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The Role Of Exosomal Transport Of Viral Agents In Persistent Hiv Pathogenesis, Benjamin J. Patters 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Role Of Exosomal Transport Of Viral Agents In Persistent Hiv Pathogenesis, Benjamin J. Patters

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite great advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), remains a lifelong affliction. Though current treatment regimens can effectively suppress viral load to undetectable levels and preserve healthy immune function, they cannot fully alleviate all symptoms caused by the presence of the virus, such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Exosomes are small vesicles that transport cellular proteins, RNA, and small molecules between cells as a mechanism of intercellular communication. Recent research has shown that HIV proteins and RNA can be packaged into exosomes and transported between cells, to pathogenic effect. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ...


Efficacy And Renal Outcomes Of Sglt2 Inhibitors In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Chronic Kidney Disease, Michael S. Kelly, Jelena Lewis, Ashley M. Huntsberry, Lauren Dea, Ivan Portillo 2018 Chapman University

Efficacy And Renal Outcomes Of Sglt2 Inhibitors In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Chronic Kidney Disease, Michael S. Kelly, Jelena Lewis, Ashley M. Huntsberry, Lauren Dea, Ivan Portillo

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: To review glucose-lowering efficacy and changes in renal function associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Data sources: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was performed from 2000 to August 2018 using search terms: SGLT2 inhibitors, sodium glucose co-transporter 2, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, ertugliflozin, and chronic kidney disease. References of identified articles were also reviewed.

Study selection and data extraction: English-language studies investigating glucose-lowering endpoints and/or changes in renal function with one of four U.S. approved SGLT2 inhibitors were included. A total ...


High-Affinity Rna Targets Of The Survival Motor Neuron Protein Reveal Diverse Preferences For Sequence And Structural Motifs, Eric W. Ottesen, Natalia N. Singh, Diou Luo, Ravindra N. Singh 2018 Iowa State University

High-Affinity Rna Targets Of The Survival Motor Neuron Protein Reveal Diverse Preferences For Sequence And Structural Motifs, Eric W. Ottesen, Natalia N. Singh, Diou Luo, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein is essential for survival of all animal cells. SMN harbors a nucleic acid-binding domain and plays an important role in RNA metabolism. However, the RNA-binding property of SMN is poorly understood. Here we employ iterative in vitro selection and chemical structure probing to identify sequence and structural motif(s) critical for RNA–SMN interactions. Our results reveal that motifs that drive RNA–SMN interactions are diverse and suggest that tight RNA–SMN interaction requires presence of multiple contact sites on the RNA molecule. We performed UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP ...


Redox Regulation Of Type-I Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors In Intact Mammalian Cells., Suresh K. Joseph, Michael P. Young, Kamil Alzayady, David I. Yule, Mehboob Ali, David M. Booth, György Hajnóczky 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Redox Regulation Of Type-I Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors In Intact Mammalian Cells., Suresh K. Joseph, Michael P. Young, Kamil Alzayady, David I. Yule, Mehboob Ali, David M. Booth, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

A sensitization of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca2+ release is associated with oxidative stress in multiple cell types. These effects are thought to be mediated by alterations in the redox state of critical thiols in the IP3R, but this has not been directly demonstrated in intact cells. Here, we utilized a combination of gel-shift assays with MPEG-maleimides and LC-MS/MS to monitor the redox state of recombinant IP3R1 expressed in HEK293 cells. We found that under basal conditions, ∼5 of the 60 cysteines are oxidized in IP3R1. Cell treatment with 50 μm thimerosal altered gel shifts, indicating ...


Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar 2018 Chapman University

Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to compare the enzymatic kinetics and distribution of cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) among different rat brain subcellular fractions.

Rat brains were used to prepare total membrane, crude mitochondrial, purified mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, in addition to total homogenate. Michaelis–Menten kinetics of the brain CYP2D activity was estimated based on the conversion of dextromethorphan (DXM) to dextrorphan using UPLC-MS/MS. Protein levels of CYP2D and subcellular markers were determined by Western blot.

Microsomal CYP2D exhibited high affinity and low capacity, compared with the mitochondrial CYP2D that had a much lower (∼50-fold) affinity but a ...


Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty 2018 Augusta University

Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Inflammation of the pancreas can occur in two distinct forms, either in the acute form (AP) or the chronic form (CP). AP is a short-term inflammation that develops suddenly. By contrast, CP manifests from a long-term inflammation, which results in significant fibrosis of the pancreatic tissue and permanent organ damage. This is because of pro-inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the sources of ROS is NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes, which transfer electrons across biological membranes to reduce oxygen to superoxide. The rodent genome encodes four Nox enzymes: Nox1-4. We found that Nox1 is implicated in pancreatic fibrogenesis ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix 2018 University of North Georgia

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. Quantitative polymerase chain ...


Control Of Ccnd1 Ubiquitylation By The Catalytic Saga Subunit Usp22 Is Essential For Cell Cycle Progression Through G1 In Cancer Cells., Victoria J. Gennaro, Timothy J. Stanek, Amy R. Peck, Yunguang Sun, Feng Wang, Shuo Qie, Karen E. Knudsen, Hallgeir Rui, Tauseef Butt, J. Alan Diehl, Steven B. McMahon 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Control Of Ccnd1 Ubiquitylation By The Catalytic Saga Subunit Usp22 Is Essential For Cell Cycle Progression Through G1 In Cancer Cells., Victoria J. Gennaro, Timothy J. Stanek, Amy R. Peck, Yunguang Sun, Feng Wang, Shuo Qie, Karen E. Knudsen, Hallgeir Rui, Tauseef Butt, J. Alan Diehl, Steven B. Mcmahon

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Overexpression of the deubiquitylase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (USP22) is a marker of aggressive cancer phenotypes like metastasis, therapy resistance, and poor survival. Functionally, this overexpression of USP22 actively contributes to tumorigenesis, as USP22 depletion blocks cancer cell cycle progression in vitro, and inhibits tumor progression in animal models of lung, breast, bladder, ovarian, and liver cancer, among others. Current models suggest that USP22 mediates these biological effects via its role in epigenetic regulation as a subunit of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) transcriptional cofactor complex. Challenging the dogma, we report here a nontranscriptional role for USP22 via a direct effect on the ...


Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, Sunhee Hwang, Karen Mruk, Simin Rahighi, Andrew G. Raub, Che-Hong Chen, Lisa E. Dorn, Naoki Horikoshi, Soichi Wakatsuki, James K. Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen 2018 Stanford University

Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, Sunhee Hwang, Karen Mruk, Simin Rahighi, Andrew G. Raub, Che-Hong Chen, Lisa E. Dorn, Naoki Horikoshi, Soichi Wakatsuki, James K. Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, one of the most common human genetic enzymopathies, is caused by over 160 different point mutations and contributes to the severity of many acute and chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress, including hemolytic anemia and bilirubin-induced neurological damage particularly in newborns. As no medications are available to treat G6PD deficiency, here we seek to identify a small molecule that corrects it. Crystallographic study and mutagenesis analysis identify the structural and functional defect of one common mutant (Canton, R459L). Using high-throughput screening, we subsequently identify AG1, a small molecule that increases the activity of the wild-type, the ...


The Anti-Cancer Effect Of Retinoic Acid Signaling In Crc Occurs Via Decreased Growth Of Aldh+ Colon Cancer Stem Cells And Increased Differentiation Of Stem Cells, Shirin R. Modarai, Anindita Gupta, Lynn M. Opdenaker, Ryan Kowash, Gabriel Masters, Vignesh Viswanathan, Tao Zhang, Jeremy Z. Fields, Bruce M. Boman 2018 University of Delaware; Christiana Care Health System

The Anti-Cancer Effect Of Retinoic Acid Signaling In Crc Occurs Via Decreased Growth Of Aldh+ Colon Cancer Stem Cells And Increased Differentiation Of Stem Cells, Shirin R. Modarai, Anindita Gupta, Lynn M. Opdenaker, Ryan Kowash, Gabriel Masters, Vignesh Viswanathan, Tao Zhang, Jeremy Z. Fields, Bruce M. Boman

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

Background: Tumorigenesis is driven by stem cell (SC) overpopulation. BecauseALDH is both a marker for SCs in many tissues and a key enzyme in retinoid acid (RA)signaling, we studied RA signaling in normal and malignant colonic SCs.Hypothesis: RA signaling regulates growth and differentiation of ALDH+ colonicSCs dysregulation of RA signaling contributes to SC overpopulation and colorectalcancer (CRC) development.Methods: We analyzed normal and malignant colonic tissues and CRC cell linesto see if retinoid receptors (RXR &RAR) are exclusively expressed in ALDH+ SCs,and if RA signaling changes during CRC development. We determined whether RAsignaling regulates cancer SC (CSC ...


Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, Melissa Beals, Robert J. Krumsick, C. Clinton Frazee III, Lindsey J. Haldiman, Uttam Garg 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, Melissa Beals, Robert J. Krumsick, C. Clinton Frazee Iii, Lindsey J. Haldiman, Uttam Garg

Posters

Introduction
Oxcarbazepine is a derivative of carbamazepine that is used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, and experimentally as a mood-stabilizer in adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Oxcarbazepine is converted through oxidation to its pharmacologically active metabolite 10-OH-Carbazepine, which is thought to be responsible for most of the anticonvulsant action of the drug. Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are generally dose-dependent and may include fatigue, somnolence, dizziness, diplopia, nystagmus, and ataxia. Additive sedative effects have been noted when oxcarbazepine is used in combination with other CNS depressionproducing medications. Furthermore, oxcarbazepine and 10-OH-Carbazepine are powerful CYP2C19 inhibitors, potentially increasing ...


Pepducin-Mediated Cardioprotection Via Β-Arrestin-Biased Β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Specific Signaling, Laurel A. Grisanti, Toby P. Thomas, Rhonda L. Carter, Claudio de Lucia, Erhe Gao, Walter J. Koch, Jeffrey L. Benovic, Douglas G. Tilley 2018 University of Missouri

Pepducin-Mediated Cardioprotection Via Β-Arrestin-Biased Β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Specific Signaling, Laurel A. Grisanti, Toby P. Thomas, Rhonda L. Carter, Claudio De Lucia, Erhe Gao, Walter J. Koch, Jeffrey L. Benovic, Douglas G. Tilley

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Reperfusion as a therapeutic intervention for acute myocardial infarction-induced cardiac injury itself induces further cardiomyocyte death. β-arrestin (βarr)-biased β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation promotes survival signaling responses in vitro; thus, we hypothesize that this pathway can mitigate cardiomyocyte death at the time of reperfusion to better preserve function. However, a lack of efficacious βarr-biased orthosteric small molecules has prevented investigation into whether this pathway relays protection against ischemic injury in vivo. We recently demonstrated that the pepducin ICL1-9, a small lipidated peptide fragment designed from the first intracellular loop of β2AR, allosterically engaged pro-survival signaling cascades in a βarr-dependent manner ...


A Novel Exo-Proteomic Approach To The Study Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Ron B. Moyron 2018 Loma Linda University

A Novel Exo-Proteomic Approach To The Study Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Ron B. Moyron

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Concussions and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) are significant health concerns and affect a wide cross section of society. Current diagnostic criteria and modalities, such as brain imaging and subjective measures of consciousness such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, are insufficient to properly diagnose the full spectrum of head injuries. Assessment of injury severity and outcome are further complicated by the vast array of symptoms, many of which mimic those displayed by other disorders. It is important to possess a better diagnostic tool for head injury triage and outcome prediction. One current line of inquiry seeks to discover a ...


Structural Basis Of Mitochondrial Transcription., Hauke S. Hillen, Dmitry Temiakov, Patrick Cramer 2018 Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry

Structural Basis Of Mitochondrial Transcription., Hauke S. Hillen, Dmitry Temiakov, Patrick Cramer

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) and its auxiliary factors. Structural studies have elucidated how mtRNAP cooperates with its dedicated transcription factors to direct RNA synthesis: initiation factors TFAM and TFB2M assist in promoter-DNA binding and opening by mtRNAP while the elongation factor TEFM increases polymerase processivity to the levels required for synthesis of long polycistronic mtRNA transcripts. Here, we review the emerging body of structural and functional studies of human mitochondrial transcription, provide a molecular movie that can be used for teaching purposes and discuss the open questions to guide future directions of ...


Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Reduces Phagocytosis Of Urate Crystals And Downstream Nuclear Factor Kappa B And Inflammasome Activation And Production Of Cytokines And Chemokines In Human And Murine Macrophages, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Wendy Wong, Anthony M. Reginato, Changqi Sun, Tannin A. Schmidt 2018 Chapman University

Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Reduces Phagocytosis Of Urate Crystals And Downstream Nuclear Factor Kappa B And Inflammasome Activation And Production Of Cytokines And Chemokines In Human And Murine Macrophages, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Wendy Wong, Anthony M. Reginato, Changqi Sun, Tannin A. Schmidt

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Microbial biofilms are organized communities of cells that are associated with a wide spectrum of resistant and chronic infections that lead to the treatment failure. Accordingly, there is an urgent demand to create novel effective therapeutic drugs that can inhibit biofilm formation with new mechanisms of action to surmount the current escalating resistance. In this study, in silico hybrid model was utilized to develop three novel short linear peptides (4, 5, and 6) with potential biofilm inhibiting activities (scores > 1.0). The peptides were composed of cationic and hydrophobic residues. They were synthesized using solid-phase strategy. Synthesized peptides were purified ...


Developing Peptide Therapeutics That Inhibit Bacterial Toxins Utilizing A Cholesterol Recognition Amino Acid Consensus (Crac) Motif, Evan Koufos 2018 Lehigh University

Developing Peptide Therapeutics That Inhibit Bacterial Toxins Utilizing A Cholesterol Recognition Amino Acid Consensus (Crac) Motif, Evan Koufos

Theses and Dissertations

Treatment of bacterial illnesses has become increasingly difficult as the development of new antibiotics is being outpaced by the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant organisms. This has led us to search for alternative therapeutic approaches to help combat these illnesses. A viable approach in treating these illnesses is to focus on inhibiting protein toxins, which are one of the many virulence factors that bacteria secrete. Many toxins recognize and bind to cholesterol (Chol) on the host cell membrane as an initial step in their mechanism; however, a viable method of inhibiting this interaction has yet to be uncovered.For our model ...


3d-Printed Fluidic Devices And Incorporated Graphite Electrodes For Electrochemical Immunoassay Of Biomarker Proteins, Abdulhameed Alabdulwaheed 2018 East Tennessee State University

3d-Printed Fluidic Devices And Incorporated Graphite Electrodes For Electrochemical Immunoassay Of Biomarker Proteins, Abdulhameed Alabdulwaheed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomarkers are measurable indicators of health status or disease state that can be used for diagnosis and may help guide patient treatment strategies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and other many clinical techniques currently used for measuring biomarker proteins lack sensitivity, demand high analysis cost, are often not well-suited for measuring multiple biomarkers in a single sample, and require long analysis times. Here, we demonstrate simple, low-cost 3D-printed flow-through devices with integrated electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for electrochemical immunoassays of S100B, a biomarker protein related to conditions like skin cancer and brain injuries. Flow-through devices are fabricated from photocurable-resin ...


Alpha-Amino Methylation And Acetylation Are Novel Regulators Of Myl9 Function., Christopher David Nevitt 2018 University of Louisville

Alpha-Amino Methylation And Acetylation Are Novel Regulators Of Myl9 Function., Christopher David Nevitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dysregulation of alpha-amino post-translational modifications (Nα-PTMs) is found in multiple cancers and developmental disorders. However, the exact roles Nα-PTMs play in regulating protein function remain poorly understood. I sought to clarify the role of Nα-methylation and Nα-acetylation in the regulation of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain 9 (MYL9). MYL9 is a key cytoskeletal regulator and transcription factor and is the first protein confirmed to undergo both Nα-methylation and Nα-acetylation. Through this work I revealed novel regulatory features of MYL9, while also presenting a framework by which to understand the coordinated regulation of proteins by Nα-methylation and Nα-acetylation. Nα-PTM selective mutants of ...


Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) On Mouse Endothelial Cell Health, Spencer C. Pageau 2018 Grand Valley State University

Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) On Mouse Endothelial Cell Health, Spencer C. Pageau

Masters Theses

Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of adults in the US (~800,000 lives every year:1 in 3 deaths). Evidence suggests omega-3 fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), found in fish oils, reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Many of these diseases are caused by atherosclerotic plaque development in vessels due to endothelial cell damage initiating inflammatory responses. Recent work argues omega-3 fatty acids stimulate anti-inflammatory responses by binding to Free Fatty Acid (FFA) receptors. Inflammatory responses in endothelial cells alter the expression of many proteins that affect the function of those cells. In particular, gap junction ...


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