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A New Class Of Inhibitors Of The Arac Family Virulence Regulator Vibrio Cholerae Toxt, Anne K. Woodbrey, Evans O. Onyango, Maria Pellegrini, Gabriela Kovacikova, Ronald Taylor, Gordon Gribble, F. Jon Kull 2017 Dartmouth College

A New Class Of Inhibitors Of The Arac Family Virulence Regulator Vibrio Cholerae Toxt, Anne K. Woodbrey, Evans O. Onyango, Maria Pellegrini, Gabriela Kovacikova, Ronald Taylor, Gordon Gribble, F. Jon Kull

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera that infects millions of people worldwide. While vaccines protecting against cholera exist, and oral rehydration therapy is an effective treatment method, the disease will remain a global health threat until long-term solutions such as improved sanitation and access to clean water become widely available. Because of this, there is a pressing need for potent therapeutics that can either mitigate cholera symptoms, or act prophylactically to prevent the virulent effects of a cholera infection. Here we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a set of compounds that bind and inhibit ToxT ...


Synthesis And Anti-Hiv Activities Of Unsymmetrical Long Chain Dicarboxylate Esters Of Dinucleosides Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Bhupender S. Chhikara, Gustavo F. Doncel, Keykavous Parang 2017 South University

Synthesis And Anti-Hiv Activities Of Unsymmetrical Long Chain Dicarboxylate Esters Of Dinucleosides Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Bhupender S. Chhikara, Gustavo F. Doncel, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A series of 11 unsymmetrical dinucleoside dicarboxylate conjugates of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were synthesized. Three dicarboxylic acids, succinic acid, suberic acid and 1,14-tetradecandioc acid, were diesterified with either 3'-azido- 2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT), 3'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (FLT), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) or 5-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxy-3'- thiacytidine (FTC). The anti-HIV activity of synthesized compounds was evaluated against HIV-1 X4 (IIIB) and R5 (BaL) viral strains in single-round infection assays. Results indicated that the tetradecandioate esters of nucleosides were more active against HIV than the corresponding parent nucleosides and nucleoside conjugates. The tetradecandioate conjugate of FLT and ...


Cool-Associated Tyrosine-Phosphorylated Protein 1 Is Required For The Anchorage-Independent Growth Of Cervical Carcinoma Cells By Binding Paxillin And Promoting Akt Activation., Sungsoo M. Yoo, Arash Latifkar, Richard A. Cerione, Marc A. Antonyak 2017 Thomas Jefferson University; Cornell University

Cool-Associated Tyrosine-Phosphorylated Protein 1 Is Required For The Anchorage-Independent Growth Of Cervical Carcinoma Cells By Binding Paxillin And Promoting Akt Activation., Sungsoo M. Yoo, Arash Latifkar, Richard A. Cerione, Marc A. Antonyak

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Cool-associated tyrosine-phosphorylated protein 1 (Cat-1) is a signaling scaffold as well as an ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase-activating protein. Although best known for its role in cell migration, we recently showed that the ability of Cat-1 to bind paxillin, a major constituent of focal complexes, is also essential for the anchorage-independent growth of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Here we set out to learn more about the underlying mechanism by which Cat-paxillin interactions mediate this effect. We show that knocking down paxillin expression in HeLa cells promotes their ability to form colonies in soft agar, whereas ectopically expressing paxillin in these cells inhibits this ...


Na/K-Atpase Signaling And Salt Sensitivity: The Role Of Oxidative Stress, Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie 2017 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Signaling And Salt Sensitivity: The Role Of Oxidative Stress, Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Other than genetic regulation of salt sensitivity of blood pressure, many factors have been shown to regulate renal sodium handling which contributes to long-term blood pressure regulation and have been extensively reviewed. Here we present our progress on the Na/K-ATPase signaling mediated sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules, from cardiotonic steroids-mediated to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling that contributes to experimental salt sensitivity.


Evaluation Of [14c] And [13c]Sucrose As Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Markers, Mohammad K. Miah, Ekram A. Chowdhury, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar 2017 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

Evaluation Of [14c] And [13c]Sucrose As Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Markers, Mohammad K. Miah, Ekram A. Chowdhury, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Non-specific quantitation of [14C]sucrose in blood and brain has been routinely used as a quantitative measure of the in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. However, the reported apparent brain uptake clearance (Kin) of the marker varies widely (∼100 fold). We investigated the accuracy of the use of the marker in comparison with a stable isotope of sucrose ([13C]sucrose) measured by a specific LC-MS/MS method. Rats received single doses of each marker, and the Kin values were determined. Surprisingly, the Kin value of [13C]sucrose was 6-7 fold lower than that of ...


Antisense Oligonucleotide Modulators Of Serotonin Receptor 2c And Uses Thereof, Stefan Stamm, Manli Shen, Serene Josiah 2017 University of Kentucky

Antisense Oligonucleotide Modulators Of Serotonin Receptor 2c And Uses Thereof, Stefan Stamm, Manli Shen, Serene Josiah

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Patents

The present invention provides, among other things, oligonucleotide modulators of human 5'-HT2C receptor (HTR2C) and improved methods and composition for treating HTR2C-related diseases, disorders or conditions based on such modulators. In particular, oligonucleotides modulators according to the invention target specific regions in the Exon V/Intron V junction of the human HTR2C pre-mRNA and drive expression of HTR2C Vb splice isoform, leading to increased generation of non-edited strong HTR2C receptor and enhanced serotonin receptor activity.


Portal Protein Functions Akin To A Dna-Sensor That Couples Genome-Packaging To Icosahedral Capsid Maturation., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ankoor Roy, Pavel V. Afonine, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M M. Teschke, Kristin N. Parent, Gino Cingolani 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Portal Protein Functions Akin To A Dna-Sensor That Couples Genome-Packaging To Icosahedral Capsid Maturation., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ankoor Roy, Pavel V. Afonine, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M M. Teschke, Kristin N. Parent, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or 'procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity ...


Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Expression Is Regulated By P53 Harboring The Lung Cancer-Specific Mutation V157f, Julie Barta, MD, Kristen Pauley, Steven B. McMahon, PhD 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Expression Is Regulated By P53 Harboring The Lung Cancer-Specific Mutation V157f, Julie Barta, Md, Kristen Pauley, Steven B. Mcmahon, Phd

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Posters

OBJECTIVES

  • To define the mutant p53-regulated transcriptome of lung cancer cells with alterations at V157 and R158 in the p53 tumor suppressor.
  • To determine the biological effects of lung-enriched p53 mutations in lung cancer cells.


Cleavage Of Dfna5 By Caspase-3 During Apoptosis Mediates Progression To Secondary Necrotic/Pyroptotic Cell Death., Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S. Alnemri 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Cleavage Of Dfna5 By Caspase-3 During Apoptosis Mediates Progression To Secondary Necrotic/Pyroptotic Cell Death., Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S. Alnemri

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when ...


The International Scientific Association For Probiotics And Prebiotics (Isapp) Consensus Statement On The Definition And Scope Of Prebiotics, Glenn R. Gibson, Robert W. Hutkins, Mary Ellen Sanders, Susan L. Prescott, Raylene A. Reimer, Seppo J. Salminen, Karen Scott, Catherine Stanton, Kelly S. Swanson, Patrice D. Cani, Kristin Verbeke, Gregor Reid 2017 University of Reading

The International Scientific Association For Probiotics And Prebiotics (Isapp) Consensus Statement On The Definition And Scope Of Prebiotics, Glenn R. Gibson, Robert W. Hutkins, Mary Ellen Sanders, Susan L. Prescott, Raylene A. Reimer, Seppo J. Salminen, Karen Scott, Catherine Stanton, Kelly S. Swanson, Patrice D. Cani, Kristin Verbeke, Gregor Reid

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and clinical research was convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics to review the definition and scope of prebiotics. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. This definition expands the concept of prebiotics to possibly include non-carbohydrate substances, applications to body sites other than the gastrointestinal tract, and diverse categories other than food. The requirement for selective ...


Hematuria Without Microalbuminuria, Angela Ferguson, Vimal Chadha, Amy Wiebold, Uttam Garg 2017 Children's Mercy Hospital

Hematuria Without Microalbuminuria, Angela Ferguson, Vimal Chadha, Amy Wiebold, Uttam Garg

Posters

Background

Microabubiminuria is a condition in which small amounts of albumin are excreted in the urine without overt nephropathy. Based on the

American Diabetic Association classification, microalbuminuria is defined as urinary excretion of albumin of 30–300 mg per 24 hours or 20–200 mcg/min or 30–300 mcg/mg creatinine. Various conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and impaired renal tubular reabsorption can lead to microalbuminuria. Microalbuminuria is an indicator and predictor of the development of overt nephropathy. If identified and treated early, overt nephropathy can be prevented and averted. Proteinuria and hematuria are the two most common urinary ...


The Potential Role Of Oxidative Stress In Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure Vascular Reactivity, Abigail J. Gindlesberger 2017 The University of Akron

The Potential Role Of Oxidative Stress In Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure Vascular Reactivity, Abigail J. Gindlesberger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disease of pregnant women that is known to cause detrimental physiological complications to both the mother and fetus. The hypertension hypothesized to result from endothelial dysfunction may be improved therapeutically by increasing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor ligand concentration and it’s Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGF and VEGFR2). Together, this receptor pathway may help overall vasodilation of key blood vessels linking the mother and fetal placental unit, allowing for increased clinical pathologies of both. Previous studies have also linked increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in preeclamptic pregnancies to the damaged endothelial tissues of ...


Multifaceted Role Of Neuropilins In The Immune System: Potential Targets For Immunotherapy., Sohini Roy, Arup K. Bag, Rakesh Singh, James E. Talmadge, Surinder K. Batra, Kaustubh Datta 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Multifaceted Role Of Neuropilins In The Immune System: Potential Targets For Immunotherapy., Sohini Roy, Arup K. Bag, Rakesh Singh, James E. Talmadge, Surinder K. Batra, Kaustubh Datta

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Neuropilins (NRPs) are non-tyrosine kinase cell surface glycoproteins expressed in all vertebrates and widely conserved across species. The two isoforms, such as neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2), mainly act as coreceptors for class III Semaphorins and for members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family of molecules and are widely known for their role in a wide array of physiological processes, such as cardiovascular, neuronal development and patterning, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, as well as various clinical disorders. Intriguingly, additional roles for NRPs occur with myeloid and lymphoid cells, in normal physiological as well as different pathological conditions, including cancer, immunological disorders ...


Tp53-Inducible Glycolysis And Apoptosis Regulator (Tigar) Metabolically Reprograms Carcinoma And Stromal Cells In Breast Cancer., Ying-Hui Ko, Marina Domingo-Vidal, Megan Roche, Zhao Lin, Diana Whitaker-Menezes, Erin Seifert, Claudia Capparelli, Madalina Tuluc, Ruth C. Birbe, Patrick Tassone, Joseph M. Curry, Àurea Navarro-Sabaté, Anna Manzano, Ramon Bartrons, Jaime Caro, Ubaldo E. Martinez-Outshoorn 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

Tp53-Inducible Glycolysis And Apoptosis Regulator (Tigar) Metabolically Reprograms Carcinoma And Stromal Cells In Breast Cancer., Ying-Hui Ko, Marina Domingo-Vidal, Megan Roche, Zhao Lin, Diana Whitaker-Menezes, Erin Seifert, Claudia Capparelli, Madalina Tuluc, Ruth C. Birbe, Patrick Tassone, Joseph M. Curry, Àurea Navarro-Sabaté, Anna Manzano, Ramon Bartrons, Jaime Caro, Ubaldo E. Martinez-Outshoorn

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

A subgroup of breast cancers has several metabolic compartments. The mechanisms by which metabolic compartmentalization develop in tumors are poorly characterized. TP53 inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) is a bisphosphatase that reduces glycolysis and is highly expressed in carcinoma cells in the majority of human breast cancers. Hence we set out to determine the effects of TIGAR expression on breast carcinoma and fibroblast glycolytic phenotype and tumor growth. The overexpression of this bisphosphatase in carcinoma cells induces expression of enzymes and transporters involved in the catabolism of lactate and glutamine. Carcinoma cells overexpressing TIGAR have higher oxygen consumption rates ...


Natural And Induced Mitochondrial Phosphate Carrier Loss: Differential Dependence Of Mitochondrial Metabolism And Dynamics And Cell Survival On The Extent Of Depletion., Erin L. Seifert, Aniko Gál, Michelle G. Acoba, Qipei Li, Lauren Anderson-Pullinger, Tünde Golenár, Cynthia Moffat, Neal Sondheimer, Steven M. Claypool, György Hajnóczky 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

Natural And Induced Mitochondrial Phosphate Carrier Loss: Differential Dependence Of Mitochondrial Metabolism And Dynamics And Cell Survival On The Extent Of Depletion., Erin L. Seifert, Aniko Gál, Michelle G. Acoba, Qipei Li, Lauren Anderson-Pullinger, Tünde Golenár, Cynthia Moffat, Neal Sondheimer, Steven M. Claypool, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

The relevance of mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC), encoded by SLC25A3, in bioenergetics is well accepted. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating the cellular impairments induced by pathological SLC25A3 variants. To this end, we investigated the pathogenicity of a novel compound heterozygous mutation in SLC25A3 First, each variant was modeled in yeast, revealing that substituting GSSAS for QIP within the fifth matrix loop is incompatible with survival on non-fermentable substrate, whereas the L200W variant is functionally neutral. Next, using skin fibroblasts from an individual expressing these variants and HeLa cells with varying degrees of PiC depletion, PiC loss of ...


The Yersinia Pestis Effector Yopm Inhibits Pyrin Inflammasome Activation., Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Megan K. Proulx, Donghai Wang, Mikhail A. Gavrilin, Mark D. Wewers, Emad S. Alnemri, Peter F. Johnson, Bettina Lee, Joan Mecsas, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Jon D. Goguen, Egil Lien 2016 UMass Medical School

The Yersinia Pestis Effector Yopm Inhibits Pyrin Inflammasome Activation., Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Megan K. Proulx, Donghai Wang, Mikhail A. Gavrilin, Mark D. Wewers, Emad S. Alnemri, Peter F. Johnson, Bettina Lee, Joan Mecsas, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Jon D. Goguen, Egil Lien

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are central virulence factors for many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and secreted T3SS effectors can block key aspects of host cell signaling. To counter this, innate immune responses can also sense some T3SS components to initiate anti-bacterial mechanisms. The Yersinia pestis T3SS is particularly effective and sophisticated in manipulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, which are typically processed into their mature forms by active caspase-1 following inflammasome formation. Some effectors, like Y. pestis YopM, may block inflammasome activation. Here we show that YopM prevents Y. pestis induced activation of the Pyrin inflammasome induced ...


Environmental Signaling Through The Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (Torc1) And The Regulation Of Epigenetic Mechanisms, Jason J. Workman 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Environmental Signaling Through The Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (Torc1) And The Regulation Of Epigenetic Mechanisms, Jason J. Workman

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The gene expression profile of a eukaryotic cell is responsive to a variety of extracellular stimuli, including nutrient availability, which allows cells to toggle between anabolism and catabolism based on the favorability of their environment. Much of this information is relayed through signaling complexes, such as the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1), to downstream chromatin modifying enzymes. These enzymes impact the gene regulatory process through altered histone post-translation modifications, changes in chromatin structure, and docking of chromatin regulatory complexes. Yet, despite preliminary studies suggesting that TORC1 affects epigenetic mechanisms, including histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac), almost nothing is ...


Regulation Of Cancer Metastasis By Protein Kinase D1: A Global Regulatory Cascade, Aditya Ganju 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Regulation Of Cancer Metastasis By Protein Kinase D1: A Global Regulatory Cascade, Aditya Ganju

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) is a serine threonine kinase which is downregulated in Prostate, Breast and Colon Cancer. It functions as a tumor suppressor in different cancer cells. Downregulation of PKD1 is known to be associated with aggressiveness of the cancer. PKD1 is known to regulate many key oncogenic signaling pathways such as E-cadherin, β-catenin and Androgen Receptor signaling pathways. Aberrant expression of these oncogenic pathways leads to transformation of cells from normal to malignant phenotype, thereby leading to increased proliferation, growth and metastasis to distant organs of these cancer cells. Literature evidence also points to the fact that E-cadherin ...


Palmitoylation Of Desmoglein 2 Is A Regulator Of Assembly Dynamics And Protein Turnover., Brett J. Roberts, Robert A. Svoboda, Andrew M. Overmiller, Joshua D. Lewis, Andrew P. Kowalczyk, My G. Mahoney, Keith R. Johnson, James K. Wahl 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Palmitoylation Of Desmoglein 2 Is A Regulator Of Assembly Dynamics And Protein Turnover., Brett J. Roberts, Robert A. Svoboda, Andrew M. Overmiller, Joshua D. Lewis, Andrew P. Kowalczyk, My G. Mahoney, Keith R. Johnson, James K. Wahl

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

Desmosomes are prominent adhesive junctions present between many epithelial cells as well as cardiomyocytes. The mechanisms controlling desmosome assembly and remodeling in epithelial and cardiac tissue are poorly understood. We recently identified protein palmitoylation as a mechanism regulating desmosome dynamics. In this study, we have focused on the palmitoylation of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-2 (Dsg2) and characterized the role that palmitoylation of Dsg2 plays in its localization and stability in cultured cells. We identified two cysteine residues in the juxtamembrane (intracellular anchor) domain of Dsg2 that, when mutated, eliminate its palmitoylation. These cysteine residues are conserved in all four desmoglein ...


Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham 2016 Marshall University

Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) contributes to browning of white adipose stem cells to ameliorate obesity/diabetes and insulin resistance. In the current study, we show that EET altered preadipocyte function, enhanced peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α) expression, and increased mitochondrial function in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte subjected to adipogenesis. Cells treated with EET resulted in an increase, P < 0.05, in PGC-1α and a decrease in mitochondria-derived ROS (MitoSox), P < 0.05. The EET increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels is dependent on activation of PGC-1α as cells deficient in PGC-1α (PGC-1α knockout adipocyte cell) have an impaired ability to express HO-1, P < 0.02. Additionally, adipocytes treated with EET exhibited an increase in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a PGC-1α-dependent manner, P < 0.05. The increase in PGC-1α was associated with an increase in β-catenin, P < 0.05, adiponectin expression, P < 0.05, and lipid accumulation, P < 0.02. EET decreased heme levels and mitochondria-derived ROS (MitoSox), P < 0.05, compared to adipocytes that were untreated. EET also decreased mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05). Adipocyte secretion of EET act in an autocrine/paracrine manner to increase PGC-1α is required for activation of HO-1 expression. This is the first study to dissect the mechanism by which the antiadipogenic and anti-inflammatory lipid, EET, induces the PGC-1α signaling cascade and reprograms the adipocyte phenotype by regulating mitochondrial function and HO-1 expression, leading to an increase in healthy, that is, small, adipocytes and a decrease in adipocyte enlargement and terminal differentiation. This is manifested by an increase in mitochondrial function and an increase in the canonical Wnt signaling cascade during adipocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation.


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