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Articles 1 - 30 of 7654

Full-Text Articles in Marine Biology

Particle Association Of Enterococcus And Total Bacteria In The Lower Hudson River Estuary, Usa, Elizabeth A. Suter, Andrew R. Juhl, Gegory D. O'Mullan Sep 2019

Particle Association Of Enterococcus And Total Bacteria In The Lower Hudson River Estuary, Usa, Elizabeth A. Suter, Andrew R. Juhl, Gegory D. O'Mullan

Elizabeth Suter

Bacterial particle association has important consequences for water-quality monitoring and modeling. Parti-cle association can change vertical and horizontal transport of bacterial cells, as well as patterns of persis-tence and production. In this study, the abundance and particle association of total bacteria and the fe-cal-indicator, Enterococcus, were quantified between June and October 2008 in the lower Hudson River Es-tuary (HRE). Twelve sites were sampled, including mid-channel, near shore, and tributary habitats, plus a sewage outfall. Total bacterial cell counts averaged 9.2 × 109 ± 6.4 × 109 cell·l–1 (1 standard deviation), com-parable to previous sampling in the HRE. Unlike earlier ...


Single-Cell Growth Rates In Photoautotrophic Populations Measured By Stable Isotope Probing And Resonance Raman Microspectrometry, Gordon T. Taylor, Elizabeth A. Suter, Zhuo Q. Li, Stephanie Chow, Dallyce Stinton, Tatiana Zaliznyak, Steven R. Beaupre Sep 2019

Single-Cell Growth Rates In Photoautotrophic Populations Measured By Stable Isotope Probing And Resonance Raman Microspectrometry, Gordon T. Taylor, Elizabeth A. Suter, Zhuo Q. Li, Stephanie Chow, Dallyce Stinton, Tatiana Zaliznyak, Steven R. Beaupre

Elizabeth Suter

A newmethod tomeasure growth rates of individual photoautotrophic cells by combining stable isotope probing (SIP) and single-cell resonance Raman microspectrometry is introduced. This report explores optimal experimental design and the theoretical underpinnings for quantitative responses of Raman spectra to cellular isotopic composition. Resonance Raman spectra of isogenic cultures of the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp., grown in 13C-bicarbonate revealed linear covariance between wavenumber (cm−1) shifts in dominant carotenoid Raman peaks and a broad range of cellular 13C fractional isotopic abundance. Single-cell growth rates were calculated from spectra-derived isotopic content and empirical relationships. Growth rates among any 25 cells in a sample ...


Hidden In Plain Sight: The Importance Of Cryptic Interactions In Marine Plankton, Nicole C. Millette, Julia Grosse, Winifred M. Johnson, Michelle J. Jungbluth, Elizabeth A. Suter Sep 2019

Hidden In Plain Sight: The Importance Of Cryptic Interactions In Marine Plankton, Nicole C. Millette, Julia Grosse, Winifred M. Johnson, Michelle J. Jungbluth, Elizabeth A. Suter

Elizabeth Suter

Here, we present a range of interactions, which we term “cryptic interactions.” These are interactions that occur throughout the marine planktonic foodweb but are currently largely overlooked by established methods, which mean large-scale data collection for these interactions is limited. Despite this, current evidence suggests some of these interactions may have perceptible impacts on foodweb dynamics and model results. Incorporation of cryptic interactions into models is especially important for those interactions involving the transport of nutrients or energy. Our aim is to highlight a range of cryptic interactions across the plankton foodweb, where they exist, and models that have taken ...


Seascapes As A New Vernacular For Pelagic Ocean Monitoring, Management And Conservation, Maria T. Kavanaugh, Matthew J. Oliver, Francisco P. Chavez, Ricardo M. Letelier, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Scott C. Doney Sep 2019

Seascapes As A New Vernacular For Pelagic Ocean Monitoring, Management And Conservation, Maria T. Kavanaugh, Matthew J. Oliver, Francisco P. Chavez, Ricardo M. Letelier, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Scott C. Doney

Frank E. Muller-Karger

For terrestrial and marine benthic ecologists, landscape ecology provides a framework to address issues of complexity, patchiness, and scale—providing theory and context for ecosystem based management in a changing climate. Marine pelagic ecosystems are likewise changing in response to warming, changing chemistry, and resource exploitation. However, unlike spatial landscapes that migrate slowly with time, pelagic seascapes are embedded in a turbulent, advective ocean. Adaptations from landscape ecology to marine pelagic ecosystem management must consider the nature and scale of biophysical interactions associated with organisms ranging from microbes to whales, a hierarchical organization shaped by physical processes, and our limited ...


Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds Sep 2019

Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds

Frank E. Muller-Karger

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program has developed a daily global 5-km product suite based on satellite observations to monitor thermal stress on coral reefs. These products fulfill requests from coral reef managers and researchers for higher resolution products by taking advantage of new satellites, sensors and algorithms. Improvements of the 5-km products over CRW’s heritage global 50-km products are derived from: (1) the higher resolution and greater data density of NOAA’s next-generation operational daily global 5-km geo-polar blended sea surface temperature (SST) analysis; and (2) implementation of a new ...


Characterization Of Available Light For Seagrass And Patch Reef Productivity In Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys, Gerardo Toro-Farmer, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Maria Vega-Rodriguez, Nelson Melo, Kimberly Yates, Sergio Cerdeira-Estrada, Stanley R. Herwitz Sep 2019

Characterization Of Available Light For Seagrass And Patch Reef Productivity In Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys, Gerardo Toro-Farmer, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Maria Vega-Rodriguez, Nelson Melo, Kimberly Yates, Sergio Cerdeira-Estrada, Stanley R. Herwitz

Frank E. Muller-Karger

Light availability is an important factor driving primary productivity in benthic ecosystems, but in situ and remote sensing measurements of light quality are limited for coral reefs and seagrass beds. We evaluated the productivity responses of a patch reef and a seagrass site in the Lower Florida Keys to ambient light availability and spectral quality. In situ optical properties were characterized utilizing moored and water column bio-optical and hydrographic measurements. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was also estimated for these study sites using benthic productivity chambers. Our results show higher spectral light attenuation and absorption, and lower irradiance during low tide ...


A Compilation Of Global Bio-Optical In Situ Data For Ocean-Colour Satellite Applications, Frank Muller-Karger Sep 2019

A Compilation Of Global Bio-Optical In Situ Data For Ocean-Colour Satellite Applications, Frank Muller-Karger

Frank E. Muller-Karger

A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open ...


Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana Sep 2019

Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana

Frank E. Muller-Karger

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming ...


Seastar: A Mission To Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics And Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes In Coastal, Shelf And Polar Seas, Christine Gommenginger, Bertrand Chapron, Andy Hogg, Christian Buckingham, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Leif Eriksson, Francois Soulat, Clement Ubelmann, Francisco Ocampo-Torres, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, David Griffin, Paco Lopez-Dekker, Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Lars Stenseng, Neil Stapleton, William Perrie, Nelson Violante-Carvalho, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, David Woolf, Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Fabrice Ardhuin, Patrice Klein, Alexis Mouche, Ananda Pascual, Xavier Capet, Daniele Hauser, Ad Stoffelen, Rosemary Morrow, Lotfi Aouf, Øyvind Breivik, Lee-Leung Fu, Johnny A. Johannessen, Yevgeny Aksenov, Lucy Bricheno, Joel Hirschi, Adrien C. H. Martin, Adrian P. Martin, George Nurser, Jeff Polton, Judith Wolf, Harald Johnsen, Alexander Soloviev, Gregg A. Jacobs, Fabrice Collard, Steve Groom, Vladimir Kudryavtsev, John Wilkin, Victor Navarro, Alex Babanin, Matthew Martin, John Siddorn, Andrew Saulter, Tom Rippeth, Bill Emery, Nikolai Maximenko, Roland Romeiser, Hans Graber, Aida Alvera Azcarate, Chris W. Hughes, Doug Vandemark, Jose Da Silva, Peter Jan Van Leeuwen, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Johannes Gemmrich, Amala Mahadevan, Jose Marquez, Yvonne Munro, Sam Doody, Geoff Burbidge Aug 2019

Seastar: A Mission To Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics And Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes In Coastal, Shelf And Polar Seas, Christine Gommenginger, Bertrand Chapron, Andy Hogg, Christian Buckingham, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Leif Eriksson, Francois Soulat, Clement Ubelmann, Francisco Ocampo-Torres, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, David Griffin, Paco Lopez-Dekker, Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Lars Stenseng, Neil Stapleton, William Perrie, Nelson Violante-Carvalho, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, David Woolf, Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Fabrice Ardhuin, Patrice Klein, Alexis Mouche, Ananda Pascual, Xavier Capet, Daniele Hauser, Ad Stoffelen, Rosemary Morrow, Lotfi Aouf, Øyvind Breivik, Lee-Leung Fu, Johnny A. Johannessen, Yevgeny Aksenov, Lucy Bricheno, Joel Hirschi, Adrien C. H. Martin, Adrian P. Martin, George Nurser, Jeff Polton, Judith Wolf, Harald Johnsen, Alexander Soloviev, Gregg A. Jacobs, Fabrice Collard, Steve Groom, Vladimir Kudryavtsev, John Wilkin, Victor Navarro, Alex Babanin, Matthew Martin, John Siddorn, Andrew Saulter, Tom Rippeth, Bill Emery, Nikolai Maximenko, Roland Romeiser, Hans Graber, Aida Alvera Azcarate, Chris W. Hughes, Doug Vandemark, Jose Da Silva, Peter Jan Van Leeuwen, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Johannes Gemmrich, Amala Mahadevan, Jose Marquez, Yvonne Munro, Sam Doody, Geoff Burbidge

Alexander Soloviev

High-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km. Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large ...


Deep Benthic Coral Habitats Of Glacier Bay National Park And Preserve, Alaska, Elise C. Hartill Aug 2019

Deep Benthic Coral Habitats Of Glacier Bay National Park And Preserve, Alaska, Elise C. Hartill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Southeast Alaska is a system of fjords that presents an ideal natural laboratory to study terrestrial, aquatic and marine patterns of succession due to its unique and recent history of deglaciation. The patterns of deep benthic community assemblages in the fjords of Glacier Bay were investigated by quantitative assessment of underwater photo-quadrats collected using a remotely operated vehicle. The percent cover and diversity of species were lowest near the glaciated heads of the fjords and highest in the Central Channel and at the mouths of the fjords of Glacier Bay, where oceanographic conditions ...


Trophic Upgrading And Mobilization Of Wax Esters In Microzooplankton, Keyana Roohani, Brad A. Haubrich, Kai-Lou Yue, Nigel D'Souza, Amanda Mantalbano, Tatiana Rynearson, Susanne Menden-Deuer, Christopher Reid Aug 2019

Trophic Upgrading And Mobilization Of Wax Esters In Microzooplankton, Keyana Roohani, Brad A. Haubrich, Kai-Lou Yue, Nigel D'Souza, Amanda Mantalbano, Tatiana Rynearson, Susanne Menden-Deuer, Christopher Reid

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

Heterotrophic protists play pivotal roles in aquatic ecosystems by transferring matter and energy, including lipids, from primary producers to higher trophic predators. Using Oxyrrhis marina as a model organism, changes to the non-saponifiable protist lipids were investigated under satiation and starvation conditions. During active feeding on the alga Cryptomonas sp., the O. marina hexane soluble non-saponifiable fraction lipid profile reflected its food source with the observed presence of long chain mono-unsaturated fatty alcohols up to C25:1. Evidence of trophic upgrading in O. marina was observed with long chain mono-unsaturated fatty alcohol accumulation of up to C35:1. To the ...


Seastar: A Mission To Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics And Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes In Coastal, Shelf And Polar Seas, Christine Gommenginger, Bertrand Chapron, Andy Hogg, Christian Buckingham, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Leif Eriksson, Francois Soulat, Clement Ubelmann, Francisco Ocampo-Torres, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, David Griffin, Paco Lopez-Dekker, Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Lars Stenseng, Neil Stapleton, William Perrie, Nelson Violante-Carvalho, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, David Woolf, Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Fabrice Ardhuin, Patrice Klein, Alexis Mouche, Ananda Pascual, Xavier Capet, Daniele Hauser, Ad Stoffelen, Rosemary Morrow, Lotfi Aouf, Øyvind Breivik, Lee-Leung Fu, Johnny A. Johannessen, Yevgeny Aksenov, Lucy Bricheno, Joel Hirschi, Adrien C. H. Martin, Adrian P. Martin, George Nurser, Jeff Polton, Judith Wolf, Harald Johnsen, Alexander Soloviev, Gregg A. Jacobs, Fabrice Collard, Steve Groom, Vladimir Kudryavtsev, John Wilkin, Victor Navarro, Alex Babanin, Matthew Martin, John Siddorn, Andrew Saulter, Tom Rippeth, Bill Emery, Nikolai Maximenko, Roland Romeiser, Hans Graber, Aida Alvera Azcarate, Chris W. Hughes, Doug Vandemark, Jose Da Silva, Peter Jan Van Leeuwen, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Johannes Gemmrich, Amala Mahadevan, Jose Marquez, Yvonne Munro, Sam Doody, Geoff Burbidge Aug 2019

Seastar: A Mission To Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics And Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes In Coastal, Shelf And Polar Seas, Christine Gommenginger, Bertrand Chapron, Andy Hogg, Christian Buckingham, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Leif Eriksson, Francois Soulat, Clement Ubelmann, Francisco Ocampo-Torres, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, David Griffin, Paco Lopez-Dekker, Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Lars Stenseng, Neil Stapleton, William Perrie, Nelson Violante-Carvalho, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, David Woolf, Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Fabrice Ardhuin, Patrice Klein, Alexis Mouche, Ananda Pascual, Xavier Capet, Daniele Hauser, Ad Stoffelen, Rosemary Morrow, Lotfi Aouf, Øyvind Breivik, Lee-Leung Fu, Johnny A. Johannessen, Yevgeny Aksenov, Lucy Bricheno, Joel Hirschi, Adrien C. H. Martin, Adrian P. Martin, George Nurser, Jeff Polton, Judith Wolf, Harald Johnsen, Alexander Soloviev, Gregg A. Jacobs, Fabrice Collard, Steve Groom, Vladimir Kudryavtsev, John Wilkin, Victor Navarro, Alex Babanin, Matthew Martin, John Siddorn, Andrew Saulter, Tom Rippeth, Bill Emery, Nikolai Maximenko, Roland Romeiser, Hans Graber, Aida Alvera Azcarate, Chris W. Hughes, Doug Vandemark, Jose Da Silva, Peter Jan Van Leeuwen, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Johannes Gemmrich, Amala Mahadevan, Jose Marquez, Yvonne Munro, Sam Doody, Geoff Burbidge

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

High-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km. Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large ...


Natural And Anthropogenic Oil Impacts On Benthic Foraminifera In The Southern Gulf Of Mexico, M. L. Machain-Castillo, A. C. Ruiz-Fernández, Adolfo Gracia, J. A. Sanchez-Cabeza, A. Rodríguez-Ramírez, H. M. Alexander-Valdés, L. H. Pérez-Bernal, X. A. Nava-Fernández, L. E. Gómez-Lizárraga, L. Almaraz-Ruiz, Patrick Schwing, David Hollander Aug 2019

Natural And Anthropogenic Oil Impacts On Benthic Foraminifera In The Southern Gulf Of Mexico, M. L. Machain-Castillo, A. C. Ruiz-Fernández, Adolfo Gracia, J. A. Sanchez-Cabeza, A. Rodríguez-Ramírez, H. M. Alexander-Valdés, L. H. Pérez-Bernal, X. A. Nava-Fernández, L. E. Gómez-Lizárraga, L. Almaraz-Ruiz, Patrick Schwing, David Hollander

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The Campeche Sound is the major offshore oil producing area in the Southern Gulf of Mexico (SGoM). To evaluate the impact of oil related activities in the ocean floor sediments, we analyzed the geochemical (major and trace element, organic carbon and hydrocarbon concentrations) and biological (benthic foraminifera) composition of 62 superficial sediment samples, from 13 to 1336 m water depth. Cluster and Factor analysis of all the variables indicate that their distribution patterns are mainly controlled by differences between the terrigenous and carbonate platforms in the SGoM. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were abundant and diverse, and their distribution patterns are mainly ...


Characterization Of Red Mangrove Proproot Epibiont Communities Of St. Johns Usvi, Alan M. Buob Aug 2019

Characterization Of Red Mangrove Proproot Epibiont Communities Of St. Johns Usvi, Alan M. Buob

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

In May 1989, Hurricane Hugo impacted St. Johns USVI destroying the Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) Forest of Great Lameshur Bay. The impact restricted the tidal flow and caused massive destruction in the mangroves. Hurricane Marilyn (1995) hit St. John causing the storm wall formed by Hugo to be washed out. It returned limited tidal flow to the dead forest. It was not until a subsequent hurricane in 2010 broke down the sediment wall and natural flow returned. Up to that point, water quality restricted any fouling organisms’ survival on the prop roots. By using photo identification, three different bays of ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker Jul 2019

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Physiological Integration Of Coral Colonies Is Correlated With Bleaching Resistance, Timothy D. Swain, Emily C. Bold, Phillip C. Osborn, Andrew H. Baird, Mark W. Westneat, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino Jul 2019

Physiological Integration Of Coral Colonies Is Correlated With Bleaching Resistance, Timothy D. Swain, Emily C. Bold, Phillip C. Osborn, Andrew H. Baird, Mark W. Westneat, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino

Timothy Swain

Inter-module physiological integration of colonial organisms can facilitate colony-wide coordinated responses to stimuli that strengthen colony fitness and stress resistance. In scleractinian corals, whose colonial integration ranges from isolated polyps to a seamless continuum of polyp structures and functions, this coordination improves responses to injury, predation, disease, and stress and may be one of the indications of an evolutionary origin of Symbiodinium symbiosis. However, observations of species-specific coral bleaching patterns suggest that highly integrated coral colonies may be more susceptible to thermal stress, and support the hypothesis that communication pathways between highly integrated polyps facilitate the dissemination of toxic byproducts ...


Skeletal Light-Scattering Accelerates Bleaching Response In Reef-Building Corals, Timothy D. Swain, Emily Dubois, Andrew Gomes, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Andrew J. Radosevich, Jillian Henss, Michelle E. Wagner, Justin Derbas, Hannah Grooms, Elizabeth M. Velazquez, Joshua Traub, Brian J. Kennedy, Arabela A. Grigorescu, Mark W. Westneat, Kevin Sanborn, Shoshana Levine, Mark Schick, George Parsons, Brendan C. Briggs, Jeremy D. Rogers, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino Jul 2019

Skeletal Light-Scattering Accelerates Bleaching Response In Reef-Building Corals, Timothy D. Swain, Emily Dubois, Andrew Gomes, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Andrew J. Radosevich, Jillian Henss, Michelle E. Wagner, Justin Derbas, Hannah Grooms, Elizabeth M. Velazquez, Joshua Traub, Brian J. Kennedy, Arabela A. Grigorescu, Mark W. Westneat, Kevin Sanborn, Shoshana Levine, Mark Schick, George Parsons, Brendan C. Briggs, Jeremy D. Rogers, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino

Timothy Swain

Background At the forefront of ecosystems adversely affected by climate change, coral reefs are sensitive to anomalously high temperatures which disassociate (bleaching) photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium) from coral hosts and cause increasingly frequent and severe mass mortality events. Susceptibility to bleaching and mortality is variable among corals, and is determined by unknown proportions of environmental history and the synergy of Symbiodinium- and coral-specific properties. Symbiodinium live within host tissues overlaying the coral skeleton, which increases light availability through multiple light-scattering, forming one of the most efficient biological collectors of solar radiation. Light-transport in the upper ~200 μm layer of corals skeletons ...


Modulation Of Light-Enhancement To Symbiotic Algae By Light-Scattering In Corals And Evolutionary Trends In Bleaching, Luisa A. Marcelino, Mark W. Westneat, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Jillian Henss, Jeremy Rogers, Andrew J. Radosevich, Vladimir Turzhitsky, Margaret Siple, Andrew Fang, Timothy D. Swain, Jennifer Fung, Vadim Backman Jul 2019

Modulation Of Light-Enhancement To Symbiotic Algae By Light-Scattering In Corals And Evolutionary Trends In Bleaching, Luisa A. Marcelino, Mark W. Westneat, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Jillian Henss, Jeremy Rogers, Andrew J. Radosevich, Vladimir Turzhitsky, Margaret Siple, Andrew Fang, Timothy D. Swain, Jennifer Fung, Vadim Backman

Timothy Swain

Calcium carbonate skeletons of scleractinian corals amplify light availability to their algal symbionts by diffuse scattering, optimizing photosynthetic energy acquisition. However, the mechanism of scattering and its role in coral evolution and dissolution of algal symbioses during “bleaching” events are largely unknown. Here we show that differences in skeletal fractal architecture at nano/micro-lengthscales within 96 coral taxa result in an 8-fold variation in light-scattering and considerably alter the algal light environment. We identified a continuum of properties that fall between two extremes: (1) corals with low skeletal fractality that are efficient at transporting and redistributing light throughout the colony ...


Language Learning Under Classroom Conditions During The Transition To Hybrid Instruction: A Case-Study Of Student Performance During The Implementation Of Instructional Technology, Lisbeth O. Swain, Timothy D. Swain Jul 2019

Language Learning Under Classroom Conditions During The Transition To Hybrid Instruction: A Case-Study Of Student Performance During The Implementation Of Instructional Technology, Lisbeth O. Swain, Timothy D. Swain

Timothy Swain

We examined the unmanipulated performance of students under real classroom conditions in order to assess the effect of a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach to second language, (L2) instruction on beginning and advanced Spanish language learners. This research focused on the transition period of technology implementation when the entire section of Spanish of a modern language department of a liberal arts university transitioned from traditional face-to-face instruction, to a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach with concurrent reduction in face-to-face classroom hours. This implementation provided an opportunity to compare the performance of students prior to and during the transition to hybrid model of ...


Some Environmental And Biological Determinants Of Coral Richness, Resilience And Reef Building In Galápagos (Ecuador), Bernhard Riegl, Matthew Johnston, Peter W. Glynn, Inti Keith, Fernando Rivera, Mariana Vera-Zambrano, Stuart Banks, Joshua Feingold, Peter J. Glynn Jul 2019

Some Environmental And Biological Determinants Of Coral Richness, Resilience And Reef Building In Galápagos (Ecuador), Bernhard Riegl, Matthew Johnston, Peter W. Glynn, Inti Keith, Fernando Rivera, Mariana Vera-Zambrano, Stuart Banks, Joshua Feingold, Peter J. Glynn

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Throughout the Galápagos, differences in coral reef development and coral population dynamics were evaluated by monitoring populations from 2000–2019, and environmental parameters (sea temperatures, pH, NO3, PO43−) from 2015–19. The chief goal was to explain apparent coral community differences between the northern (Darwin and Wolf) and southern (Sta. Cruz, Fernandina, San Cristóbal, Española, Isabela) islands. Site coral species richness was highest at Darwin and Wolf. In the three most common coral taxa, a declining North (N)-South (S) trend in colony sizes existed for Porites lobata and Pocillopora spp., but not for Pavona spp. Frequent ...


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al Jul 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal ...


Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al Jul 2019

Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Human-caused environmental change will have significant non-lethal and indirect impacts on organisms due to altered sensory pathways, with consequences for ecological interactions. While a growing body of work addresses how global ocean change can impair the way organisms obtain and use information to direct their behavior, these efforts have typically focused on one step of the pathway (e.g., reception of a cue/signal), one sensory modality (e.g., visual), or one environmental factor (e.g., temperature). An integrated view of how aspects of environmental change will impact multiple sensory pathways and related ecological processes is needed to better anticipate ...


Comparison Of Age And Growth Parameters Of Invasive Red Lionfish (Pterois Volitans) Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Alexander Q. Fogg, Joseph T. Evans, Mark S. Peterson, Nancy Brown-Peterson, Eric R. Hoffmayer, G. Walter Ingram Jr. Jul 2019

Comparison Of Age And Growth Parameters Of Invasive Red Lionfish (Pterois Volitans) Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Alexander Q. Fogg, Joseph T. Evans, Mark S. Peterson, Nancy Brown-Peterson, Eric R. Hoffmayer, G. Walter Ingram Jr.

Faculty Publications

Invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) have spread rapidly throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) partly because of their high growth rate. Red lionfish were collected from the northern GOM across 3 ecological regions from 2012 through 2015. For male and female red lionfish, relationships between weight and total length (TL) were differnt by ecological region. Males acheives a greater mean weight adjusted for TL (333.6 g [standar errer (SE) 3.6]) than females (195.1 g [SE 3.7]). A subsample of 1607 pairs of sagittal otoliths (from 744 males, 716 females, and 147 fish of unknown or ...


Nutrient Controls Over Cyanobacterial Synthesis Of The Neurotoxin Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) And Its Potential Accumulation In The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus), Madeline M. Hummel Jul 2019

Nutrient Controls Over Cyanobacterial Synthesis Of The Neurotoxin Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) And Its Potential Accumulation In The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus), Madeline M. Hummel

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are known to produce a variety of toxins that negatively impact both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. One putative neurotoxic compound is the non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), which has epidemiological linkages to the development of several human neurological diseases. Three cyanobacterial species thought to produce BMAA —Microcystis aeruginosa, Synechococcus bacillaris, and Nostoc sp. —were grown in nutrient replete cultures to examine its synthesis and cellular distribution over a growth cycle. Production of BMAA was also examined in nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) deplete cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa. In addition, natural assemblages of phytoplankton dominated by cyanobacteria were collected from two ...


Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota Jun 2019

Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Despite the abundance of research on coral reef change detection, few studies have been conducted to assess the spatial generalization principles of a live coral cover classifier trained using remote sensing data from multiple locations. The aim of this study is to develop a machine learning classifier for coral dominated benthic cover-type class (CDBCTC) based on ground truth observations and Landsat images, evaluate the performance of this classifier when tested against new data, then deploy the classifier to perform CDBCTC change analysis of multiple locations. The proposed framework includes image calibration, support vector machine (SVM) training and tuning, statistical assessment ...


Diversity Of The Brown Alga Dictyota Between Deep And Shallow Reefs Of Hawaii, Mary Ade, Rachael M. Wade, Heather L. Spalding, Alison R. Sherwood Jun 2019

Diversity Of The Brown Alga Dictyota Between Deep And Shallow Reefs Of Hawaii, Mary Ade, Rachael M. Wade, Heather L. Spalding, Alison R. Sherwood

Celebration of Learning

In this presentation, I compile the results of 10 weeks of an NSF-funded REU during the summer of 2018. This research is regarding the biodiversity of Dictyota species found in the mesophotic and shallow reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian islands.


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney Jun 2019

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney Jun 2019

Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney

DePaul Discoveries

Ocean acidification is a growing problem that may affect many marine organisms in the future. Within 100 years the pH of the ocean is predicted to decrease to 7.8, from the current ocean pH of around 8.1. Using phenolic acid levels as a stress indicator as well as respiration and chlorophyll content as a measure of health, the effect of lowering pH was tested on the seagrass, Cymodocea nodosa, in a controlled environment. Plant samples, water, and soil were taken from the Bay of Cádiz, Spain, and placed in aquaria in a temperature-controlled room. One control group was ...


On The Composistion Of Cymodocea Nodosa Root Exudate Under Artificial Blue, Green And Natural Light Conditions, Armand Martin, Ben Manriquez, Christian Pompa, Aaron Saper, Kyle A. Grice, Jason Bystriansky Jun 2019

On The Composistion Of Cymodocea Nodosa Root Exudate Under Artificial Blue, Green And Natural Light Conditions, Armand Martin, Ben Manriquez, Christian Pompa, Aaron Saper, Kyle A. Grice, Jason Bystriansky

DePaul Discoveries

Seagrasses are identified as a sentinel species: a good indicator of overall marine ecosystem health and function. At the rhizome, they are known to interact with marine bacteria by exchanging energy in the form of glucose and free amino acids secreted through root exudate in exchange for microbe-fixated nitrogen that can be utilized for plant growth. To analyze potential outcomes of possible future changes in light availability, an experiment was designed to collect and analyze the root exudate of Cymodocea nodosa under three light conditions (standard fluorescent light, blue LED, and green LED light). After 72 hours of treatment, the ...


Evaluating Oyster Aquaculture’S Cost-Effectiveness As A Nitrogen Removal Best Management Practice – A Case Study Of The Delaware Inland Bays, Jefferson F. Flood Jun 2019

Evaluating Oyster Aquaculture’S Cost-Effectiveness As A Nitrogen Removal Best Management Practice – A Case Study Of The Delaware Inland Bays, Jefferson F. Flood

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Disease and overfishing have led to a dramatic decline in wild populations and subsequent harvests of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica over the past few decades in Delaware and other states along the Atlantic Coast. However, in addition to their value as food to consumers, oysters, whether wild populations or cultured stocks, can provide ecosystem services such as nutrient removal, which may result in localized water quality improvements. Consequently, recent policies in Delaware have sought to establish and grow an oyster aquaculture industry. However, a key challenge to achieving efficient levels of industry growth and water quality improvements is that ...