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Codon-Specific Translation By M1g37 Methylation Of Trna, Ya-Ming Hou, Isao Masuda, Howard Gamper 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Codon-Specific Translation By M1g37 Methylation Of Trna, Ya-Ming Hou, Isao Masuda, Howard Gamper

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Although the genetic code is degenerate, synonymous codons for the same amino acid are not translated equally. Codon-specific translation is important for controlling gene expression and determining the proteome of a cell. At the molecular level, codon-specific translation is regulated by post-transcriptional epigenetic modifications of tRNA primarily at the wobble position 34 and at position 37 on the 3′-side of the anticodon. Modifications at these positions determine the quality of codon-anticodon pairing and the speed of translation on the ribosome. Different modifications operate in distinct mechanisms of codon-specific translation, generating a diversity of regulation that is previously unanticipated. Here ...


Leucine Supplementation In Cuprizone-Induced Oligodendrocyte Toxicity, Michael Ley 2019 The University of Akron

Leucine Supplementation In Cuprizone-Induced Oligodendrocyte Toxicity, Michael Ley

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Cuprizone is a copper chelator that induces demyelination in the central nervous system when fed to mice. This compound is thought to target Complex IV and disrupt mitochondrial metabolism leading to loss of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. In this proposal, we further examine the chemical and toxicological properties of cuprizone. Immunofluorescence imaging and microarray data on MO3.13 cells treated with cuprizone revealed the possibility of alterations in lysosomal function, as well as mitochondrial disruption via mTOR and Electron Transport Chain (ETC) related pathways. Cell viability assays conducted suggest that addition of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, most commonly used from literature, leucine, can ...


Metabolism Reprogramming In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Human Lung Carcinogenesis, James Tate Fortin Wise 2019 University of Kentucky

Metabolism Reprogramming In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Human Lung Carcinogenesis, James Tate Fortin Wise

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is an established human carcinogen that is a worldwide environmental health concern. It is well understood that reactive oxygen species, genomic instability, and DNA damage repair deficiency are important contributors to Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. After decades of research some cancer hallmarks remain understudied for the mechanism of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. Dysregulated cellular energetics have been established as a hallmark of cancer. Energy pathways that become dysregulated in cancer include mitochondrial respiration, lipogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, one carbon metabolism, and increased anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen or ‘Warburg effect’.

To investigate metabolism changes in ...


Afatinib And Temozolomide Combination Inhibits Tumorigenesis By Targeting Egfrviii-Cmet Signaling In Glioblastoma Cells, Raghupathy Vengoji, Muzafar A. Macha, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Kavita Mallya, Santhi Gorantla, Maneesh Jain, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy, Surinder K. Batra, Nicole Shonka 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Afatinib And Temozolomide Combination Inhibits Tumorigenesis By Targeting Egfrviii-Cmet Signaling In Glioblastoma Cells, Raghupathy Vengoji, Muzafar A. Macha, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Kavita Mallya, Santhi Gorantla, Maneesh Jain, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy, Surinder K. Batra, Nicole Shonka

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor with universal recurrence and poor prognosis. The recurrence is largely driven by chemoradiation resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its mutant EGFRvIII are amplified in ~ 60% and ~ 30% of GBM patients, respectively; however, therapies targeting EGFR have failed to improve disease outcome. EGFRvIII-mediated cross-activation of tyrosine kinase receptor, cMET, regulates GBM CSC maintenance and promote tumor recurrence. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of pan-EGFR inhibitor afatinib and Temozolomide (TMZ) combination on GBM in vitro and in vivo.

METHODS: We analyzed the effect of afatinib and temozolomide (TMZ ...


Vitamin E Δ-Tocotrienol Sensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells To Trail-Induced Apoptosis Through Proteasome-Mediated Down-Regulation Of C-Flip, Rony A. Francois, Anying Zhang, Kazim Husain, Chen Wang, Sean Hutchinson, Michael Kongnyuy, Surinder K. Batra, Domenico Coppola, Said M. Sebti, Mokenge P. Malafa 2019 H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute

Vitamin E Δ-Tocotrienol Sensitizes Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells To Trail-Induced Apoptosis Through Proteasome-Mediated Down-Regulation Of C-Flip, Rony A. Francois, Anying Zhang, Kazim Husain, Chen Wang, Sean Hutchinson, Michael Kongnyuy, Surinder K. Batra, Domenico Coppola, Said M. Sebti, Mokenge P. Malafa

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Background: Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (VEDT), a vitamin E compound isolated from sources such as palm fruit and annatto beans, has been reported to have cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects.

Methods: We report a novel function of VEDT in augmenting tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- (TRAIL-) induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. The effects of VEDT were shown by its ability to trigger caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.

Results: When combined with TRAIL, VEDT significantly augmented TRAIL-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. VEDT decreased cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) levels without consistently modulating the expression of decoy death receptors 1 ...


Domain Rearrangement And Denaturation In Ebola Virus Protein Vp40, Rudramani Pokhrel, Pornthep Sompornpisut, Prem Chapagain, Brian Olson, Bernard Gertsman, Ras B. Pandey 2018 Florida International University

Domain Rearrangement And Denaturation In Ebola Virus Protein Vp40, Rudramani Pokhrel, Pornthep Sompornpisut, Prem Chapagain, Brian Olson, Bernard Gertsman, Ras B. Pandey

Faculty Publications

The VP40 protein plays a critical role in coordinating the virion assembly, budding, and replication of the Ebola virus. Efforts have been made in recent years to understand various aspects of VP40 structure, dynamics, and function such as assembly of the protein and its roles in virus replication and penetration of the protein into the plasma membrane. A major conformational transformation is necessary for VP40 to form some of its oligomeric structures and to perform various functions. This conformational change from a compact structure with the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) closely associated involves a dissociation or springing-out ...


High Affinity Binding Of H3k14ac Through Collaboration Of Bromodomains 2, 4 And 5 Is Critical For The Molecular And Tumor Suppressor Functions Of Pbrm1., Lili Liao, Nilda L. Alicea-Velázquez, Lauren Langbein, Xiaohua Niu, Weijia Cai, Eun-Ah Cho, Meiling Zhang, Celeste B. Greer, Qin Yan, Michael S. Cosgrove, Haifeng Yang 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; Yale University

High Affinity Binding Of H3k14ac Through Collaboration Of Bromodomains 2, 4 And 5 Is Critical For The Molecular And Tumor Suppressor Functions Of Pbrm1., Lili Liao, Nilda L. Alicea-Velázquez, Lauren Langbein, Xiaohua Niu, Weijia Cai, Eun-Ah Cho, Meiling Zhang, Celeste B. Greer, Qin Yan, Michael S. Cosgrove, Haifeng Yang

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) is an important tumor suppressor in kidney cancer. It contains six tandem bromodomains (BDs), which are specialized structures that recognize acetyl-lysine residues. While BD2 has been found to bind acetylated histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14ac), it is not known whether other BDs collaborate with BD2 to generate strong binding to H3K14ac, and the importance of H3K14ac recognition for the molecular and tumor suppressor function of PBRM1 is also unknown. We discovered that full-length PBRM1, but not its individual BDs, strongly binds H3K14ac. BDs 2, 4, and 5 were found to collaborate to facilitate strong binding to H3K14ac. Quantitative ...


In Vitro Growth Of Human Ovarian Follicles For Fertility Preservation, Diego Marin, Min Yang, Tianren Wang 2018 IVIRMA New Jersey; Thomas Jefferson University

In Vitro Growth Of Human Ovarian Follicles For Fertility Preservation, Diego Marin, Min Yang, Tianren Wang

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Young female cancer survival rates significantly increased due to the great progress of cancer therapy. In fact, cryostorage and transplantation of ovarian tissue have already resulted in the birth of healthy babies. Follicle in vitro growth (IVG) has the great potential of restoring fertility by achieving functional oocytes from the most immature stages to maturation. This is suitable for a wide range of patients, from pubertal to perimenopause women. Notable achievements have been achieved in human follicle IVG in the past decade. Mature oocytes have been successfully collected from long-term sequential follicle IVG. However, it is still a major challenge ...


Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read 2018 University at Buffalo, State University of New York

Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

In Trypanosoma brucei and related kinetoplastid parasites, transcription of protein coding genes is largely unregulated. Rather, mRNA binding proteins, which impact processes such as transcript stability and translation efficiency, are the predominant regulators of gene expression. Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that preferentially targets RNA binding proteins and is, therefore, likely to have a substantial impact on T. brucei biology. The data presented here demonstrate that cells depleted of T. brucei PRMT1 (TbPRMT1), a major type I protein arginine methyltransferase, exhibit decreased virulence in an animal model. To understand the basis of this phenotype, quantitative global proteomics was employed ...


Highly Efficient 5' Capping Of Mitochondrial Rna With Nad+ And Nadh By Yeast And Human Mitochondrial Rna Polymerase, Jeremy G Bird, Urmimala Basu, David Kuster, Aparna Ramachandran, Ewa Grudzien-Nogalska, Atif Towheed, Douglas C. Wallace, Megerditch Kiledjian, Dmitry Temiakov, Smita S. Patel, Richard H. Ebright, Bryce E. Nickels 2018 Rutgers University

Highly Efficient 5' Capping Of Mitochondrial Rna With Nad+ And Nadh By Yeast And Human Mitochondrial Rna Polymerase, Jeremy G Bird, Urmimala Basu, David Kuster, Aparna Ramachandran, Ewa Grudzien-Nogalska, Atif Towheed, Douglas C. Wallace, Megerditch Kiledjian, Dmitry Temiakov, Smita S. Patel, Richard H. Ebright, Bryce E. Nickels

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Bacterial and eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases (RNAPs) cap RNA with the oxidized and reduced forms of the metabolic effector nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD+ and NADH, using NAD+ and NADH as non-canonical initiating nucleotides for transcription initiation. Here, we show that mitochondrial RNAPs (mtRNAPs) cap RNA with NAD+ and NADH, and do so more efficiently than nuclear RNAPs. Direct quantitation of NAD+- and NADH-capped RNA demonstrates remarkably high levels of capping in vivo: up to ~60% NAD+ and NADH capping of yeast mitochondrial transcripts, and up to ~15% NAD+ capping of human mitochondrial transcripts. The capping efficiency is determined by promoter ...


Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli 2018 IVIRMA New Jersey; Thomas Jefferson University

Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

An algorithm assessing the methylation levels of 353 informative CpG sites in the human genome permits accurate prediction of the chronologic age of a subject. Interestingly, when there is discrepancy between the predicted age and chronologic age (age acceleration or "AgeAccel"), patients are at risk for morbidity and mortality. Identification of infertile patients at risk for accelerated reproductive senescence may permit preventative action. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the "epigenetic clock" concept in reproductive age women undergoing fertility treatment by applying the age prediction algorithm in peripheral (white blood cells [WBCs]) and follicular somatic cells (cumulus cells ...


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Inhibition By Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contributes To Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld)., Josiah Hardesty 2018 University of Louisville

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Inhibition By Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contributes To Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld)., Josiah Hardesty

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes how poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exacerbate the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While PCBs were banned in 1979, they still persist in contaminated biota, including food, and are detected in human plasma and adipose. The body burden of PCBs is associated with elevation of liver enzymes and necrosis markers in humans, characteristic of NAFLD. PCB exposure in high-fat diet fed mice leads to steatohepatitis that recapitulate the findings seen in exposed humans. The global estimate of people diagnosed with NAFLD is up to 1 in 4 people, unrelated to dietary or genetic factors. The hepatic mechanisms ...


High-Affinity Rna Targets Of The Survival Motor Neuron Protein Reveal Diverse Preferences For Sequence And Structural Motifs, Eric W. Ottesen, Natalia N. Singh, Diou Luo, Ravindra N. Singh 2018 Iowa State University

High-Affinity Rna Targets Of The Survival Motor Neuron Protein Reveal Diverse Preferences For Sequence And Structural Motifs, Eric W. Ottesen, Natalia N. Singh, Diou Luo, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein is essential for survival of all animal cells. SMN harbors a nucleic acid-binding domain and plays an important role in RNA metabolism. However, the RNA-binding property of SMN is poorly understood. Here we employ iterative in vitro selection and chemical structure probing to identify sequence and structural motif(s) critical for RNA–SMN interactions. Our results reveal that motifs that drive RNA–SMN interactions are diverse and suggest that tight RNA–SMN interaction requires presence of multiple contact sites on the RNA molecule. We performed UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP ...


Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty 2018 Augusta University

Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Inflammation of the pancreas can occur in two distinct forms, either in the acute form (AP) or the chronic form (CP). AP is a short-term inflammation that develops suddenly. By contrast, CP manifests from a long-term inflammation, which results in significant fibrosis of the pancreatic tissue and permanent organ damage. This is because of pro-inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the sources of ROS is NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes, which transfer electrons across biological membranes to reduce oxygen to superoxide. The rodent genome encodes four Nox enzymes: Nox1-4. We found that Nox1 is implicated in pancreatic fibrogenesis ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix 2018 University of North Georgia

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. Quantitative polymerase chain ...


Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, Sunhee Hwang, Karen Mruk, Simin Rahighi, Andrew G. Raub, Che-Hong Chen, Lisa E. Dorn, Naoki Horikoshi, Soichi Wakatsuki, James K. Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen 2018 Stanford University

Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, Sunhee Hwang, Karen Mruk, Simin Rahighi, Andrew G. Raub, Che-Hong Chen, Lisa E. Dorn, Naoki Horikoshi, Soichi Wakatsuki, James K. Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, one of the most common human genetic enzymopathies, is caused by over 160 different point mutations and contributes to the severity of many acute and chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress, including hemolytic anemia and bilirubin-induced neurological damage particularly in newborns. As no medications are available to treat G6PD deficiency, here we seek to identify a small molecule that corrects it. Crystallographic study and mutagenesis analysis identify the structural and functional defect of one common mutant (Canton, R459L). Using high-throughput screening, we subsequently identify AG1, a small molecule that increases the activity of the wild-type, the ...


The Anti-Cancer Effect Of Retinoic Acid Signaling In Crc Occurs Via Decreased Growth Of Aldh+ Colon Cancer Stem Cells And Increased Differentiation Of Stem Cells, Shirin R. Modarai, Anindita Gupta, Lynn M. Opdenaker, Ryan Kowash, Gabriel Masters, Vignesh Viswanathan, Tao Zhang, Jeremy Z. Fields, Bruce M. Boman 2018 University of Delaware; Christiana Care Health System

The Anti-Cancer Effect Of Retinoic Acid Signaling In Crc Occurs Via Decreased Growth Of Aldh+ Colon Cancer Stem Cells And Increased Differentiation Of Stem Cells, Shirin R. Modarai, Anindita Gupta, Lynn M. Opdenaker, Ryan Kowash, Gabriel Masters, Vignesh Viswanathan, Tao Zhang, Jeremy Z. Fields, Bruce M. Boman

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

Background: Tumorigenesis is driven by stem cell (SC) overpopulation. BecauseALDH is both a marker for SCs in many tissues and a key enzyme in retinoid acid (RA)signaling, we studied RA signaling in normal and malignant colonic SCs.Hypothesis: RA signaling regulates growth and differentiation of ALDH+ colonicSCs dysregulation of RA signaling contributes to SC overpopulation and colorectalcancer (CRC) development.Methods: We analyzed normal and malignant colonic tissues and CRC cell linesto see if retinoid receptors (RXR &RAR) are exclusively expressed in ALDH+ SCs,and if RA signaling changes during CRC development. We determined whether RAsignaling regulates cancer SC (CSC ...


Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, Melissa Beals, Robert J. Krumsick, C. Clinton Frazee III, Lindsey J. Haldiman, Uttam Garg 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, Melissa Beals, Robert J. Krumsick, C. Clinton Frazee Iii, Lindsey J. Haldiman, Uttam Garg

Posters

Introduction
Oxcarbazepine is a derivative of carbamazepine that is used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, and experimentally as a mood-stabilizer in adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Oxcarbazepine is converted through oxidation to its pharmacologically active metabolite 10-OH-Carbazepine, which is thought to be responsible for most of the anticonvulsant action of the drug. Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are generally dose-dependent and may include fatigue, somnolence, dizziness, diplopia, nystagmus, and ataxia. Additive sedative effects have been noted when oxcarbazepine is used in combination with other CNS depressionproducing medications. Furthermore, oxcarbazepine and 10-OH-Carbazepine are powerful CYP2C19 inhibitors, potentially increasing ...


Pepducin-Mediated Cardioprotection Via Β-Arrestin-Biased Β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Specific Signaling, Laurel A. Grisanti, Toby P. Thomas, Rhonda L. Carter, Claudio de Lucia, Erhe Gao, Walter J. Koch, Jeffrey L. Benovic, Douglas G. Tilley 2018 University of Missouri

Pepducin-Mediated Cardioprotection Via Β-Arrestin-Biased Β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Specific Signaling, Laurel A. Grisanti, Toby P. Thomas, Rhonda L. Carter, Claudio De Lucia, Erhe Gao, Walter J. Koch, Jeffrey L. Benovic, Douglas G. Tilley

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Reperfusion as a therapeutic intervention for acute myocardial infarction-induced cardiac injury itself induces further cardiomyocyte death. β-arrestin (βarr)-biased β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation promotes survival signaling responses in vitro; thus, we hypothesize that this pathway can mitigate cardiomyocyte death at the time of reperfusion to better preserve function. However, a lack of efficacious βarr-biased orthosteric small molecules has prevented investigation into whether this pathway relays protection against ischemic injury in vivo. We recently demonstrated that the pepducin ICL1-9, a small lipidated peptide fragment designed from the first intracellular loop of β2AR, allosterically engaged pro-survival signaling cascades in a βarr-dependent manner ...


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