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Connection Between Contaminants And Marine Mammals In The Southern Ocean, Sean W. Tupper 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Connection Between Contaminants And Marine Mammals In The Southern Ocean, Sean W. Tupper

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The Southern Ocean encircles the continent of Antarctica and was once thought to be unaffected by human activities. However, evidence is increasing that this region has many different contaminants that threaten the region’s marine biodiversity, including marine mammals. Many of these contaminants are heavy metals or persistent organic pollutants and enter the Southern Ocean via both natural and anthropogenic processes. The impacts posed by these contaminants vary according to their type and the organism being exposed. All species of cetaceans and pinnipeds in this study were confirmed to have been exposed to one or more the contaminants reviewed. Although ...


Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao

VIMS Articles

The Chesapeake Bay is a large coastal-plain estuary that has experienced considerable anthropogenic changeover the past century. At the regional scale, land-use change has doubled the nutrient input from rivers and led to an increase in riverine carbon and alkalinity. The bay has also experienced global changes, including the rise of atmospheric temperature and CO2. Here we seek to understand the relative impact of these changes on the inorganic carbon balance of the bay between the early 1900s and the early 2000s. We use a linked land–estuarine–ocean modeling system that includes both inorganic and organic carbon and nitrogen ...


Comparative Analysis Of Lead In Crassostrea Angulata And Cerastoderma Edule From Cádiz, Spain, Margaret Mullen, Kyle Grice 2020 DePaul University

Comparative Analysis Of Lead In Crassostrea Angulata And Cerastoderma Edule From Cádiz, Spain, Margaret Mullen, Kyle Grice

DePaul Discoveries

In order to study the capacity of bivalve shells as bioindicators in estuarine ecosystems, a comparative analysis of lead concentration in oyster (C.angulata) and clam (C. edule) shells collected near the coast of Cádiz, Spain was performed. Infrared spectroscopy was used to assess calcite and aragonite compositional differences in the shells. An atomic absorption spectrometer was employed for lead concentation method development and analysis. Infrared spectroscopy results found that C. edule shells may contain more aragonite than C.angulata shells. The average lead concentration in oyster shells was calculated to be 44 ± 24 ppm from one site 17 ± 8 ...


Dna Barcoding Of Fish Eggs Collected Aboard R/V Weatherbird Ii Cruise Wb1731 Across The Florida Straits And Off Of Northwestern Cuba From 2017-05-13 To 2017-05-25, Makenzie Kerr, Mya Breitbart, Steven Murawski, Ernst B. Peebles, Maickel Armenteros, Jeremy Browning, Eva-Maria Bønnelycke, Chuanmin Hu, Yingjun Zhang 2020 University of South Florida

Dna Barcoding Of Fish Eggs Collected Aboard R/V Weatherbird Ii Cruise Wb1731 Across The Florida Straits And Off Of Northwestern Cuba From 2017-05-13 To 2017-05-25, Makenzie Kerr, Mya Breitbart, Steven Murawski, Ernst B. Peebles, Maickel Armenteros, Jeremy Browning, Eva-Maria Bønnelycke, Chuanmin Hu, Yingjun Zhang

C-IMAGE data

This dataset contains DNA barcoding results of fish eggs collected along the northwestern coast of Cuba and across the Florida Straits from 2017-05-13 to 2017-05-25 using bongo plankton nets. The dataset also includes cruise data from twenty-three different stations collected during R/V Weatherbird II cruise WB1731. Individual eggs were DNA barcoded to identify species of fish spawning in the area. This dataset supports the publication: Kerr, M., Browning, J., Bønnelycke, E.M., Zhang, Y., Hu, C., Armenteros, M., Murawski, S., Peebles, E. and Breitbart, M. (2020). DNA barcoding of fish eggs collected off northwestern Cuba and across the Florida ...


Brain-Encysting Trematodes (Euhaplorchis Californiensis) Decrease Raphe Serotonergic Activity In California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis), Siri H. Helland-Riise, Marco A. Vindas, Ida B. Johansen, Lauren E. Nadler, Kelly L. Weinersmith, Ryan F. Hechinger, Øyvind Øverli 2020 Norwegian Academy of Sciences - Oslo

Brain-Encysting Trematodes (Euhaplorchis Californiensis) Decrease Raphe Serotonergic Activity In California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis), Siri H. Helland-Riise, Marco A. Vindas, Ida B. Johansen, Lauren E. Nadler, Kelly L. Weinersmith, Ryan F. Hechinger, Øyvind Øverli

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Modulation of brain serotonin (5-HT) signalling is associated with parasite-induced changes in host behaviour, potentially increasing parasite transmission to predatory final hosts. Such alterations could have substantial impact on host physiology and behaviour, as 5-HT serves multiple roles in neuroendocrine regulation. These effects, however, remain insufficiently understood, as parasites have been associated with both increased and decreased serotonergic activity. Here, we investigated effects of trematode Euhaplorchis californiensis metacercariae on post-stress serotonergic activity in the intermediate host California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis). This parasite is associated with conspicuous behaviour and increased predation of killifish by avian end-hosts, as well as inhibition of ...


Morphological And Molecular Characterizationof A New Species Of Black Coral From Elvers Bank, North-Western Gulf Of Mexico (Cnidaria:Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia:Aphanipathidae: Distichopathes), Mercer R. Brugler, Dennis M. Opresko, Samantha L. Goldman, Raven Johnson, Katherine Parra, Marissa Nuttall, G.P. Schmahl 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Morphological And Molecular Characterizationof A New Species Of Black Coral From Elvers Bank, North-Western Gulf Of Mexico (Cnidaria:Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia:Aphanipathidae: Distichopathes), Mercer R. Brugler, Dennis M. Opresko, Samantha L. Goldman, Raven Johnson, Katherine Parra, Marissa Nuttall, G.P. Schmahl

Publications and Research

The continental shelf edge of the NW Gulf of Mexico supports dozens of reefs and banks, including the West and East Flower Garden Banks (FGB) and Stetson Bank that comprise the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Discovered by fishermen in the early 1900s, the FGBs are named after the colourful corals, sponges and algae that dominate the region. The reefs and banks are the surface expression of underlying salt domes and provide important habitat for mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) and deep coral communities to 300 m depth. Since 2001, FGBNMS research teams have utilized remotely operated vehicles (e ...


Reproductive Effort Of Montastraea Cavernosa Across Depth In The Context Of Both Climate Change Refugia And Emergent Disease, Jeanne Bloomberg 2020 Louisiana State University

Reproductive Effort Of Montastraea Cavernosa Across Depth In The Context Of Both Climate Change Refugia And Emergent Disease, Jeanne Bloomberg

LSU Master's Theses

As coral populations on shallow reefs decline globally, mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) have been suggested as potential coral refugia in the face of climate changes, leading to the development of a comprehensive deep reef refugia hypothesis. The current study assesses the climate and disease refuge potential of MCEs in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) for the gonochoric, broadcast-spawning species Montastraea cavernosa. Polyp, population, and total habitat fecundities were estimated across the species’ depth range, and changes to population oocyte production over time due to recent ecosystem disturbances were considered. The number of gonads producing oocytes in each polyp and ...


The Effect Of Constant Relative Growth Rate Versus Constant Specific Growth Rate On Oocystis Sp, Rachel Kriner 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Constant Relative Growth Rate Versus Constant Specific Growth Rate On Oocystis Sp, Rachel Kriner

Master's Theses

In this study, a strain of Oocystis sp. (S002) was grown using two different growth strategies at three different temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C). One strategy (GS1) kept a constant specific growth rate (µ) and the other (GS2) kept a constant relative growth rate (µ/µmax). In both strategies, the cultures were grown following the protocols of a hybrid growth system. The Dilution Phase is an initial semi-continuous growth phase that involves daily dilutions until set growth criteria are met. Followed by a batch culture growth protocol where the cultures were diluted at the onset of the ...


Cultivating Cooperatives: Benefits And Challenges Of Co-Ops And Recommendations For Maine’S Emerging Aquaculture Industries, Phoebe Walsh 2020 University of New England

Cultivating Cooperatives: Benefits And Challenges Of Co-Ops And Recommendations For Maine’S Emerging Aquaculture Industries, Phoebe Walsh

All Theses And Dissertations

Two emerging Maine industries, kelp (Saccharina latissimi and Saccharina angustissima) and Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) aquaculture, have enormous market, environmental, and social potential but are faced with challenges of small scale and limited operations, inadequate infrastructure, market visibility, and limited expertise. Because many industries, particularly the dairy industry, have benefited from the use of cooperatives (co-ops) to aggregate an extremely perishable product, quickly process and effectively market and distribute, this research explores the cooperative model as a potential tool for the nascent scallop and kelp industries. Aquaculture co-ops are new in Maine. The first, the Maine Aquaculture Co-op (MAC ...


The Expanded Footprint Of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill In The Gulf Of Mexico Deep-Sea Benthos, Michael G. Reuscher, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Paul A. Montagna 2020 Texas A&M University

The Expanded Footprint Of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill In The Gulf Of Mexico Deep-Sea Benthos, Michael G. Reuscher, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Paul A. Montagna

C-IMAGE Publications

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout off the coast of Louisiana caused the largest marine oil spill on record. Samples were collected 2–3 months after the Macondo well was capped to assess damage to macrofauna and meiofauna communities. An earlier analysis of 58 stations demonstrated severe and moderate damage to an area of 148 km2. An additional 58 archived stations have been analyzed to enhance the resolution of that assessment and determine if impacts occurred further afield. Impacts included high levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the sediment, low diversity, low evenness, and ...


Combined And Independent Effects On Hypoxia And Tributylin On Mrna Expression And Physiology Of The Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica), Ann Fairly Barnett, James H. Gledhill, Robert J. Griffitt, Marc Slattery, Deborah J. Gochfeld, Kristine L. Willett 2020 University of Mississippi

Combined And Independent Effects On Hypoxia And Tributylin On Mrna Expression And Physiology Of The Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica), Ann Fairly Barnett, James H. Gledhill, Robert J. Griffitt, Marc Slattery, Deborah J. Gochfeld, Kristine L. Willett

Faculty Publications

Oyster reefs are vital to estuarine health, but they experience multiple stressors and globally declining populations. This study examined effects of hypoxia and tributyltin (TBT) on adult Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed either in the laboratory or the field following a natural hypoxic event. In the laboratory, oysters were exposed to either hypoxia followed by a recovery period, or to hypoxia combined with TBT. mRNA expression of HIF1-α and Tβ-4 along with hemocyte counts, biomarkers of hypoxic stress and immune health, respectively, were measured. In field-deployed oysters, HIF1-α and Tβ-4 expression increased, while no effect on hemocytes was observed. In ...


Shallow-Water Coral Communities Support The Separation Of Marine Ecoregions On The West-Central Florida Gulf Coast, Brian K. Walker, Shelby Eagan, Cory Ames, Sandra Brooke, Sean Keenan, Rene Baumstark 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Shallow-Water Coral Communities Support The Separation Of Marine Ecoregions On The West-Central Florida Gulf Coast, Brian K. Walker, Shelby Eagan, Cory Ames, Sandra Brooke, Sean Keenan, Rene Baumstark

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Florida’s west coast is a 170,000 km2 bedrock shelf (west Florida shelf, WFS) comprised of north-south discontinuous carbonate outcroppings extending more than 200 km from the intertidal zone to a depth of 200 m. These outcrops support diverse benthic communities, which contribute to a multi-billion dollar recreational and commercial fishing industry, yet only about 5% of their extent has been studied in detail. Benthic communities shift over a 6.5° geographic range, but the locations of these shifts are not well-defined. Previous studies have suggested a break in biogeographic regions at Tampa Bay, south at Cape Romano ...


Effectiveness Of Topical Antibiotics In Treating Corals Affected By Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease, Karen L. Neely, Kevin A. Macaulay, Emily K. Hower, Michelle A. Dobler 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Effectiveness Of Topical Antibiotics In Treating Corals Affected By Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease, Karen L. Neely, Kevin A. Macaulay, Emily K. Hower, Michelle A. Dobler

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Since 2014, Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease (SCTLD) has led to mass mortality of the majority of hard coral species on the Florida Reef Tract. Following the successful treatment of SCTLD lesions on laboratory corals using water dosed with antibiotics, two topical pastes were developed as vehicles to directly apply antibiotic treatments to wild corals. These pastes were tested as placebos and with additions of amoxicillin on active SCTLD lesions on multiple coral species. The effectiveness of the pastes without antibiotics (placebo treatments) was 4% and 9%, no different from untreated controls. Adding amoxicillin to both pastes significantly increased effectiveness ...


Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl - Annual Report 2018-2019, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Synder 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl - Annual Report 2018-2019, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Synder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for scientists’ research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment to educators for their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a long-term status and ...


Cal Poly Pier Master Plan, Troy A. Lawson 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Cal Poly Pier Master Plan, Troy A. Lawson

Master's Theses

The Cal Poly Pier (Pier) Master/Facility Plan (FP) document provides the vision of the future for the Pier, a marine science research facility. The Plan facilitates project development and management of the Pier while meeting university and department research goals. Specifically, the FP document establishes goals and strategies to direct long-term development of the Pier, streamlines agency approval and permit requirements, provides context for pier management, and assists the permitting process for future development as it relates to regulatory permits and programmatic growth on the Cal Poly Pier to help meet goals of the Center for Coastal Marine Sciences ...


Temporal And Spatial Trends Of Dead Copepods In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico In Relation To The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Jessica L. Tolan 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Temporal And Spatial Trends Of Dead Copepods In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico In Relation To The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Jessica L. Tolan

LSU Master's Theses

Zooplankton are a critical link between primary producers and higher trophic levels in the marine environment. They play a critical role in carbon cycling, are an important food source for commercially important species, and are excellent indicator genera for environmental changes that take place in marine ecosystems. This research quantified temporal and spatial patterns of dead copepods in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) site using ZooSCAN imaging technologies. Research showed that the proportion of dead copepods (showed evidence of decay but no physical damage due to predation) increased with depth, and at time periods closest to the ...


Multiple Hydrocarbon Data From Mangrove Forests Collected During A Coastal Survey Conducted In The Bay Of Campeche, Southern Gulf Of Mexico From 2016-08-09 To 2016-08-10, Isabel Romero, David Hollander 2020 University of South Florida

Multiple Hydrocarbon Data From Mangrove Forests Collected During A Coastal Survey Conducted In The Bay Of Campeche, Southern Gulf Of Mexico From 2016-08-09 To 2016-08-10, Isabel Romero, David Hollander

C-IMAGE data

This survey was conducted in mangrove forests from the Bay of Campeche (Mexico) in August 2016 to search for remnants of the Ixtoc-1 spill. This study focused on (1) the chemical composition and concentration of oil weathering products, (2) weathering processes, and (3) fate and potential toxicological impacts. This dataset contains hydrocarbon concentrations, date and location (longitude and latitude) of sample collection. The measurements of hydrocarbons were made using Agilent 7680B gas chromatograph coupled with an Agilent 7010 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. This dataset supports the publication: Radović, J. R., Romero, I. C., Oldenburg, T. B. P., Larter, S. R ...


Effects Of Climate And Land-Use Changes On Fish Catches Across Lakes At A Global Scale, Yu-Chun Kao, Mark W. Rogers, David B. Bunnell, Ian G. Cowx, Song S. Qian, Orlane Anneville, T. Douglas Beard Jr., Alexander Brinker, J. Robert Britton, René Chura-Cruz, Natasha J. Gownaris, James R. Jackson, Külli Kangur, Jeppe Kolding, Anatol A. Lukin, Abigail J. Lynch, Norman Mercado-Silva, Rodrigo Moncayo-Estrada, Friday J. Njaya, Ilia Ostrovsky, Lars G. Rudstam, Alfred L.E. Sandström, Yuichi Sato, Humberto Siguayro-Mamani, Andy Thorpe, Paul A.M. van Zwieten, Pietro Volta, Yuyu Wang, András Weiperth, Olaf L.F. Weyl, Joelle D. Young 2020 Michigan State University

Effects Of Climate And Land-Use Changes On Fish Catches Across Lakes At A Global Scale, Yu-Chun Kao, Mark W. Rogers, David B. Bunnell, Ian G. Cowx, Song S. Qian, Orlane Anneville, T. Douglas Beard Jr., Alexander Brinker, J. Robert Britton, René Chura-Cruz, Natasha J. Gownaris, James R. Jackson, Külli Kangur, Jeppe Kolding, Anatol A. Lukin, Abigail J. Lynch, Norman Mercado-Silva, Rodrigo Moncayo-Estrada, Friday J. Njaya, Ilia Ostrovsky, Lars G. Rudstam, Alfred L.E. Sandström, Yuichi Sato, Humberto Siguayro-Mamani, Andy Thorpe, Paul A.M. Van Zwieten, Pietro Volta, Yuyu Wang, András Weiperth, Olaf L.F. Weyl, Joelle D. Young

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Globally, our knowledge on lake fisheries is still limited despite their importance to food security and livelihoods. Here we show that fish catches can respond either positively or negatively to climate and land-use changes, by analyzing time-series data (1970–2014) for 31 lakes across five continents. We find that effects of a climate or land-use driver (e.g., air temperature) on lake environment could be relatively consistent in directions, but consequential changes in a lake-environmental factor (e.g., water temperature) could result in either increases or decreases in fish catch in a given lake. A subsequent correlation analysis indicates that ...


Uncovering The Role Of Symbiodiniaceae Assemblage Composition And Abundance In Coral Bleaching Response By Minimizing Sampling And Evolutionary Biases, Timothy D. Swain, Simon Lax, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino 2020 Northwestern University; Chicago Field Museum of Natural History; Nova Southeastern University

Uncovering The Role Of Symbiodiniaceae Assemblage Composition And Abundance In Coral Bleaching Response By Minimizing Sampling And Evolutionary Biases, Timothy D. Swain, Simon Lax, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Background

Biodiversity and productivity of coral-reef ecosystems depend upon reef-building corals and their associations with endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae, which offer diverse functional capabilities to their hosts. The number of unique symbiotic partners (richness) and relative abundances (evenness) have been hypothesized to affect host response to climate change induced thermal stress. Symbiodiniaceae assemblages with many unique phylotypes may provide greater physiological flexibility or form less stable symbioses; assemblages with low abundance phylotypes may allow corals to retain thermotolerant symbionts or represent associations with less-suitable symbionts.

Results

Here we demonstrate that true richness of Symbiodiniaceae phylotype assemblages is generally not discoverable from direct ...


Porewater Carbonate Chemistry Dynamics In A Temperate And A Subtropical Seagrass System, Theodor Kindeberg, Nicholas R. Bates, Travis A. Courtney, Tyler Cyronak, Alyssa Griffin, Fred T. Mackenzie, May-Linn Paulsen, Andreas J. Andersson 2020 University of California - San Diego; Lund University - Sweden

Porewater Carbonate Chemistry Dynamics In A Temperate And A Subtropical Seagrass System, Theodor Kindeberg, Nicholas R. Bates, Travis A. Courtney, Tyler Cyronak, Alyssa Griffin, Fred T. Mackenzie, May-Linn Paulsen, Andreas J. Andersson

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Seagrass systems are integral components of both local and global carbon cycles and can substantially modify seawater biogeochemistry, which has ecological ramifications. However, the influence of seagrass on porewater biogeochemistry has not been fully described, and the exact role of this marine macrophyte and associated microbial communities in the modification of porewater chemistry remains equivocal. In the present study, carbonate chemistry in the water column and porewater was investigated over diel timescales in contrasting, tidally influenced seagrass systems in Southern California and Bermuda, including vegetated (Zostera marina) and unvegetated biomes (0–16 cm) in Mission Bay, San Diego, USA and ...


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