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Species Sensitivity Assessment Of Five Atlantic Scleractinian Coral Species To 1-Methylnaphthalene, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Nicholas Turner 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Species Sensitivity Assessment Of Five Atlantic Scleractinian Coral Species To 1-Methylnaphthalene, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Nicholas Turner

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Coral reefs are keystone coastal ecosystems that are at risk of exposure to petroleum from a range of sources, and are one of the highest valued natural resources for protection in Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) in oil spill response. Previous research evaluating dissolved hydrocarbon impacts to corals reflected no clear characterization of sensitivity, representing an important knowledge gap in oil spill preparedness related to the potential impact of oil spills to the coral animal and its photosymbiont zooxanthellae. This research addresses this gap, using a standardized toxicity protocol to evaluate effects of a dissolved reference hydrocarbon on scleractinian corals ...


Autonomous In Situ Calibration Of Ion‐Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Ph Sensors, Philip J. Bresnahan, Yuichiro Takeshita, Taylor Wirth, Todd R. Martz, Tyler Cyronak, Rebecca Albright, Kennedy Wolfe, Joseph K. Warren, Keaton Mertz 2021 University of North Carolina at Wilmington

Autonomous In Situ Calibration Of Ion‐Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Ph Sensors, Philip J. Bresnahan, Yuichiro Takeshita, Taylor Wirth, Todd R. Martz, Tyler Cyronak, Rebecca Albright, Kennedy Wolfe, Joseph K. Warren, Keaton Mertz

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Ion‐sensitive field effect transistor‐based pH sensors have been shown to perform well in high frequency and long‐term ocean sampling regimes. The Honeywell Durafet is widely used due to its stability, fast response, and characterization over a large range of oceanic conditions. However, potentiometric pH monitoring is inherently complicated by the fact that the sensors require careful calibration. Offsets in calibration coefficients have been observed when comparing laboratory to field‐based calibrations and prior work has led to the recommendation that an in situ calibration be performed based on comparison to discrete samples. Here, we describe our work ...


Assessment Of Monochloramine Toxicity On Three Small Coastal Organisms, Ashley K. Le 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Assessment Of Monochloramine Toxicity On Three Small Coastal Organisms, Ashley K. Le

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Monochloramine ( is a secondary disinfectant used by water treatment facilities to eliminate lingering bacteria in basins, filters, and pipelines. While an effective disinfectant, monochloramine can have negative effects on aquatic organisms. Organis ms affected by the chemical can include species whose environment is near to effluent sites and aquaculture facilities that use tap water lines or has water intake pipes near to effluent sites. Three species commonly found in south Florida that are lik ely exposed to MCA by effluent sites or aquaculture facilities are mosquitofish Gambusia affinis pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum and the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria These species ...


Ontogenetic Variation In Sciaenid Otolith Morphometry With Fish Size From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Thomas C. Ingalls 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Ontogenetic Variation In Sciaenid Otolith Morphometry With Fish Size From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Thomas C. Ingalls

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Sciaenids are a diverse family of coastal fishes and their fisheries are an important industry in the United States. In the northern Gulf of Mexico this industry is dominated by six species, specifically, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), black drum (Pogonias cromis), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), sand seatrout (C. arenarius), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), and spot (Leiostomus xathurus). Sagittal otoliths of all species were evaluated for changes in size and shape in relation to changes in fish total length and age across a variety of seasons and habitats. Evaluation of otolith morphology was done through computer-aided image analysis, specifically the R ...


The Impact Of Tidal Elevation And Climate Change On The Growth And Performance Of Balanus Glandula, Sam Martin 2021 Claremont Colleges

The Impact Of Tidal Elevation And Climate Change On The Growth And Performance Of Balanus Glandula, Sam Martin

Pitzer Senior Theses

Tidal elevation affects the survival, growth, and performance of intertidal organisms because it regulates their exposure to heat, waves, food availability, and a variety of other abiotic factors. While previous research has explored the relationship between temperature and the performance of the barnacle Balanus glandula, there are unanswered questions about how tidal elevation affects B. glandula performance and growth. I compared the growth of B. glandula at three tidal elevations in Friday Harbor, Washington, and estimated the metabolic cost of emersion at each tidal elevation using a cost equation gained from thermal performance curves and average daily maximum temperatures. I ...


Oldest Indo-Pacific Lionfish (Pterois Volitans/P. Miles) Recorded From The Northwestern Gulf Of Mexico, Raven D. Blakeway, Alexander Q. Fogg, Glenn A. Jones 2021 Texas A&M University at Galveston

Oldest Indo-Pacific Lionfish (Pterois Volitans/P. Miles) Recorded From The Northwestern Gulf Of Mexico, Raven D. Blakeway, Alexander Q. Fogg, Glenn A. Jones

Gulf and Caribbean Research

Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) were first detected off the coast of Florida in the 1980s, with aquaria release being the most likely mechanism for introduction. Since then, lionfish have proliferated through the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Here, we report the oldest lionfish aged on record in the Western Atlantic, removed from Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) in the GOM. In August 2018, a research expedition removed 745 lionfish from FGBNMS, of which a subset were retained for age and growth estimation. The oldest lionfish was a 10 y old male, with ...


Patterns Of Dispersion, Movement And Feeding Of The Sea Urchin Lytechinus Variegatus, And The Potential Implications For Grazing Impact On Live Seagrass, Adrianna Parson, Joseph M. Dirnberger, Troy Mutchler 2021 Augusta University

Patterns Of Dispersion, Movement And Feeding Of The Sea Urchin Lytechinus Variegatus, And The Potential Implications For Grazing Impact On Live Seagrass, Adrianna Parson, Joseph M. Dirnberger, Troy Mutchler

Gulf and Caribbean Research

The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is a known grazer of both living and dead tissue of turtlegrass, Thalassia testudinum, occasionally denuding large areas of seagrass. Field studies have attempted to assess effects of herbivory on seagrass by enclosing urchins at various densities. However, it is unclear how unrestricted urchins affect seagrass at lower densities more typically observed in the field. This study describes movement, feeding, and distribution of L. variegatus within beds of T. testudinum in St. Joseph Bay, Florida (USA) to quantify this urchin’s impact as a seagrass grazer. Urchins were absent from portions of seagrass beds closest ...


Heat Stress During Larval Stages On Coral Survivorship For M. Capitata, Sarah Woo 2021 Claremont Colleges

Heat Stress During Larval Stages On Coral Survivorship For M. Capitata, Sarah Woo

Pitzer Senior Theses

Very little is known about how heat stress during larvae stages effect larvae survivorship, early coral recruit settlement, and later stage coral survivorship. We focused on determining how heat stress during larvae stages effected Montipora capitata survivorship over time. After thermally stressing larvae, we asked how many larvae survived the treatment, how the treatment affected settlement, how many larvae survived the heat treatment but did not settle, and later stage coral survivorship experienced residual effects from the heat stress treatment. We exposed coral larvae to ambient seawater temperatures at 30°C and heated seawater temperatures to 34°C for an ...


Unexpected Role Of Communities Colonizing Dead Coral Substrate In The Calcification Of Coral Reefs, Manoela Romanó de Orte, David A. Koweek, Tyler Cyronak, Yuichiro Takeshita, Alyssa Griffin, Kennedy Wolfe, Alina Szmant, Robert Whitehead, Rebecca Albright, Ken Caldeira 2021 Carnegie Institution of Washington

Unexpected Role Of Communities Colonizing Dead Coral Substrate In The Calcification Of Coral Reefs, Manoela Romanó De Orte, David A. Koweek, Tyler Cyronak, Yuichiro Takeshita, Alyssa Griffin, Kennedy Wolfe, Alina Szmant, Robert Whitehead, Rebecca Albright, Ken Caldeira

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Global and local anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, acidification, overfishing, and pollution are expected to shift the benthic community composition of coral reefs from dominance by calcifying organisms to dominance by non-calcifying algae. These changes could reduce the ability of coral reef ecosystems to maintain positive net calcium carbonate accretion. However, relationships between community composition and calcification rates remain unclear. We performed field experiments to quantify the metabolic rates of the two most dominant coral reef substrate types, live coral and dead coral substrate colonized by a mixed algal assemblage, using a novel underwater respirometer. Our results revealed that ...


Comparison Of Nutrient Accrual In Constructed Living Shoreline And Natural Fringing Marshes, Randolph Chambers, A. L. Gorsky, Robert E. Isdell, Molly Mitchell, Donna Marie Bilkovic 2021 College of William and Mary

Comparison Of Nutrient Accrual In Constructed Living Shoreline And Natural Fringing Marshes, Randolph Chambers, A. L. Gorsky, Robert E. Isdell, Molly Mitchell, Donna Marie Bilkovic

Biology Articles & Book Chapters

Living shoreline marshes are coastal wetlands constructed as alternatives to “hardened shorelines” (e.g., bulkheads, riprap) to mitigate erosion and to allow for landward migration of intertidal habitat as sea level rises. Living shorelines are designed to mimic natural fringing marshes and over time should be sinks for carbon and other nutrients. We collected soil cores and aboveground plant material from 13 pairs of natural fringing marshes and living shoreline marshes of different ages and degree of isolation from more extensive marsh shorescapes to compare nutrient pools and accrual. Although the nutrient content of plants was similar within and between ...


Enhancing The Seed Germination Process Of Montezuma Cypress (Taxodium Mucronatum Ten.), Alejandro Fierro-Cabo, August Plamann 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Enhancing The Seed Germination Process Of Montezuma Cypress (Taxodium Mucronatum Ten.), Alejandro Fierro-Cabo, August Plamann

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Montezuma cypress (Taxodium. mucronatum) is an ecological, cultural and economically valuable riparian tree species. Two experiments evaluating the effectiveness of various seed treatments were conducted to identify germination best practices and to evaluate the dynamics of the germination process. Seeds were collected on two occasions, one year apart, from the only remaining natural T. mucronatum tree stand in the United States. The seeds were subjected to various soaking and stratification conditions. Across all treatments, germinability ranged between approximately 30%-40%, with slightly higher values occurring among the second seed cohort. Overall, no significant differences in germinability were detected in either ...


Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science | University of Colorado, Boulder

Seabed Resuspension In The Chesapeake Bay: Implications For Biogeochemical Cycling And Hypoxia, Julia M. Moriarty, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Courtney K. Harris

VIMS Articles

Sediment processes, including resuspension and transport, affect water quality in estuaries by altering light attenuation, primary productivity, and organic matter remineralization, which then influence oxygen and nitrogen dynamics. The relative importance of these processes on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics varies in space and time due to multiple factors and is difficult to measure, however, motivating a modeling approach to quantify how sediment resuspension and transport affect estuarine biogeochemistry. Results from a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport-biogeochemical model of the Chesapeake Bay for the summers of 2002 and 2003 showed that resuspension increased light attenuation, especially in the northernmost portion of the Bay ...


Conservation, Sharks, And The Tragedy Of The Commons: Achieving Human-Nature Holism, Fiona Melady 2021 Regis University

Conservation, Sharks, And The Tragedy Of The Commons: Achieving Human-Nature Holism, Fiona Melady

Student Publications

Environmental ethics originates from the idea that the relationship between humans and non-human nature should be considered morally. How we deal with environmental issues depends on our perception of human-environment relationships. Many view nature as something separate from themselves to own, use, and exploit for human benefit; others view nature as something of which humans are a part and having an intrinsic value aside from practicality or usefulness. This thesis examines human-environment relationships through anthropocentrism and ecocentrism and advocates for balancing the two perspectives. Furthermore, this thesis examines the importance of marine environmental conservation, particularly sharks, and how transitioning towards ...


Analyzing The Potential Of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis In Identifying The Effects Of Freezing In Atlantic Sea Scallop Products (Placopecten Magellanicus), Joseph Ehrhard 2021 University of New England

Analyzing The Potential Of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis In Identifying The Effects Of Freezing In Atlantic Sea Scallop Products (Placopecten Magellanicus), Joseph Ehrhard

All Theses And Dissertations

The sensitivity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was investigated to assess the potential of identifying the effects of freezing in market-ready Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus). Measurements of resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were recorded using a Certified Quality Reader (CQR) (Certified Quality Food Inc., Clinton Township, MI 48035) BIA device at 50kHz. Prior to investigating the effects of freezing on BIA measurements a standard operating procedure (SOP) was established to limit sources of error. BIA measurements were used in establishing an SOP which focused upon the preparation of samples through blot drying, as well as, proper orientation of scallops ...


New Amphibian And Reptile Distribution Records From Eastern South Dakota, Usa, Drew R. Davis 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

New Amphibian And Reptile Distribution Records From Eastern South Dakota, Usa, Drew R. Davis

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Over recent years, the continued collection of voucher specimens has helped to better document the distributions of South Dakota’s amphibians and reptiles. Despite large increases in our knowledge of these distributions, it remains clear that gaps in our understanding remain. Here, I report 17 new county records of six species of amphibians and reptiles from eastern South Dakota (east of the Missouri River) that are the result of fieldwork conducted in September 2020. The majority of these records are from the northern portions of the James River Lowland, Missouri Coteau, and Drift Plains ecoregions (Bryce et al. 1998), which ...


Toward A Better Understanding Of Fish‐Based Contribution To Ocean Carbon Flux, Grace K. Saba, Adrian B. Burd, John P. Dunne, (...), Deborah K. Steinberg, et al 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Toward A Better Understanding Of Fish‐Based Contribution To Ocean Carbon Flux, Grace K. Saba, Adrian B. Burd, John P. Dunne, (...), Deborah K. Steinberg, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Fishes are the dominant vertebrates in the ocean, yet we know little of their contribution to carbon export flux at regional to global scales. We synthesize the existing information on fish‐based carbon flux in coastal and pelagic waters, identify gaps and challenges in measuring this flux and approaches to address them, and recommend research priorities. Based on our synthesis of passive (fecal pellet sinking) and active (migratory) flux of fishes, we estimated that fishes contribute an average (± standard deviation) of about 16.1% (± 13%) to total carbon flux out of the euphotic zone. Using the mean value of model ...


Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. Iv: Volutoidea, Cancellariidae, Costellariidae, & Olivoidea, Timothy Campbell 2021 Gardner-Webb University

Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. Iv: Volutoidea, Cancellariidae, Costellariidae, & Olivoidea, Timothy Campbell

A Photographic Guide to the Gelasian (Early Pleistocene) Mollusca of Southeastern North Carolina

The Lower Waccamaw Formation contains a rich basal Pleistocene (early Gelasian, 2.4-2.0 million years old) fauna with an extreme abundance and diversity of mollusks (>90% of the fossils and 900+ species) in addition to various echinoderms, arthropods, annelids, corals, bryozoans, and vertebrates. Based upon the ranges of the extant species, the climate seems to have been warmer than today. This diverse subtropical fauna can be found in patches in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina. It is roughly equivalent to the modern fauna of central South Carolina to North Florida, however, there was dramatic faunal turnover about ...


Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. 6: Heterobranchia, Timothy Campbell 2021 Gardner-Webb University

Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. 6: Heterobranchia, Timothy Campbell

A Photographic Guide to the Gelasian (Early Pleistocene) Mollusca of Southeastern North Carolina

The Lower Waccamaw Formation contains a rich basal Pleistocene (early Gelasian, 2.4-2.0 million years old) fauna with an extreme abundance and diversity of mollusks (>90% of the fossils and 900+ species) in addition to various echinoderms, arthropods, annelids, corals, bryozoans, and vertebrates. Based upon the ranges of the extant species, the climate seems to have been warmer than today. This diverse subtropical fauna can be found in patches in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina. It is roughly equivalent to the modern fauna of central South Carolina to North Florida, however, there was dramatic faunal turnover about ...


Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. 5: Conoidea, Timothy Campbell 2021 Gardner-Webb University

Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. 5: Conoidea, Timothy Campbell

A Photographic Guide to the Gelasian (Early Pleistocene) Mollusca of Southeastern North Carolina

The Lower Waccamaw Formation contains a rich basal Pleistocene (early Gelasian, 2.4-2.0 million years old) fauna with an extreme abundance and diversity of mollusks (>90% of the fossils and 900+ species) in addition to various echinoderms, arthropods, annelids, corals, bryozoans, and vertebrates. Based upon the ranges of the extant species, the climate seems to have been warmer than today. This diverse subtropical fauna can be found in patches in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina. It is roughly equivalent to the modern fauna of central South Carolina to North Florida, however, there was dramatic faunal turnover about ...


Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. 8: Galeommatoidea, Cardidae, & Tellinoidea, Timothy Campbell 2021 Gardner-Webb University

Waccamaw Mollusca Review Copy Pt. 8: Galeommatoidea, Cardidae, & Tellinoidea, Timothy Campbell

A Photographic Guide to the Gelasian (Early Pleistocene) Mollusca of Southeastern North Carolina

The Lower Waccamaw Formation contains a rich basal Pleistocene (early Gelasian, 2.4-2.0 million years old) fauna with an extreme abundance and diversity of mollusks (>90% of the fossils and 900+ species) in addition to various echinoderms, arthropods, annelids, corals, bryozoans, and vertebrates. Based upon the ranges of the extant species, the climate seems to have been warmer than today. This diverse subtropical fauna can be found in patches in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina. It is roughly equivalent to the modern fauna of central South Carolina to North Florida, however, there was dramatic faunal turnover about ...


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