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The Relationship Between Biofouling Adhesion And Frequency Of Mechanical Cleaning To Control The Recruitment To Clear Coatings, Dylan Thomas Eggers 2023 Florida Institute of Technology

The Relationship Between Biofouling Adhesion And Frequency Of Mechanical Cleaning To Control The Recruitment To Clear Coatings, Dylan Thomas Eggers

Theses and Dissertations

There is a need to control biofouling on sensors and transparent windows in the marine environment. Clear silicone coatings offer a method to reduce the adhesion strength of marine organisms to the surface, however, these also require mechanical cleaning to maintain the surfaces free of fouling. This research evaluated the performance of eighty seven formulations and took the top two candidates to investigate a) the frequencies of wiping required by a brush to maintain two coatings and uncoated glass surfaces free of fouling and b) the effects of clear silicone coatings fouling release properties on required frequencies. The panels were …


Effects Of Elevated Temperature On 8-Ohdg Expression In The American Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica): Induction Of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, Cellular Apoptosis, Dna Damage And Γh2ax Signaling Pathways, Md Faizur Rahman, Mohammad Maruf Billah, Richard J. Kline, Md Saydur Rahman 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Effects Of Elevated Temperature On 8-Ohdg Expression In The American Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica): Induction Of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, Cellular Apoptosis, Dna Damage And Γh2ax Signaling Pathways, Md Faizur Rahman, Mohammad Maruf Billah, Richard J. Kline, Md Saydur Rahman

School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Global temperature is increasing due to anthropogenic activities and the effects of elevated temperature on DNA lesions are not well documented in marine organisms. The American oyster (Crassostrea virginica, an edible and commercially important marine mollusk) is an ideal shellfish species to study oxidative DNA lesions during heat stress. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated temperatures (24, 28, and 32 °C for one-week exposure) on heat shock protein-70 (HSP70, a biomarker of heat stress), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of pro-mutagenic DNA lesion), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), γ-histone family member X (γH2AX, a molecular biomarker of DNA damage), …


Substantial Blue Carbon Sequestration In The World’S Largest Seagrass Meadow, Chuancheng Fu, Sofia Frappi, Michelle N. Havlik, Wells Howe, S. David Harris, Elisa Laiolo, Austin J. Gallagher, Pere Masqué, Carlos M. Duarte 2023 Edith Cowan University

Substantial Blue Carbon Sequestration In The World’S Largest Seagrass Meadow, Chuancheng Fu, Sofia Frappi, Michelle N. Havlik, Wells Howe, S. David Harris, Elisa Laiolo, Austin J. Gallagher, Pere Masqué, Carlos M. Duarte

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Seagrass meadows are important sinks for organic carbon and provide co-benefits. However, data on the organic carbon stock in seagrass sediments are scarce for many regions, particularly The Bahamas, which accounts for up to 40.7% of the documented global seagrass area, limiting formulation of blue carbon strategies. Here, we sampled 10 seagrass meadows across an extensive island chain in The Bahamas. We estimate that Bahamas seagrass meadows store 0.42–0.59 Pg organic carbon in the top-meter sediments with an accumulation rate of 2.1–2.9 Tg annually, representing a substantial global blue carbon hotspot. Autochthonous organic carbon in sediments decreased from ~1980 onwards, …


Protective Responses Of The Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Ht-29 Cells Exposed To Dephosphorylated Salmonella Flagellin [Research Note], Heyeon Baik, Jaiesoon Cho 2023 Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea

Protective Responses Of The Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Ht-29 Cells Exposed To Dephosphorylated Salmonella Flagellin [Research Note], Heyeon Baik, Jaiesoon Cho

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

This study aimed to describe the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin (SFL) dephosphorylated by sweet potato purple acid phosphatase (PAP) on the protective responses of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29 cells. The enzyme was reported to display a broad substrate specificity for various organic phosphorylated conjugates and phosphoproteins. Dephosphorylation of SFL by sweet potato PAP decreased to 35% in the presence of 0.05 mM vanadate as compared with the negative control (p < 0.05). Intact SFL and the SFL treated with sweet potato PAP did not remarkably induce the activation of caspase-3 in HT-29 cells at all the tested levels of the substrate. Intact SFL maximally induced the release of IL (interleukin)-8 in HT-29 cells at 1000 ng/mL (p < 0.05). However, the SFL treated with the enzyme inhibited the release of IL-8 at over 100 ng/mL of the substrate as compared with intact SFL, resulting in an approximately 8-fold decrease even at 1000 ng/mL (p < 0.05). The SFL treated with the enzyme decreased the activation of the total ERK1/2 in the cells to 1.9 and 1.7–fold at 10 and 1000 ng/mL of the substrate, respectively, as compared with intact SFL (p < 0.05). In conclusion, sweet potato PAP could be a promising tool for controlling excessive inflammation during Salmonella infection in animal husbandry, and the enzyme could be a safe alternative that can overcome the drawbacks of chemotherapy.


Driving The Workhorse: Maine’S Reliance On The Nearshore Environment, Angela Brewer 2023 Maine Department of Environmental Protection

Driving The Workhorse: Maine’S Reliance On The Nearshore Environment, Angela Brewer

Maine Policy Review

The changing character of Maine’s coastal ecosystems has accelerated in full view of the users most reliant on nearshore habitats and the species they support. Adaptation and diversification facilitate continued harvest of Maine’s iconic ocean bounty, which supports the coastal economy despite compounding stresses from upland development, warmer and more acidic waters, and invasive species. Use intensification in the nearshore environment calls for coordinated discussions to nurture and innovate within and across habitats to preserve their longevity and sustain the people that depend on them. Recent legislative support for eelgrass and salt marsh mapping, and estuarine and marine water quality …


Why Is The Depletion Of Our Important Fish Stocks So Persistent?, James A. Wilson 2023 University of Maine

Why Is The Depletion Of Our Important Fish Stocks So Persistent?, James A. Wilson

Maine Policy Review

In the 1980s and 1990s, two events changed the fundamental structure of Maine's coastal ecology: inshore herring and then nearshore groundfish stocks were overfished and disappeared. Surprisingly, even without fishing, there has been no recovery. Standard fisheries management assumes that the recovery of any locally overfished place should be quick – fish from other places will 'fill in.'

In contrast, recent scientific work on social learning among animals suggests that fish have communication and learning abilities comparable to other vertebrates. Learning allows groups of fish to adapt to much more local places than possible if adaptation depended on genetics alone. …


What Gives Me Hope, Heather M. Leslie 2023 University of Maine

What Gives Me Hope, Heather M. Leslie

Maine Policy Review

The commentary focuses on the author's experiences over the last several years in Maine where she has conducted research, mentored students, and collaboratde with diverse community partners on a number of projects focused on shellfish fisheries co-management and other community-led resilience projects in coastal Maine.


Aquaculture Governance: Five Engagement Arenas For Sustainability Transformation, Darien D. Mizuta, Stefan Partelow 2023 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Aquaculture Governance: Five Engagement Arenas For Sustainability Transformation, Darien D. Mizuta, Stefan Partelow

VIMS Articles

A greater focus on governance is needed to facilitate effective and substantive progress toward sustainability transformations in the aquaculture sector. Concerted governance efforts can help move the sector beyond fragmented technical questions associated with intensification and expansion, social and environmental impacts, and toward system-based approaches that address interconnected sustainability issues. Through a review and expert-elicitation process, we identify five engagement arenas to advance a governance agenda for aquaculture sustainability transformation: (1) setting sustainability transformation goals, (2) cross-sectoral linkages, (3) land–water–sea connectivity, (4) knowledge and innovation, and (5) value chains. We then outline the roles different actors and modes of …


Deep Ocean Vehicle Applications And Modifications, Nichole "Nikki" T. Arm 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Deep Ocean Vehicle Applications And Modifications, Nichole "Nikki" T. Arm

Master's Theses

This project had two primary goals: (1) to explore opportunities to further a deep-ocean vehicle’s reach using alternative pressure spheres, and (2) to implement an existing deep-ocean vehicle (lander) in active scientific research.

I gained a greater understanding of the limitations and design choices made for existing pressure spheres using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). My simplified FEA model predicted sphere failure for the existing 30% Fiber Glass 70% Nylon injection molded spheres at an external pressure of 3,954psi or 2,690m ocean-depth (only a 7.38% error compared to the tested minimum failure depth), so I determined it a valid model. I …


Do Mesopelagic Fish Biomass Patterns Change In Response To Major Oceanographic Features In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico?, Ian M. Areford 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Do Mesopelagic Fish Biomass Patterns Change In Response To Major Oceanographic Features In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico?, Ian M. Areford

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

In recent years interest in mesopelagic fishes has grown due to their ecological significance and economic potential. A major outstanding question is how the assemblage is potentially structured by mesoscale (10 - 100s km) oceanographic features such as eddies, fronts, and riverine plumes. Mesoscale features are known to influence micronekton and zooplankton’s spatial distributions but data on individual mesopelagic fish species’ responses are limited. The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is an area of particular interest due to its diverse mesopelagic fish assemblage, its well-defined mesoscale oceanographic features, its history of anthropogenic impacts such as oil spills, and its diverse mesopelagic …


Gut Microbial Communities Of Hybridising Pygmy Angelfishes Reflect Species Boundaries, Megan J. Huggett, Jean-Paul A. Hobbs, Federico Vitelli, Michael Stat, Tane H. Sinclair-Taylor, Michael Bunce, Joseph D. DiBattista 2023 Edith Cowan University

Gut Microbial Communities Of Hybridising Pygmy Angelfishes Reflect Species Boundaries, Megan J. Huggett, Jean-Paul A. Hobbs, Federico Vitelli, Michael Stat, Tane H. Sinclair-Taylor, Michael Bunce, Joseph D. Dibattista

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Hybridisation and introgression of eukaryotic genomes can generate new species or subsume existing ones, with direct and indirect consequences for biodiversity. An understudied component of these evolutionary forces is their potentially rapid effect on host gut microbiomes, and whether these pliable microcosms may serve as early biological indicators of speciation. We address this hypothesis in a field study of angelfishes (genus Centropyge), which have one of the highest prevalence of hybridisation within coral reef fish. In our study region of the Eastern Indian Ocean, the parent fish species and their hybrids cohabit and display no differences in their diet, behaviour, …


Global Dataset Of Soil Organic Carbon In Tidal Marshes, Tania L. Maxwell, André S. Rovai, Maria F. Adame, Janine B. Adams, José Álvarez-Rogel, William E. N. Austin, Kim Beasy, Francesco Boscutti, Michael E. Böttcher, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Richard H. Bulmer, Annette Burden, Shannon A. Burke, Saritta Camacho, Doongar R. Chaudhary, Gail L. Chmura, Margareth Copertino, Grace M. Cott, Christopher Craft, John Day, Carmen B. de los Santos, Lionel Denis, Weixin Ding, Joanna C. Ellison, Carolyn J. E. Lewis, Luise Giani, Maria Gispert, Swanne Gontharet, José A. González-Pérez, M. Nazaret González-Alcaraz, Connor Gorham, Anna E. L. Graversen, Anthony Grey, Roberta Guerra, Qiang He, James R. Holmquist, Alice R. Jones, José A. Juanes, Brian P. Kelleher, Karen E. Kohfeld, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Anna Lafratta, Paul S. Lavery, Edward A. Laws, Carmen Leiva-Dueñas, Pei S. Loh, Catherine E. Lovelock, Carolyn J. Lundquist, Peter I. Macreadie, Inés Mazarrasa, J. Patrick Megonigal, Joao M. Neto, Juliana Nogueira, Michael J. Osland, Jordi F. Pagès, Nipuni Perera, Eva-Maria Pfeiffer, Thomas Pollmann, Jacqueline L. Raw, María Recio, Ana C. Ruiz-Fernández, Sophie K. Russell, John M. Rybczyk, Marek Sammul, Christian Sanders, Rui Santos, Oscar Serrano, Matthias Siewert, Craig Smeaton, Zhaoliang Song, Carmen Trasar-Cepeda, Robert R. Twilley, Marijn Van de Broek, Stefano Vitti, Livia V. Antisari, Baptiste Voltz, Christy N. Wails, Raymond D. Ward, Melissa Ward, Jaxine Wolfe, Renmin Yang, Sebastian Zubrzycki, Emily Landis, Lindsey Smart, Mark Spalding, Thomas A. Worthington 2023 Edith Cowan University

Global Dataset Of Soil Organic Carbon In Tidal Marshes, Tania L. Maxwell, André S. Rovai, Maria F. Adame, Janine B. Adams, José Álvarez-Rogel, William E. N. Austin, Kim Beasy, Francesco Boscutti, Michael E. Böttcher, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Richard H. Bulmer, Annette Burden, Shannon A. Burke, Saritta Camacho, Doongar R. Chaudhary, Gail L. Chmura, Margareth Copertino, Grace M. Cott, Christopher Craft, John Day, Carmen B. De Los Santos, Lionel Denis, Weixin Ding, Joanna C. Ellison, Carolyn J. E. Lewis, Luise Giani, Maria Gispert, Swanne Gontharet, José A. González-Pérez, M. Nazaret González-Alcaraz, Connor Gorham, Anna E. L. Graversen, Anthony Grey, Roberta Guerra, Qiang He, James R. Holmquist, Alice R. Jones, José A. Juanes, Brian P. Kelleher, Karen E. Kohfeld, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Anna Lafratta, Paul S. Lavery, Edward A. Laws, Carmen Leiva-Dueñas, Pei S. Loh, Catherine E. Lovelock, Carolyn J. Lundquist, Peter I. Macreadie, Inés Mazarrasa, J. Patrick Megonigal, Joao M. Neto, Juliana Nogueira, Michael J. Osland, Jordi F. Pagès, Nipuni Perera, Eva-Maria Pfeiffer, Thomas Pollmann, Jacqueline L. Raw, María Recio, Ana C. Ruiz-Fernández, Sophie K. Russell, John M. Rybczyk, Marek Sammul, Christian Sanders, Rui Santos, Oscar Serrano, Matthias Siewert, Craig Smeaton, Zhaoliang Song, Carmen Trasar-Cepeda, Robert R. Twilley, Marijn Van De Broek, Stefano Vitti, Livia V. Antisari, Baptiste Voltz, Christy N. Wails, Raymond D. Ward, Melissa Ward, Jaxine Wolfe, Renmin Yang, Sebastian Zubrzycki, Emily Landis, Lindsey Smart, Mark Spalding, Thomas A. Worthington

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Tidal marshes store large amounts of organic carbon in their soils. Field data quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks provide an important resource for researchers, natural resource managers, and policy-makers working towards the protection, restoration, and valuation of these ecosystems. We collated a global dataset of tidal marsh soil organic carbon (MarSOC) from 99 studies that includes location, soil depth, site name, dry bulk density, SOC, and/or soil organic matter (SOM). The MarSOC dataset includes 17,454 data points from 2,329 unique locations, and 29 countries. We generated a general transfer function for the conversion of SOM to SOC. Using this …


The Sociocultural Significance Of Maine's Oyster Based On Media Coverage Analysis, Syeira Clark 2023 University of Maine - Main

The Sociocultural Significance Of Maine's Oyster Based On Media Coverage Analysis, Syeira Clark

Honors College

Throughout the last decade, the oyster aquaculture industry in Maine has boomed, with 6 million pounds of oysters being harvested in 2021, about the amount that was harvested in 2016 (Cough, 2022). According to the founders of the Maine Oyster Trail, there are over 150 oyster farms currently operating on Maine’s coast, which is about twice as many as there were in 2016 (Maine Sea Grant). With this boom in the industry has come a wave of opportunity, as well as news coverage about the shellfish. This study examines the socio-cultural significance to the state of Maine. While the oyster …


Coral Restoration: Comparisons In Space, Time, Impacts, And Costs, Allison Fargo 2023 University of Maine - Main

Coral Restoration: Comparisons In Space, Time, Impacts, And Costs, Allison Fargo

Honors College

Seventy-five percent of coral reefs globally face crisis due to anthropogenic disturbances, prompting heightened global coral restoration initiatives to preserve these vital ecosystems. Various regions employ diverse active coral restoration methodologies, including coral gardening, transplantation, micro-fragmentation, artificial reefs, and sexual propagation. Of these methods, coral gardening stands out as one of the most common and highly successful methods, alongside widespread transplantation practices. Restoration efforts predominantly focus on acroporids due to their relatively rapid growth and asexual fragmentation; however, a diverse range of coral species, including large, slow-growing varieties, is also employed in these endeavors. Costs vary significantly, ranging from $10,000 …


Interactions Between Sediment Mechanical Structure And Infaunal Community Structure Following Physical Disturbance, William Cyrus Roger Clemo 2023 University of South Alabama

Interactions Between Sediment Mechanical Structure And Infaunal Community Structure Following Physical Disturbance, William Cyrus Roger Clemo

<strong> Theses and Dissertations </strong>

Shallow, river-influenced coastal sediments are important for global carbon storage and nutrient cycling and provide a habitat for diverse communities of invertebrates (infauna). Elevated bed shear stress from extreme storms can resuspend, transport, and deposit sediments, disrupting the cohesive structure of muds, and sorting and depositing sand eroded from beaches. These physical disruptions can also resuspend or smother infauna, decreasing abundances and changing community structure. Infaunal activities such as burrowing, tube construction, and feeding can impact sediment structure and stability. However, little is known about how physical disturbance impacts short and long-term sediment habitat suitability and whether disturbance-tolerant infauna influence …


Yellowtail Snapper Ocyurus Chrysurus, Kevin Rafferty, Manuel Ploner, David W. Kerstetter 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Yellowtail Snapper Ocyurus Chrysurus, Kevin Rafferty, Manuel Ploner, David W. Kerstetter

All Scans: Kerstetter Fisheries and Avian Ecology 3D Scan Series

YELLOWTAIL SNAPPER OCYURUS CHRYSURUS 7.5CM Total length


Lionfish (Pterois Volitans) Neurocranium, Kate Heffner, Hosanna Gattle, David Kerstetter 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Lionfish (Pterois Volitans) Neurocranium, Kate Heffner, Hosanna Gattle, David Kerstetter

All Scans: Kerstetter Fisheries and Avian Ecology 3D Scan Series

Neurocranium from 30 cm total length (TL) Lionfish (Pterois volitans), collected from Second Reef on 15/10/2023 by Kate Heffner.


Quantifying The Role Of Water Quality On Nitrogen Cycling In A Trophic Estuary, Kayla Gonzalez-Boy 2023 Kennesaw State University

Quantifying The Role Of Water Quality On Nitrogen Cycling In A Trophic Estuary, Kayla Gonzalez-Boy

Symposium of Student Scholars

Jobos Bay Estuary is an intertidal, tropical estuary located in southern Puerto Rico. The estuary covers about 12 km2 and has a variety of habitats, such as seagrass beds, mangroves, mud flats, and coral reefs, which play important roles in sediment trapping and water quality maintenance. Seagrasses also serve as nursery and feeding grounds and provide shelter for macrofauna. Currently, the role of seagrasses and water quality on nitrogen (N) cycling in trophic estuaries is not well constrained. Understanding variations in sediment-based effects on N cycling rates and transformations, and how they are associated with water quality, is an …


Culled Lionfish Sexual Maturity Over A Four-Year Timespan​, Christina Bland, Jurgen Hauer, Bilal Saleem, Noelle James 2023 Kennesaw State University

Culled Lionfish Sexual Maturity Over A Four-Year Timespan​, Christina Bland, Jurgen Hauer, Bilal Saleem, Noelle James

Symposium of Student Scholars

Lionfish are invasive in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. Like many other invasive species, they do not have any natural predators in these areas, so their population can grow unchecked. This can decrease the population of native fish species due to lionfish eating to excess. Because of their impact on native species, resource managers have incentivized lionfish hunting. Hunters were paid $6 USD for every pound of lionfish they brought in, so they possibly favored larger lionfish to increase their reward which would lead to an adaptive advantage for fish of smaller sizes. We hypothesized that the lionfish bounty program …


Coastal Water Temperature Guide, Andrew Allegra 2023 NOAA

Coastal Water Temperature Guide, Andrew Allegra

Benefits of Ocean Observing Catalog (BOOC)

● Near real-time temperatures are from NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) tidal stations and Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS®).

● Recent and near real-time water temperatures are also from NOAA's National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) moored buoys.

● Daily Averaged Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is from NOAA NCEI’s 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data set. It is a blended SST file of buoy, ship, Argo, and satellite observations.


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