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Erratum: Charles G. Messing (2020) A Revision Of The Unusual Feather Star Genus Atopocrinus With A Description Of A New Species (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Zootaxa, 4731: 471–491., Charles G. Messing 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Erratum: Charles G. Messing (2020) A Revision Of The Unusual Feather Star Genus Atopocrinus With A Description Of A New Species (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Zootaxa, 4731: 471–491., Charles G. Messing

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Erratum.


The Pantropical Response Of Soil Moisture To El Niño, Kurt C. Solander, Brent D. Newman, Alessandro Carloca de Araujo, Holly R. Barnard, Z. Carter Berry, Damien Bonal, Mario Bretfeld, Benoit Burban, Luiz Antonio Candido, Rolando Celleri, Jeffery Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

The Pantropical Response Of Soil Moisture To El Niño, Kurt C. Solander, Brent D. Newman, Alessandro Carloca De Araujo, Holly R. Barnard, Z. Carter Berry, Damien Bonal, Mario Bretfeld, Benoit Burban, Luiz Antonio Candido, Rolando Celleri, Jeffery Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The 2015–2016 El Niño event ranks as one of the most severe on record in terms of the magnitude and extent of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies generated in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Corresponding global impacts on the climate were expected to rival, or even surpass, those of the 1997–1998 severe El Niño event, which had SST anomalies that were similar in size. However, the 2015–2016 event failed to meet expectations for hydrologic change in many areas, including those expected to receive well above normal precipitation. To better understand how climate anomalies during an El Niño event ...


Examining The Northern Shrimp Fishery In A Changing Gulf Of Maine, Ashley N. Charleson 2020 University of Maine

Examining The Northern Shrimp Fishery In A Changing Gulf Of Maine, Ashley N. Charleson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) once supported a key commercial fishery in the State of Maine. Since its closure in 2013, the stock has remained in a particularly vulnerable state following recruitment failure, overfishing, and rising water temperatures. Furthermore, without this source of supplemental income, local fishermen have also experienced financial stress following unstable fishing conditions in other fisheries. The collective goal of this research project was to assess factors impacting the feasibility of reopening and maintaining this vulnerable winter fishery. These goals are addressed over 4 chapters. Chapter two offers insight regarding what is most often omitted from the regulatory ...


Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt 2020 University of Mississippi

Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt

Honors Theses

Cannabis is the most commonly used, cultivated, and trafficked illicit drug worldwide. Increased availability and acceptance of cannabis and cannabinoid-containing products provide the necessity for understanding how these substances influence aging. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.08, 0.4, 2 µM) during embryonic-larval development, the effects on aging were measured 30 months later and in the offspring of the exposed fish (F1 generation. We observed results indicating a biphasic and hormetic effect. Treatment with the lowest concentration of THC significantly increased egg production, while higher concentrations resulted in impaired ...


Sourcing And Evaluating The Use Of Detritus As A Supplementary Diet For Bivalve Aquaculture Using Stable Isotopes And Fatty Acid Biomarkers, Adrianus C. Both 2020 University of Maine

Sourcing And Evaluating The Use Of Detritus As A Supplementary Diet For Bivalve Aquaculture Using Stable Isotopes And Fatty Acid Biomarkers, Adrianus C. Both

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Detritus is a ubiquitous component of ecosystems and an important fuel for secondary production. Due to the extractive nature of bivalve aquaculture, detritus is often incorporated into carrying capacity and growth models for cultured bivalves. However, despite the complexity and difficulty in obtaining direct measurements, detritus is often treated as a homogeneous food source in models. Further understanding the role detritus plays in the diet of cultured bivalves could lead to more comprehensive and accurate models as well as more informed site selection for growers. The purpose of this study was to assess the abundance, bioavailability, and contribution of detritus ...


Fine-Scale Coral Connectivity Pathways In The Florida Reef Tract: Implications For Conservation And Restoration, Charles Frys, Antoine Saint-Amand, Matthieu Le Henaff, Joana Figueiredo, Alyson Kuba, Brian K. Walker, Jonathan Lambrechts, Valentin Vallaeys, David Vincent, Emmanuel Hanert 2020 Universite Catholique de Louvain - Belgium

Fine-Scale Coral Connectivity Pathways In The Florida Reef Tract: Implications For Conservation And Restoration, Charles Frys, Antoine Saint-Amand, Matthieu Le Henaff, Joana Figueiredo, Alyson Kuba, Brian K. Walker, Jonathan Lambrechts, Valentin Vallaeys, David Vincent, Emmanuel Hanert

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Connectivity between coral reefs is critical to ensure their resilience and persistence against disturbances. It is driven by ocean currents, which often have very complex patterns within reef systems. Only biophysical models that simulate both the fine-scale details of ocean currents and the life-history traits of larvae transported by these currents can help to estimate connectivity in large reef systems. Here we use the unstructured-mesh coastal ocean model SLIM that locally achieves a spatial resolution of ~100 m, 10 times finer than existing models, over the entire Florida Reef Tract (FRT). It allows us to simulate larval dispersal between the ...


Survivorship And Growth In Staghorn Coral (Acropora Cervicornis) Outplanting Projects In The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Matt Ware, Eliza N. Garfield, Ken Nedimyer, Jessica Levy, Les Kaufman, William F. Precht, R. Scott Winters, Steven Miller 2020 Florida State University

Survivorship And Growth In Staghorn Coral (Acropora Cervicornis) Outplanting Projects In The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Matt Ware, Eliza N. Garfield, Ken Nedimyer, Jessica Levy, Les Kaufman, William F. Precht, R. Scott Winters, Steven Miller

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Significant population declines in Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata began in the 1970s and now exceed over 90%. The losses were caused by a combination of coral disease and bleaching, with possible contributions from other stressors, including pollution and predation. Reproduction in the wild by fragment regeneration and sexual recruitment is inadequate to offset population declines. Starting in 2007, the Coral Restoration Foundation™ evaluated the feasibility of outplanting A. cervicornis colonies to reefs in the Florida Keys to restore populations at sites where the species was previously abundant. Reported here are the results of 20 coral outplanting projects with each ...


The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman 2020 Bowling Green State University

The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman

Honors Projects

This paper focuses on the ability of the mimic octopus Thaumoctopus mimicus to be operantly conditioned to an auditory stimulus. The octopus is known to be the most advanced of the invertebrates and has learning abilities that are comparable to vertebrates in spite of their differences in brain structure. These animals have been shown to react to visual and tactile stimuli and can be operantly conditioned to perform behaviors to obtain a food reward. The goal of this experiment is to determine whether the octopus can be operantly conditioned to swim into a box on the side of its tank ...


Critical Habitats And Biodiversity: Inventory, Thresholds And Governance, Alex Rogers, Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, Ward Appeltans, Jorge Assis, Lisa T. Ballance, Philippe Cury, Carlos M. Duarte, Fabio Favoretto, Joy Kumagai, Catherine Lovelock, Patricia Miloslavich, Aidi Niamir, David Obura, Bethan C. O'Leary, Gabriel Reygondeau, Callum Roberts, Yvonne Sadovy, Tracey Sutton, Derek P. Tittensor, Enriqueta Velarde 2020 REV Ocean; University of Oxford

Critical Habitats And Biodiversity: Inventory, Thresholds And Governance, Alex Rogers, Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, Ward Appeltans, Jorge Assis, Lisa T. Ballance, Philippe Cury, Carlos M. Duarte, Fabio Favoretto, Joy Kumagai, Catherine Lovelock, Patricia Miloslavich, Aidi Niamir, David Obura, Bethan C. O'Leary, Gabriel Reygondeau, Callum Roberts, Yvonne Sadovy, Tracey Sutton, Derek P. Tittensor, Enriqueta Velarde

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Reports

Key Messages:

  • Evidence suggests that ocean biodiversity at all levels is being lost as a result of the direct and indirect impacts of human pressures. The main drivers of biodiversity loss are overexploitation and human pressures in coastal environments (development, habitat loss, pollution, disturbance). Increasingly, climate change and ocean acidification are and will be drivers of biodiversity loss especially in sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  • Despite advances in understanding the distribution of species and habitats in the ocean, many aspects of marine biodiversity remain poorly understood. As a result, changes in marine biodiversity are difficult to ascertain and there is a critical ...


Symbiosis And Bioinvasive Dynamics Of Durusdinium Trenchii And Its Acroporid Coral Hosts, David Craig Lawson 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Symbiosis And Bioinvasive Dynamics Of Durusdinium Trenchii And Its Acroporid Coral Hosts, David Craig Lawson

HCNSO Student Capstones

Biological invasions are a growing threat to coral reef ecosystems, as increasing anthropogenic transport and changing environmental patterns allow invasive species to establish and spread. Durusdinium trenchii is a dinoflagellate that has invaded the Greater Caribbean reef system and established symbioses with coral hosts. Establishment and persistence of invasive endosymbionts like D. trenchii could indicate a shift in the clade composition of coral holobionts worldwide. Statistical analyses were performed on the GeoSymbio database (Franklin et al. 2012) to determine whether differences in clade composition have occurred over time. Factors that influence biological invasions in marine ecosystems were assessed and analogous ...


The Microscopic Threat With A Macroscopic Impact: Microplastics Along The Southeast Florida Reef Tract, Emma Wightman 2020 Nova Southeastern University

The Microscopic Threat With A Macroscopic Impact: Microplastics Along The Southeast Florida Reef Tract, Emma Wightman

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Microplastics have been found in large quantities in marine water samples and biota around the world. These microplastics, when present in the marine environment, decrease water quality and negatively impact marine life. This research quantified and classified marine plastic pollution along the Southeast Florida Reef Tract (SEFRT), in order to understand how this plastic is entering the ocean and the scope of the microplastic contamination in the northern SEFRT. Surface and bottom water samples were collected at 7 sites along the SEFRT for 6 months, filtered, and microscopically analyzed for microplastic content and composition using Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR). Classification ...


Evaluating Seafood Distribution Channels In The Atlantic Sea Scallop And Northeast Multispecies Groundfish Fisheries, Amanda Fall 2020 University of Maine

Evaluating Seafood Distribution Channels In The Atlantic Sea Scallop And Northeast Multispecies Groundfish Fisheries, Amanda Fall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Federal fisheries policy in the United States aims to balance resource conservation with maximum sustainable use. Catch shares are a quota-based management tool that are being increasingly deployed to achieve this ambitious goal. One perceived benefit of catch shares is that they give fishermen control of their catch so they will have the latitude to pursue the most profitable marketing arrangements. Using a mixed-methods approach, this research seeks to (1) describe and document the different marketing strategies that commercial fishermen in the Northeast Multispecies Groundfish and Atlantic Sea Scallop fisheries are using to sell their catch; and (2) estimate the ...


Confirmed Presence Of Parahepatospora Carcini In Carcinus Maenas Population Of Maine, Brittany Torchia 2020 University of Maine

Confirmed Presence Of Parahepatospora Carcini In Carcinus Maenas Population Of Maine, Brittany Torchia

Honors College

Carcinus maenas (European green crab) is an invasive species that made its way to North American waters in the 1800s on European trading ships. As an invasive species they cause problems by competing with native species for the resources within their shared ecosystem. They can also introduce pathogens that can infect and wreak havoc on native populations. In Nova Scotia, Bojko et al. (2017) found the pathogen Parahepatospora carcini, a clade IV microsporidian parasite found in the hepatopancreas of aquatic arthropods, in C. maenas. Because this case was located within close range of Maine waters, the objective of this study ...


A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson 2020 University of Maine

A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson

Honors College

Marine fungi play a crucial role in recycling nutrients and channeling energy to higher trophic levels in the world oceans. Despite their critical role, their distributions and community composition, particularly in the Arctic, are largely unknown. This study reveals depth-related trends of abundance, diversity, and community composition of Arctic marine fungi through analysis of data obtained in the Tara Oceans expedition. With samples from surface (0-50 m), deep chlorophyll max (50-200 m), and mesopelagic (200-1000 m) depths, relative abundance, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, and diversity were found to increase as a function of depth. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found ...


Building Value Through Innovative Eucheuma Spp. Product Development: A Case Study With The Belize Women's Seaweed Farming Association, Bailey Moritz 2020 University of New England

Building Value Through Innovative Eucheuma Spp. Product Development: A Case Study With The Belize Women's Seaweed Farming Association, Bailey Moritz

All Theses And Dissertations

Seaweed aquaculture has been a successful supplemental livelihood in coastal communities worldwide, creating new income opportunities for women in particular. In most cases, raw or dried carrageenan-producing seaweed is sold into supply chains without local value addition taking place. Upgrading value chains can come in the form of new products, differentiation from existing products through marketing, or breaking into new markets. The research investigates the local market potential for value-added Belizean Eucheuma seaweed products and offers insights into a pathway forward for the Belize Women’s Seaweed Farming Association (BWSFA) to take advantage of these opportunities at an early stage ...


Tipping Points Of Mississippi Delta Marshes Due To Accelerated Sea-Level Rise, Torbjörn E. Törnqvist, Krista L. Jankowski, Yong-Xiang Li, Juan L. Gonzalez 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Tipping Points Of Mississippi Delta Marshes Due To Accelerated Sea-Level Rise, Torbjörn E. Törnqvist, Krista L. Jankowski, Yong-Xiang Li, Juan L. Gonzalez

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Coastal marshes are threatened by relative sea-level (RSL) rise, yet recent studies predict marsh survival even under the high rates of RSL rise expected later in this century. However, because these studies are mostly based on short-term records, uncertainty persists about the longer-term vulnerability of coastal marshes. We present an 8500-year-long marsh record from the Mississippi Delta, showing that at rates of RSL rise exceeding 6 to 9 mm year−1, marsh conversion into open water occurs in about 50 years. At rates of RSL rise exceeding ~3 mm year−1, marsh drowning occurs within a few centuries. Because present-day ...


Impacts Of Spatial And Temporal Variation On The Benthic Nitrogen Cycle In The York River Estuary, Evan Lawrence 2020 William & Mary

Impacts Of Spatial And Temporal Variation On The Benthic Nitrogen Cycle In The York River Estuary, Evan Lawrence

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Changing the nitrogen and organic matter (OM) load of a marine ecosystem can dramatically alter its function. Tight benthic-pelagic coupling is a key characteristic of shallow microtidal systems like the York River Estuary (YRE), VA, where ammonification due to remineralization of OM or ammonium uptake during photosynthesis by microphytobenthos (MPB) on the benthic surface can be significant sources, or sinks, for inorganic and organic nitrogen. To examine how benthic nitrogen fluxes vary spatially and temporally in the YRE, as well as to determine the relative importance of the various nitrogen transformations taking place in the estuary, a series of field ...


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2019 - 2020, Jack R. Buchanan, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2019 - 2020, Jack R. Buchanan, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The 2019 Striped Bass juvenile abundance index was 9.54 and was not significantly different than the reference mean of 7.77 from 1980-2009. Abundance indices in the James, York, and Rappahannock rivers in 2019 were average compared with their individual reference means (1980-2009). Relatively low catches of young‐of‐the‐year Striped Bass from sites upriver and downriver of core nursery areas suggest Striped Bass largely remained within core nursery areas in 2019. Juvenile White Perch abundance indices in 2019 were above historic averages in the James, York and Rappahannock river systems.

Juvenile abundance indices for Atlantic Croaker, Alewife ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2019, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2019, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2019, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 24-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Providential Tides: The Double Low Water Of Narragansett Bay, D. G. Bowers, J. M. Brubaker 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Providential Tides: The Double Low Water Of Narragansett Bay, D. G. Bowers, J. M. Brubaker

VIMS Articles

We investigate a mechanism for producing double-lows and double-highs in the semi-diurnal tide by selective amplification of higher harmonics in a resonant gulf. A double low water is observed at Providence, RI, near the head of Narragansett Bay on days when there is a flattening of the low water tidal curve at Newport, at the mouth of the bay. The flattening is caused by an unusually large quarter-diurnal component to the tide at Newport. The quarter diurnal component has the right phase (a maximum close to the time of the minimum in the semi-diurnal tide) to produce a prolonged flattening ...


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