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Predator Water Balance Alters Intraguild Predation In A Streamsidefood Web, Israel L. Leinbach, Kevin E. McCluney, John L. Sabo 2019 Bowling Green State University

Predator Water Balance Alters Intraguild Predation In A Streamsidefood Web, Israel L. Leinbach, Kevin E. Mccluney, John L. Sabo

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Previous work suggests that animal water balance can influence trophic interactions, with predators increasing their consumption of water-laden prey to meet water demands.But it is unclear how the need for water interacts with the need for energy to drive trophic interactions under shifting conditions. Using manipulative field experiments, we show that water balance influences the effects of top predators on prey with contrasting ratios of water and energy, altering the frequency of intraguild predation. Water-stressed top predators (large spiders) negatively affect water-laden basal prey (crickets), especially male prey with higher water content, whereas alleviation of water limitation causes top ...


Depth-Dependent Environmental Drivers Of Microbial Plankton Community Structure In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Cole Easson, Jose Lopez 2019 Middle Tennessee State University

Depth-Dependent Environmental Drivers Of Microbial Plankton Community Structure In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Cole Easson, Jose Lopez

Jose V. Lopez

The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a dynamic marine ecosystem influenced by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and inputs, such as the intrusion of warm oligotrophic water via the Loop Current, freshwater and nutrient input by the Mississippi River, and hydrocarbon inputs via natural seeps and industrial spills. Microbial plankton communities are important to pelagic food webs including in the GoM but understanding the drivers of the natural dynamics of these passively distributed microorganisms can be challenging in such a large and heterogeneous system. As part of the DEEPEND consortium, we applied high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate the ...


Recurring Episodes Of Thermal Stress Shift The Balance From A Dominant Host-Specialist To A Background Host-Generalist Zooxanthella In The Threatened Pillar Coral, Dendrogyra Cylindrus, Cynthia Lewis, Karen L. Neely, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty 2019 Florida Keys Marine Laboratory; Florida International University

Recurring Episodes Of Thermal Stress Shift The Balance From A Dominant Host-Specialist To A Background Host-Generalist Zooxanthella In The Threatened Pillar Coral, Dendrogyra Cylindrus, Cynthia Lewis, Karen L. Neely, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Most scleractinian corals form obligate symbioses with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae), which provide differential tolerances to their host. Previously, research has focused on the influence of symbiont composition and the dynamic processes of symbiont repopulation during single episodes of hyperthermal events, followed by years of less-stressful conditions. In contrast, this study characterized for the first time, the role of Symbiodiniaceae species changes in response to annually recurring hyperthermal events, a scenario soon expected to become the norm. Consecutive hyperthermal events during summer 2014 and 2015 along the Florida Reef Tract offered a unique opportunity to study bleaching susceptibility and recovery ...


Depth-Dependent Environmental Drivers Of Microbial Plankton Community Structure In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Cole Easson, Jose Lopez 2019 Middle Tennessee State University

Depth-Dependent Environmental Drivers Of Microbial Plankton Community Structure In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Cole Easson, Jose Lopez

Biology Faculty Articles

The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a dynamic marine ecosystem influenced by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and inputs, such as the intrusion of warm oligotrophic water via the Loop Current, freshwater and nutrient input by the Mississippi River, and hydrocarbon inputs via natural seeps and industrial spills. Microbial plankton communities are important to pelagic food webs including in the GoM but understanding the drivers of the natural dynamics of these passively distributed microorganisms can be challenging in such a large and heterogeneous system. As part of the DEEPEND consortium, we applied high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate the ...


Pyganodon Grandis Growth Along A Trophic State Gradient In Eastern South Dakota Lakes, Katherine M. Wollman, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr. 2019 South Dakota State University

Pyganodon Grandis Growth Along A Trophic State Gradient In Eastern South Dakota Lakes, Katherine M. Wollman, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr.

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade 2019 University of the Pacific

Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Increasing anthropogenic disturbance in marine ecosystems such as fishing, oil-drilling, and noise pollution can have detrimental effects on the reproduction and survival of apex predators such as marine mammals. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in increased circulating glucocorticoid (GCs) hormones, which alter expression of target genes encoding metabolic enzymes and other mediators of stress. Prolonged HPA axis stimulation may increase catabolism of nutrient stores and suppress immune and reproductive functions, impacting the fitness of marine mammals. GCs measurements are used to identify wild animals experiencing stress. However, these measurements may not be sensitive enough to distinguish between an ...


Blubber Transcriptome And Proteome Responses To Repeated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Administration In A Marine Mammal, Jared Deyarmin 2019 University of the Pacific

Blubber Transcriptome And Proteome Responses To Repeated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Administration In A Marine Mammal, Jared Deyarmin

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Chronic physiological stress impacts animal fitness by catabolizing metabolic stores and suppressing reproduction and immunity. This can be especially deleterious for capital breeding carnivores, such as marine mammals, which rely on lipid stores accrued during intensive foraging to sustain prolonged periods of fasting associated with reproduction. Therefore, chronic stress may cause a decrease in fitness in these animals, leading to population declines and potentially detrimental shifts in food web dynamics as a result. However, the impacts and indicators of chronic stress in animals are currently poorly understood. To identify downstream mediators of repeated stress responses in marine mammals, adrenocorticotropic hormone ...


The Potential Use Of Seagrass Herbivory Patterns As An Indicator Of Herbivore Community Change After Tropical Marine Protected Area Establishment, John M. Carroll, Amber D. Stubler, Christopher M. Finelli, Bradley J. Peterson 2019 Georgia Southern University

The Potential Use Of Seagrass Herbivory Patterns As An Indicator Of Herbivore Community Change After Tropical Marine Protected Area Establishment, John M. Carroll, Amber D. Stubler, Christopher M. Finelli, Bradley J. Peterson

Gulf and Caribbean Research

Throughout the Caribbean, fishing pressure has decreased the abundance of many species, including both large predators and larger-bodied herbivores. In an effort to reverse these trends and reduce harvest pressure on vulnerable fish populations, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been established throughout the Caribbean. Yet, the effort to monitor fish communities, is variable, and there are MPAs where no monitoring program exists. It is possible that other metrics may be used to determine whether the impact of MPA establishment. By comparing two seagrass herbivory experiments, one pre- and one post-MPA establishment, we provide evidence that the MPA established in Discovery ...


Ecological Consequences Of Sea Star Wasting Disease: Non-Consumptive Effects And Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions From Pisaster Ochraceus, Timothy Ian McClure 2019 Humboldt State University

Ecological Consequences Of Sea Star Wasting Disease: Non-Consumptive Effects And Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions From Pisaster Ochraceus, Timothy Ian Mcclure

Theses and projects

Consumptive effects (CEs) of predators are an important factor in structuring biological communities, but further work is needed to understand how the interaction between spatial and temporal differences in predator density affects non-consumptive effects (NCEs) on prey. NCEs can cause indirect effects on food resources, known as trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs), and thus can also affect community structure. However, few studies have considered the relationships between spatial and temporal predator density variation and the strength of NCEs and TMIIs in the natural environment. The ochre star Pisaster ochraceus is common predator of the herbivorous black turban snail Tegula funebralis, imposing ...


Spatial Variability In Recruitment Of Chilipepper Rockfish (Sebastes Goodei) In The California Current System, Laura K. Solinger 2019 Humboldt State University

Spatial Variability In Recruitment Of Chilipepper Rockfish (Sebastes Goodei) In The California Current System, Laura K. Solinger

Theses and projects

Properly describing variability in population dynamics (e.g., growth, fecundity, recruitment) is expected to improve management of important fisheries stocks (Maunder & Piner, 2014). As recruitment to most fish stocks is determined during early life history stages (Houde, 1997; Iles & Beverton, 2000), and early life history stages are influenced by oceanographic conditions (Bjorkstedt et al. 2002; Laidig, 2010), understanding how environmental stochasticity influences recruitment deviations has potential to improve estimates of stock productivity and how productivity might change over time to support more effective management. Chilipepper Rockfish (Sebastes goodei) are an important commercial species that is managed as a single population throughout the continental US (Field et al. 2015), yet spatiotemporal heterogeneity of oceanographic conditions is likely to cause variability in recruitment deviations throughout this range. Field and Ralston (2005) used region-based catch-at-age data ...


Distribution Of Sea Star Wasting Disease Symptoms In Pisaster Ochraceus In The Rocky Intertidal Zone, Jana N. Litt 2019 Humboldt State University

Distribution Of Sea Star Wasting Disease Symptoms In Pisaster Ochraceus In The Rocky Intertidal Zone, Jana N. Litt

Theses and projects

Beginning in 2013, many species of sea stars (phylum Echinodermata) along the Pacific coast experienced severe mortality due to sea star wasting disease (SSWD). The ochre sea star, Pisaster ochraceus, experienced one of the highest mortality rates during this outbreak. To test the hypothesis that the intertidal distribution of ochre sea stars influences the incidence and progression of SSWD symptoms, I documented the occurrence of symptoms and survivorship in adult and juvenile stars in the upper and lower portions of the mid-intertidal zone. I also chronicled the progression of SSWD symptoms among individually tagged adult stars to assess changes in ...


Environmental And Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Coral Health, Kristin Jones 2019 Eastern Washington University

Environmental And Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Coral Health, Kristin Jones

2019 Symposium

Plastic pollution is a large and growing problem in our ever producing world. Not only does it litter our cities, but it is cluttering up the natural world as well, the largest being our oceans. Plastic is dumped into the seas where it floats and slowly breaks down into microplastics that are then ingested by marine animals. I will conduct an experiment to test the effects of micro plastics on coral health by subjecting palythoa corals to different plastic levels in a controlled environment. I hypothesize that corals will ingest micro plastics and will suffer health consequences, leading to a ...


Coral Reef Restoration Using Mass Coral Larval Enhancement, Dexter W. dela Cruz 2019 Southern Cross University

Coral Reef Restoration Using Mass Coral Larval Enhancement, Dexter W. Dela Cruz

Theses

Coral reef communities are rapidly declining worldwide due to increasing direct anthropogenic disturbances, including global climate change. Active management approaches are needed for effectively slowing and reversing coral loss on degraded reef systems to promote recovery. Research presented in this thesis includes fertilization experiments to optimize embryo and larval culture and testing three tiles types to determine suitable larval recruitment surfaces. Two successful coral restoration experiments, using many thousands of ex situ cultured larvae of two Acropora species, resulted in increased coral settlement and recruitment and re-establishing breeding corals on degraded reef sites in the northern Philippines.

Spawned eggs and ...


Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2018 Annual Report, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2019 University of New Hampshire

Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2018 Annual Report, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership

PREP Reports & Publications

No abstract provided.


Biogeochemical Characterization Of Metal Behavior From Novel Mussel Shell Bioreactor Sludge Residues, Sara C. Butler, James Pope, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D. Heath, Christopher G. Weisener 2019 University of Windsor

Biogeochemical Characterization Of Metal Behavior From Novel Mussel Shell Bioreactor Sludge Residues, Sara C. Butler, James Pope, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D. Heath, Christopher G. Weisener

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research Publications

Acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation commonly produces byproducts which must be stored or utilized to reduce the risk of further contamination. A mussel shell bioreactor has been implemented at a coal mine in New Zealand, which is an effective remediation option, although an accumulated sludge layer decreased efficiency which was then removed and requires storage. To understand associated risks related to storage or use of the AMD sludge material, a laboratory mesocosm study investigated the physio-chemical and biological influence in two conditions: anoxic storage (burial deep within a waste rock dump) or exposure to oxic environments (use of sludge on ...


Method For Serial Passage Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (Ihnv) In Rainbow Trout, Juliette Doumayrou, M. Gray Ryan, Andrew R. Wargo 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Method For Serial Passage Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (Ihnv) In Rainbow Trout, Juliette Doumayrou, M. Gray Ryan, Andrew R. Wargo

VIMS Articles

Transmission is a fundamental component of pathogen fitness. A better understanding of pathogen transmission can greatly improve disease management. In particular, controlled studies of multiple rounds of natural transmission (i.e. serial passage) can provide powerful epidemiological and evolutionary inferences. However, such studies are possible in only a few systems because of the challenges in successfully initiating and maintaining transmission in the laboratory. Here we developed an efficient and reproducible cohabitation method for conducting controlled experiments investigating the effects of serial passage on infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout. This method was used to investigate the transmission efficiency ...


Comparing Feeding Accuracy Between High And Low Predation Trinidad Guppies, Lydia J. Bonnell 2019 Georgia Southern University

Comparing Feeding Accuracy Between High And Low Predation Trinidad Guppies, Lydia J. Bonnell

University Honors Program Theses

Efficient feeding accuracy could increase an organism’s survival. Although local adaptation in Trinidad guppies is common, the effects on accuracy are unknown. Guppies were wild caught in 2015 and 2017, filmed while capturing prey. Accuracy wasn’t different within samples but differed across samples, possibly due to the prey types used.


Size And Age Structure Of Introduced Populations Of Blue Catfish (Ictalurus Furcatus) In Two Kansas Reservoirs And Implications For Management, Ernesto Flores 2019 Fort Hays State University

Size And Age Structure Of Introduced Populations Of Blue Catfish (Ictalurus Furcatus) In Two Kansas Reservoirs And Implications For Management, Ernesto Flores

Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

The introduction of a new fish species into an aquatic ecosystem can bring about many challenges for fisheries managers. Questions might arise for the manager regarding the initial sportfish survival rate, grow rate, reproduction and recruitment, and what kind of impact will the introduction have on the already established populations found in the water body. A new population of fish is often protected using length limit regulations, allowing biologists to gain insight on whether the population will be self-sustaining or in need of periodic stockings. Age and growth information is used to understand population dynamics, estimate annual mortality and ...


Physical And Biological Drivers Of Juvenile Fish Distributions In Unstructured Shallow Tropical Nearshore Habitats, Christopher Haak 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Physical And Biological Drivers Of Juvenile Fish Distributions In Unstructured Shallow Tropical Nearshore Habitats, Christopher Haak

Doctoral Dissertations

The structural complexity of aquatic habitats can influence the ecological processes that occur within them, as fine-scale topographic features act as refugia for small fishes, buffering the effects of environmental stressors. Accordingly, the habitat requirements of juvenile demersal fishes in shallow littoral zones are often defined by their associations with distinct benthic microhabitats, such as densely vegetated substrates. However, an array of ecologically-important juvenile fishes also associate with topographically-homogeneous, sparsely-vegetated substrata. Absent the benefits offered by structural refugia, such fishes may be more affected by environmental variability and may have evolved distinct strategies for coping with stressors. I examined this ...


Editorial: Advances In The Biology And Conservation Of Marine Turtles, Sara M. Maxwell, Annette C. Broderick, Peter H. Dutton, Sabrina Fossette-Halot, Mariana M.P.B. Fuentes, Richard D. Reina 2019 Old Dominion University

Editorial: Advances In The Biology And Conservation Of Marine Turtles, Sara M. Maxwell, Annette C. Broderick, Peter H. Dutton, Sabrina Fossette-Halot, Mariana M.P.B. Fuentes, Richard D. Reina

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

(First Paragraph) Marine turtles have been the subject of research over many decades, inspired by their unique life history and necessitated by their declining populations from a suite of human impacts including direct harvest, bycatch in marine fisheries, pollution, and climate change. Despite this, much about marine turtle biology has remained a mystery (Godley et al., 2008; Rees et al., 2016; Wildermann et al., 2018), but the rate of scientific discovery is increasing rapidly. As research techniques and conservation practices expand, the marine turtle research community has kept abreast of these developments and their application to marine turtles. In this ...


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