna Methylation On Tp73 Expression In Tumorgenesis, Nujuma A. Moussa 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Effect Of Dna Methylation On Tp73 Expression In Tumorgenesis, Nujuma A. Moussa

Undergraduate Research Posters

Abstract: The Effect of DNA Methylation on TP73 Expression in Tumorgenesis

Nujuma Moussa, Zhixing Yao, Zaki A. Sherif

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Howard University College of Medicine

TP73 is a member of the TP53 family of proteins that acts as a transcription factor to help regulate cellular distress. This tumor protein may play a dual role as a tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. The TP73 gene is mapped to chromosome 1p36, a frequently deleted region in neuroblastoma and other types of tumors. While mutations in the TP53 gene are commonly known to cause noxious cancers, 30% of cancers result ...


No Evidence Of Direct Association Between Glut4 And Glycogen In Human Skeletal Muscle, Robyn M. Murphy, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Barnaby P. Frankish, Andrew Garnham, David Stapleton, Mark Hargreaves 2018 Australian Catholic University

No Evidence Of Direct Association Between Glut4 And Glycogen In Human Skeletal Muscle, Robyn M. Murphy, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Barnaby P. Frankish, Andrew Garnham, David Stapleton, Mark Hargreaves

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity that is linked with increased GLUT4 at the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation and associated with muscle glycogen depletion. To assess the potential direct association between muscle glycogen and GLUT4, seven untrained, male subjects exercised for 60 min at ~75% VO2 peak, with muscle samples obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy immediately before and after exercise. Exercise reduced muscle glycogen content by ~43%. An ultracentrifugation protocol resulted in a ~2‐3‐fold enriched glycogen fraction from muscle samples for analysis. Total GLUT4 content was unaltered by exercise ...


Arginine Does Not Rescue P.Q188r Mutation Deleterious Effect In Classic Galactosemia, Minela Haskovic, Britt Derks, Liesbeth van der Ploeg, Jorn Trommelen, Jean Nyakayiru, Luc J. C. van Loon, Sabrina Mackinnon, Wyatt W. Yue, Roy W. A. Peake, Li Zha, Didem Demirbas, Wanshu Qi, Xiaoping Huang, Gerard T. Berry, Jelle Achten, Jörgen Bierau, M. Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Ana I. Coelho 2018 Australian Catholic University

Arginine Does Not Rescue P.Q188r Mutation Deleterious Effect In Classic Galactosemia, Minela Haskovic, Britt Derks, Liesbeth Van Der Ploeg, Jorn Trommelen, Jean Nyakayiru, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Sabrina Mackinnon, Wyatt W. Yue, Roy W. A. Peake, Li Zha, Didem Demirbas, Wanshu Qi, Xiaoping Huang, Gerard T. Berry, Jelle Achten, Jörgen Bierau, M. Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Ana I. Coelho

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Classic galactosemia is a rare genetic metabolic disease with an unmet treatment need. Current standard of care fails to prevent chronically-debilitating brain and gonadal complications. Many mutations in the GALT gene responsible for classic galactosemia have been described to give rise to variants with conformational abnormalities. This pathogenic mechanism is highly amenable to a therapeutic strategy based on chemical/pharmacological chaperones. Arginine, a chemical chaperone, has shown beneficial effect in other inherited metabolic disorders, as well as in a prokaryotic model of classic galactosemia. The p.Q188R mutation presents a high prevalence in the Caucasian population, making it a ...


Inactivation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And The Prevention Of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ian James Martins 2018 Edith Cowan University

Inactivation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And The Prevention Of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ian James Martins

ECU Publications Post 2013

Biotherapeutics and nutritional therapy are essential for the treatment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and nutrient excess may induce ER stress associated with activation of the unfolded protein response and connected to cell death. The heat shock gene Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) is important to the heat shock response with amyloid beta aggregation associated with the induction of mitophagy and ER stress in neuron cells. Genomic medicine that activates nuclear Sirt 1 is essential for the prevention of mitochondrial apoptosis and ER stress. Inhibitors such as drugs, alcohol, excess caffeine and palmitic acid ...


Tolerance To Sustained Activation Of The Camp/Creb Pathway Activity In Osteoblastic Cells Is Enabled By Loss Of P53, Mannu K. Walia, Scott Taylor, Patricia M.W. Ho, John Martin, Carl Walkley 2018 Australian Catholic University

Tolerance To Sustained Activation Of The Camp/Creb Pathway Activity In Osteoblastic Cells Is Enabled By Loss Of P53, Mannu K. Walia, Scott Taylor, Patricia M.W. Ho, John Martin, Carl Walkley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The loss of p53 function is a central event in the genesis of osteosarcoma (OS). How mutation of p53 enables OS development from osteoblastic lineage cells is poorly understood. We and others have reported a key role for elevated and persistent activation of the cAMP/PKA/Creb1 pathway in maintenance of OS. In view of the osteoblast lineage being the cell of origin of OS, we sought to determine how these pathways interact within the context of the normal osteoblast. Normal osteoblasts (p53 WT) rapidly underwent apoptosis in response to acute elevation of cAMP levels or activity, whereas p53-deficient osteoblasts ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Novel strategies to stimulate the expansion of β-cell mass in situ are warranted for diabetes therapy. Cell-replacement therapies for the treatment of diabetes have become a focal point in recent years. Endogenous regeneration of β-cell mass has been demonstrated using human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC). However, the secretory factors responsible for initiating endogenous regeneration remain unknown. Successful large-scale proteomic applications to address these questions have been limited in part by difficulties in correctly selecting the appropriate methodologies. Thus, the goal of this thesis was a combination of assessing different proteomic workflows to facilitate investigation into hMSC biology, applying these methods ...


Three-Dimensional Context Rather Than Nls Amino Acid Sequence Determines Importin Α Subtype Specificity For Rcc1., Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Salma Begum, Ruth A. Pumroy, Richard E. Gillilan, Gino Cingolani 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Three-Dimensional Context Rather Than Nls Amino Acid Sequence Determines Importin Α Subtype Specificity For Rcc1., Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Salma Begum, Ruth A. Pumroy, Richard E. Gillilan, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Active nuclear import of Ran exchange factor RCC1 is mediated by importin α3. This pathway is essential to generate a gradient of RanGTP on chromatin that directs nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. Here we identify the mechanisms of importin α3 selectivity for RCC1. We find this isoform binds RCC1 with one order of magnitude higher affinity than the generic importin α1, although the two isoforms share an identical NLS-binding groove. Importin α3 uses its greater conformational flexibility to wedge the RCC1 β-propeller flanking the NLS against its lateral surface, preventing steric clashes with its Armadillo-core. Removing ...


Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté 2017 University of British Columbia

Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is an essential multifunctional protein that encapsidates the viral genome and functions as an adapter between the virus and the host cell machinery. NPs from all strains of influenza A viruses contain two nuclear localization signals (NLSs): a well-studied monopartite NLS1 and a less-characterized NLS2, thought to be bipartite. Through site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis, we found that NLS2 is also monopartite and is indispensable for viral infection. Atomic structures of importin α bound to two variants of NLS2 revealed NLS2 primarily binds the major-NLS binding site of importin α, unlike NLS1 that associates ...


Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

L-3,4 dihidroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) strongly stimulates motor activity in parkinsonian patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease. Severe striatal dopamine (DA) loss characterizes Parkinson's disease and its animal models. Given the canonical rate model of Parkinson's Disease pathophysiology based on differences in DA pharmacology manifesting as electrophysiological differences in striatal projection neuron (SPN) spike rates, SPNs should increase spiking during the motor response to l-DOPA. In fact, stimulating specific subsets of these neurons to spike in freely-moving wild type and parkinsonian animals causes or inhibits motor activity as predicted. However, pharmacological effects of DA deficiency, let alone ...


Compounds And Method Of Use As Anti-Infection Compounds And Therapeutic Agents To Regulate Cholesterol Metabolism, Joseph Chappell, Tom D. Niehaus, Kristin Brooke Linscott 2017 University of Kentucky

Compounds And Method Of Use As Anti-Infection Compounds And Therapeutic Agents To Regulate Cholesterol Metabolism, Joseph Chappell, Tom D. Niehaus, Kristin Brooke Linscott

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Patents

A compound is provided which comprises at least a portion of an amino acid linker-domain from squalene synthase. In alternative forms, the compound can include the amino-acid linker-domain from various fungus, including S. cerevisiae or the compound can be the functional equivalent and/or mimics an amino acid linker-domain from squalene synthase. A pharmaceutical composition includes the compound and may further include a pharmaceutical carrier. A method is provided for treating or controlling cholesterol metabolism and ergosterol metabolism in non-fungal organisms. One method includes a therapeutic treatment in humans by administering a therapeutically effective amount of the compound or pharmaceutical ...


Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose McGlauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel 2017 University of Iowa

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.

Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.

Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...


Xenobiotic-Induced Activation Of Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Target Genes In Drosophila Is Mediated By The Epigenetic Chromatin Modifiers, Angelina A. Akishina, J. E. Vorontsova, Roman O. Cherezov, Ilja B. Mertsalov, Olga G. Zatsepina, Mikhail S. Slezinger, Vladislav M. Panin, Svetlana Petruk, Grigori N. Enikolopov, Alexander M. Mazo, Olga B. Simonova, Boris A. Kuzin 2017 Russian Academy of Sciences

Xenobiotic-Induced Activation Of Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Target Genes In Drosophila Is Mediated By The Epigenetic Chromatin Modifiers, Angelina A. Akishina, J. E. Vorontsova, Roman O. Cherezov, Ilja B. Mertsalov, Olga G. Zatsepina, Mikhail S. Slezinger, Vladislav M. Panin, Svetlana Petruk, Grigori N. Enikolopov, Alexander M. Mazo, Olga B. Simonova, Boris A. Kuzin

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is the key transcription factor that controls animal development and various adaptive processes. The AHR's target genes are involved in biodegradation of endogenous and exogenous toxins, regulation of immune response, organogenesis, and neurogenesis. Ligand binding is important for the activation of the AHR signaling pathway. Invertebrate AHR homologs are activated by endogenous ligands whereas vertebrate AHR can be activated by both endogenous and exogenous ligands (xenobiotics). Several studies using mammalian cultured cells have demonstrated that transcription of the AHR target genes can be activated by exogenous AHR ligands, but little is known about the effects ...


Difatty Acyl-Conjugated Linear And Cyclic Peptides For Sirna Delivery, Hung Do, Meenakshi Sharma, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Parvin Mahdipoor, Emira Bousoik, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2017 Chapman University

Difatty Acyl-Conjugated Linear And Cyclic Peptides For Sirna Delivery, Hung Do, Meenakshi Sharma, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Parvin Mahdipoor, Emira Bousoik, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic difatty acyl linear and cyclic R5K2 peptide conjugates were synthesized by solid-phase peptide methods to enhance the interaction with the hydrophobic cellular phospholipid bilayer and to improve siRNA delivery and silencing. Binding to siRNA molecules was significantly less for the cyclic peptide conjugates. A gradual decrease was observed in the particle size of the complexes with increasing peptide/siRNA ratio for most of the synthesized peptides, suggesting the complex formation. Most of the complexes showed a particle size of less than 200 nm, which is considered an appropriate size for in vitro siRNA delivery. A number ...


Complex Interplay Of Kinetic Factors Governs The Synergistic Properties Of Hiv-1 Entry Inhibitors., Koree W. Ahn, Michael J. Root 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Complex Interplay Of Kinetic Factors Governs The Synergistic Properties Of Hiv-1 Entry Inhibitors., Koree W. Ahn, Michael J. Root

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The homotrimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoes receptor-triggered structural changes that mediate viral entry through membrane fusion. This process is inhibited by chemokine receptor antagonists (CoRAs) that block Env-receptor interactions and by fusion inhibitors (FIs) that disrupt Env conformational transitions. Synergy between CoRAs and FIs has been attributed to a CoRA-dependent decrease in the rate of viral membrane fusion that extends the lifetime of the intermediate state targeted by FIs. Here, we demonstrated that the magnitude of CoRA/FI synergy unexpectedly depends on FI-binding affinity and the stoichiometry of chemokine receptor binding to trimeric Env. For C-peptide FIs (clinically represented ...


The Kinetic Mechanism Of Bacterial Ribosome Recycling., Yuanwei Chen, Akira Kaji, Hideko Kaji, Barry S. Cooperman 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Kinetic Mechanism Of Bacterial Ribosome Recycling., Yuanwei Chen, Akira Kaji, Hideko Kaji, Barry S. Cooperman

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Bacterial ribosome recycling requires breakdown of the post-termination complex (PoTC), comprising a messenger RNA (mRNA) and an uncharged transfer RNA (tRNA) cognate to the terminal mRNA codon bound to the 70S ribosome. The translation factors, elongation factor G and ribosome recycling factor, are known to be required for recycling, but there is controversy concerning whether these factors act primarily to effect the release of mRNA and tRNA from the ribosome, with the splitting of the ribosome into subunits being somewhat dispensable, or whether their main function is to catalyze the splitting reaction, which necessarily precedes mRNA and tRNA release. Here ...


Structural Basis For Selective Inhibition Of Cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) By Diarylisoxazoles Mofezolac And 3-(5-Chlorofuran-2-Yl)-5-Methyl-4-Phenylisoxazole (P6)., Gino Cingolani, Andrea Panella, Maria Grazia Perrone, Paola Vitale, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Cosimo G G. Fortuna, Roger S. Armen, Savina Ferorelli, William L. Smith, Antonio Scilimati 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Structural Basis For Selective Inhibition Of Cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) By Diarylisoxazoles Mofezolac And 3-(5-Chlorofuran-2-Yl)-5-Methyl-4-Phenylisoxazole (P6)., Gino Cingolani, Andrea Panella, Maria Grazia Perrone, Paola Vitale, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Cosimo G G. Fortuna, Roger S. Armen, Savina Ferorelli, William L. Smith, Antonio Scilimati

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The diarylisoxazole molecular scaffold is found in several NSAIDs, especially those with high selectivity for COX-1. Here, we have determined the structural basis for COX-1 binding to two diarylisoxazoles: mofezolac, which is polar and ionizable, and 3-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)-5-methyl-4-phenylisoxazole (P6) that has very low polarity. X-ray analysis of the crystal structures of COX-1 bound to mofezolac and 3-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)-5-methyl-4-phenylisoxazole allowed the identification of specific binding determinants within the enzyme active site, relevant to generate structure/activity relationships for diarylisoxazole NSAIDs.


Decorin-Evoked Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3) Is An Upstream Regulator Of The Transcription Factor Eb (Tfeb) In Endothelial Cell Autophagy., Thomas Neill, Catherine Sharpe, Rick T. Owens, Renato V. Iozzo 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Decorin-Evoked Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3) Is An Upstream Regulator Of The Transcription Factor Eb (Tfeb) In Endothelial Cell Autophagy., Thomas Neill, Catherine Sharpe, Rick T. Owens, Renato V. Iozzo

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Macroautophagy is a fundamental and evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that eradicates damaged and aging macromolecules and organelles in eukaryotic cells. Decorin, an archetypical small leucine-rich proteoglycan, initiates a protracted autophagic program downstream of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling that requires paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3). We have discovered that PEG3 is an upstream transcriptional regulator of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcription factor of lysosomal biogenesis, for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy. We found a functional requirement of PEG3 for TFEB transcriptional induction and nuclear translocation in human umbilical vein endothelial and PAER2 cells. Mechanistically, inhibiting VEGFR2 or AMP-activated protein ...


Additional Sex Combs Interacts With Enhancer Of Zeste And Trithorax And Modulates Levels Of Trimethylation On Histone H3k4 And H3k27 During Transcription Of Hsp70., Taosui Li, Jacob W Hodgson, Svetlana Petruk, Alexander Mazo, Hugh W Brock 2017 University of British Columbia

Additional Sex Combs Interacts With Enhancer Of Zeste And Trithorax And Modulates Levels Of Trimethylation On Histone H3k4 And H3k27 During Transcription Of Hsp70., Taosui Li, Jacob W Hodgson, Svetlana Petruk, Alexander Mazo, Hugh W Brock

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Maintenance of cell fate determination requires the Polycomb group for repression; the trithorax group for gene activation; and the enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb (ETP) group for both repression and activation. Additional sex combs (Asx) is a genetically identified ETP for the Hox loci, but the molecular basis of its dual function is unclear.

RESULTS: We show that in vitro, Asx binds directly to the SET domains of the histone methyltransferases (HMT) enhancer of zeste [E(z)] (H3K27me3) and Trx (H3K4me3) through a bipartite interaction site separated by 846 amino acid residues. In Drosophila S2 cell nuclei, Asx interacts ...


Epigenetics As An Answer To Darwin’S “Special Difficulty,” Part 2: Natural Selection Of Metastable Epialleles In Honey Bee Castes, Douglas M. Ruden, Pablo E. Cingolani, Arko Sen, Wen Qu, Luan Wang, Marie-Claude Senut, Mark D. Garfinkel, Vincent E. Sollars, Xiangyi Lu 2017 Marshall University

Epigenetics As An Answer To Darwin’S “Special Difficulty,” Part 2: Natural Selection Of Metastable Epialleles In Honey Bee Castes, Douglas M. Ruden, Pablo E. Cingolani, Arko Sen, Wen Qu, Luan Wang, Marie-Claude Senut, Mark D. Garfinkel, Vincent E. Sollars, Xiangyi Lu

Vincent E Sollars

In a recent perspective in this journal, Herb (2014) discussed how epigenetics is a possible mechanism to circumvent Charles Darwin’s “special difficulty” in using natural selection to explain the existence of the sterile-fertile dimorphism in eusocial insects. Darwin’s classic book “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” explains how natural selection of the fittest individuals in a population can allow a species to adapt to a novel or changing environment. However, in bees and other eusocial insects, such as ants and termites, there exist two or more castes of genetically similar females, from fertile queens ...


Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, Heather R. Ferguson Bennit 2017 Loma Linda University

Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, Heather R. Ferguson Bennit

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Tumors alter their microenvironment to promote survival using methods such as angiogenesis promotion, growth signals, and immune suppression. The immune system becomes unresponsive to transformed neoplastic cells through a variety of methods including T cell suppression, increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and reduced natural killer (NK) cell activity. NK cells have inherent killing capabilities and thus are among the first responders in recognizing and destroying abnormal cells. However, many types of cancers inhibit the surveillance and cytotoxic abilities of NK cells by releasing exosomes, vesicles that can modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) and intercellular communication for the purpose of enhancing ...


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