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A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark 2019 Nova Southeastern University

A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark

HCNSO Student Capstones

Cephalopods are both important predators and prey in many marine environments and important fishery resources in many countries. The global fishery has expanded almost continuously from landings of 580,000 metric tonnes in 1950 to over 4 m.t. in 2007. Cephalopods are ecological opportunists with highly plastic biological characteristics and varied population dynamics. Nearly all commercially harvested species are short-lived and can reproduce quickly, enabling them to evolve more rapidly under high selection pressure relative to many fish competitors and predators. As a result, they may have the biological means to be successful under conditions of long-term global climate ...


Outplanted Acropora Cervicornis Enhances The Fish Assemblages Of Southeast Florida, Ellen Dignon Goldenberg 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Outplanted Acropora Cervicornis Enhances The Fish Assemblages Of Southeast Florida, Ellen Dignon Goldenberg

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Acropora cervicornis, commonly known as the staghorn coral has historically been a major contributor to reef structural complexity, providing habitat for many functionally important fish species throughout Florida and the Caribbean. Unfortunately, due to disease, bleaching, and local anthropogenic stressors, A. cervicornis populations have suffered drastic declines that have negatively impacted associated reef fish populations. In order to promote recovery, A. cervicornis fragments can be cultivated in nurseries and outplanted back onto reefs. This practice can effectively increase A. cervicornis abundance, but the long-term effects on local fish assemblages, and specifically functionally important grazing fishes, has not been assessed. Fish ...


Nutrient Concentrations And Effects On Mill Run From Residential, Urban, And Industrial Stormwater Contamination, Melissa Carver 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Nutrient Concentrations And Effects On Mill Run From Residential, Urban, And Industrial Stormwater Contamination, Melissa Carver

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Nutrients are introduced into the waters of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania through various methods, mainly through point and non-point sources. Non-point sources would include agricultural means however, there are often other non-point sources that are often overlooked. Water runoff from stormwater is an important contributor to pollution entering various watersheds. Data was collected at 4 locations (the initial point of reference, residential, urban, and industrial) on Mill Run and 2 locations on Woodcock Creek, through surface water collection methods in dry and wet weather. Nitrate, Nitrite, Total Phosphorus, and Total Nitrogen were among the data collected. Total Phosphorus had an ...


Analysis Of "Observer Effect" In Logbook Reporting Accuracy For U.S. Pelagic Longline Fishing Vessels In The Atlantic And Gulf Of Mexico, Thomas J. Morrell 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Analysis Of "Observer Effect" In Logbook Reporting Accuracy For U.S. Pelagic Longline Fishing Vessels In The Atlantic And Gulf Of Mexico, Thomas J. Morrell

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Commercial pelagic longline fishers within the U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean are required to report all fishing interactions per each gear deployment to NOAA’s Vessel Logbook Program of the Southeast Fisheries Science Center to quantify bycatch, increase conservation efforts, and avoid jeopardizing the existence of vulnerable species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). To provide additional accuracy, the Pelagic Observer Program (POP) of the SEFSC deploys professionally trained observers on longline vessels to produce a statistically reliable subset of longline fisheries data. A comparison of self-reported (“unobserved”) datasets versus observer-collected (“observed”) datasets showed a general ...


Effect Of Environmental History On The Physiology And Acute Stress Response Of The Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica), Jill Ashey 2019 William & Mary

Effect Of Environmental History On The Physiology And Acute Stress Response Of The Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica), Jill Ashey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Oysters are a critical part of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem, so it is important to understand how they might respond to increasingly variable and potentially stressful environmental conditions. This study aimed to investigate the links between environmental history and oyster physiology in order to understand how oysters might perform in future conditions. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine how environmental history might influence oyster physiology, (2) evaluate how environmental history might influence physiological stress responses, (3) assess the relative importance of distal and proximal environmental history on oyster physiology, and (4) determine the relative importance of distal ...


Assessing The Influence Of Salt Marsh Enhancement On Nekton Communities, Evan Thomas Kwityn 2019 Montclair State University

Assessing The Influence Of Salt Marsh Enhancement On Nekton Communities, Evan Thomas Kwityn

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Resiliency projects are being implemented throughout coastal communities with the intention of reducing the loss of salt marsh habitat. Salt marsh enhancement projects may have the benefit of minimizing physical coastal impacts, but enhancement activities are not fully understood as a result of potential impacts on salt marsh ecosystems, particularly nekton or fish and decapod communities. Questions involving salt marsh enhancement remain in regard to negative impacts on nekton communities and hydrologic habitat connectivity. To evaluate the impacts of salt marsh enhancement in reference to nekton community structures, I compared nekton density in restored and non-restored locations on two salt ...


Do Indirect Predator Cues Affect Behavior Of The Freshwater Clam Sphaerium Simile?, Jesse Bruce Eichler 2019 Montclair State University

Do Indirect Predator Cues Affect Behavior Of The Freshwater Clam Sphaerium Simile?, Jesse Bruce Eichler

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Freshwater bivalves provide important ecosystem services, like filtering water and cycling nutrients. Predators affecting the behavior of bivalve prey, therefore, could potentially impact the structure and function of ecological communities. Because little is known about the antipredator responses of sphaeriid clams, I examined the behavior of juvenile and adult freshwater clams, Sphaerium simile, when exposed to two types of indirect predator cues: effluent of a crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) and damaged conspecific clams. Adult clams responded to crayfish effluent by significantly reducing burrowing behavior. Juvenile clams, however, buried indiscriminately regardless of experimental treatment and significantly more often/more quickly than adults ...


Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, CF White, K Lyons, SJ Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, KC Weng, CG Lowe 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kc Weng, Cg Lowe

VIMS Articles

While adult white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators with a circumglobal distribution, juvenile white sharks (JWS) feed primarily on bottom dwelling fishes and tend to be coastally associated. Despite the assumedly easier access to juveniles compared to large, migratory adults, limited information is available on the movements, environments, and distributions of individuals during this life stage. To quantify movement and understand their distribution in the southern California Bight, JWS were captured and fitted with dorsal fin-mounted satellite transmitters (SPOT tags; n = 18). Nine individuals crossed the U.S. border into Baja California, Mexico. Individuals used shallow habitats (134.96 ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2018, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 23-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Determining How Risk Effects Predator-Prey Interactions Of Marine Communities In The Nearshore Environment Of South Bimini, The Bahamas, Kendall Brancart 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Determining How Risk Effects Predator-Prey Interactions Of Marine Communities In The Nearshore Environment Of South Bimini, The Bahamas, Kendall Brancart

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Predators often have strong top-down effects on ecosystems and are considered a priority for conservation and management. Predator activity can influence prey distribution, abundance, and foraging behaviors and are likely to influence habitat by impacting ecological and environmental characteristics as well as presence of competitor species. There are knowledge gaps of the functional diversity of fish assemblages, non-consumptive predator effects, and environmental effects on fish assemblages. With this study, effects of top marine predators, such as sharks and great barracuda, on diversity and abundance of prey communities were examined in putative low (north side of South Bimini = lagoon) and high-risk ...


The Sedimentology Of Cay Sal Bank - An Incipiently Drowned Carbonate Platform, Luis Ramirez 2019 Nova Southeastern University

The Sedimentology Of Cay Sal Bank - An Incipiently Drowned Carbonate Platform, Luis Ramirez

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Sediment on Cay Sal Bank (CSB) is characterized by its coarse-grain size, poor sorting, predominance of skeletal fragments, and relatively depleted d18O isotope values. CSB is an incipiently drowned platform in close proximity to the Great Bahama Bank (GBB), a carbonate platform which is not incipiently drowned and characterized by fine-grained, non-skeletal sediment. The GBB has locally well-developed oolitic grainstone facies and coral reef margins, which are both lacking on CSB. Platform-top water depths on the GBB are typically 10 m or less, but CSB depth ranges between 7 and 30 m. CSB is devoid of mud, whereas ...


The Effects Of Ultraviolet Light Exposure On The Activity Of Catalase In The Coelomocytes Of Sea Urchins Lytechinus Variegatus And Arbacia Punctulata, Kandis Arlinghaus 2019 Bellarmine University

The Effects Of Ultraviolet Light Exposure On The Activity Of Catalase In The Coelomocytes Of Sea Urchins Lytechinus Variegatus And Arbacia Punctulata, Kandis Arlinghaus

Undergraduate Theses

Many sea urchins play important ecological roles in their environments, and it is important to study the impacts of environmental stressors on their physiology. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure has significant negative impacts on marine organisms including an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative damage by ROS at the cellular level can cause lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and even cell death that may result in inflammation or disease. To prevent this cellular damage, organisms generate enzymes, such as catalase, that breakdown ROS into harmless substances. Elevated catalase activities under UVB, a range of UVR from 280–315 nm, exposure have ...


Optimizing Restoration Site Selection Along The Florida Reef Tract For The Coral Species Acropora Cervicornis And Acropora Palmata, Samantha King 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Optimizing Restoration Site Selection Along The Florida Reef Tract For The Coral Species Acropora Cervicornis And Acropora Palmata, Samantha King

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

The decline of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata populations and consequent listing as endangered species has prompted the need for restoration. Since financial resources are limited, optimal sites for restoration should not only be environmentally suitable for outplant survival, but also have a greater capacity to replenish surrounding reefs with larvae. However, in Florida coral larval dispersal patterns and reef connectivity remain poorly studied. Here, we measured long term larval survival and competency of A. cervicornis to calibrate a high resolution (100m) biophysical larval dispersal model of Acropora in the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). This model revealed that there is ...


Effects Of Deposited Sediment And Turbidity On Survival And Growth Of Orbicella Faveolata Recruits, Morgan Stephenson 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Effects Of Deposited Sediment And Turbidity On Survival And Growth Of Orbicella Faveolata Recruits, Morgan Stephenson

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Corals are frequently exposed to elevated turbidity and deposited sediment caused from coastal construction, dredging, and/or beach renourishment. This study addresses the effects of turbidity and deposited sediment on the survival and growth of newly settled and 6-week-old Orbicella faveolata recruits and disentangles the effects of turbidity and deposited sediment. We conducted two experiments in which newly settled coral recruits were reared in one of ten different turbidity and deposited sediment treatments for five weeks (0 NTU/ 0 mg cm-2, 3.4 NTU/ 0 mg cm-2, 8.2 NTU/ 0 mg cm-2, 16 NTU/ 0 mg ...


Assessment Of Heavy Metals In Subsistence-Harvested Alaskan Marine Mammal Body Tissues And Vibrissae, Pilar M. Ferdinando 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Assessment Of Heavy Metals In Subsistence-Harvested Alaskan Marine Mammal Body Tissues And Vibrissae, Pilar M. Ferdinando

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

The coastal, indigenous communities around Alaska have subsisted on marine animals for generations, often focusing on large apex predators such as seals, sea lions, and whales. Three species of pinnipeds (harbor seal, Steller sea lion, northern fur seal) and the northern sea otter have all undergone significant population declines since the 1970s, some regions more than others. Archived vibrissae (whiskers) and body tissues from these four species were available from the Bering Sea and throughout the Gulf of Alaska from the 1990s and early 2000s. Tissues from these species are exceedingly difficult to obtain; thus, the archived tissues provided a ...


A Comparison Of Circle And J Hook Performance Within The Grenadian Pelagic Longline Fishery, Anthony G. Burns 2019 Nova Southeastern University

A Comparison Of Circle And J Hook Performance Within The Grenadian Pelagic Longline Fishery, Anthony G. Burns

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

The development and adaptation of gear technologies to local fisheries has been a management-oriented research strategy commonly used to mitigate the ecological effects of pelagic longline (PLL) gear on bycatch species. Grenada’s PLL fishery primarily targets yellowfin tuna, however while minimal, their bycatch of blue marlin and white marlin exceeds the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) allowed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). A switch to circle hooks may benefit these nontargeted, bycatch species by reducing catch rates and haulback mortality, as well as increasing post-release survival. To determine differences in performance, assessments of 16 ...


Indirect Legacy Effects Of An Extreme Climatic Event On A Marine Megafaunal Community, Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thompson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich, Aaron Wirsing 2019 Florida International University; Mote Marine Laboratory

Indirect Legacy Effects Of An Extreme Climatic Event On A Marine Megafaunal Community, Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thompson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich, Aaron Wirsing

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

While extreme climatic events (ECEs) are predicted to become more frequent, reliably predicting their impacts on consumers remains challenging, particularly for large consumers in marine environments. Many studies that do evaluate ECE effects focus primarily on direct effects, though indirect effects can be equally or more important. Here, we investigate the indirect impacts of the 2011 “Ningaloo Niño” marine heatwave ECE on a diverse megafaunal community in Shark Bay, Western Australia. We use an 18‐year community‐level data set before (1998–2010) and after (2012–2015) the heatwave to assess the effects of seagrass loss on the abundance of ...


The Ellis Island Effect: Invasive Species In The Mid-Atlantic, Paul A.X. Bologna 2019 Montclair State University

The Ellis Island Effect: Invasive Species In The Mid-Atlantic, Paul A.X. Bologna

Sustainability Seminar Series

Global invasions of marine species often follow human migration pathways and primary commerce routes. Exploration, immigration, and commerce to the United States has created hot spots for invasive species to become established. In particular, Ellis Island served as a primary spot for European immigrants over the last century. During the last 3 years, we have documented for the first time four non-native hydrozoans in New Jersey using molecular techniques.

Gonionemusvertens, Moerisiainkermanica, and Bougainvilliatriestinahave origins potentially linked to the Mediterranean indicating a potential group invasion from that region. Aequoreaaustralisis a Pacific hydrozoan whose origin pathway is yet unknown, but has now ...


Body Shape Changes Across Habitat Transitions In Lizardfishes (Aulopiformes), Alex J. Maile, Matthew P. Davis 2019 St Cloud State University

Body Shape Changes Across Habitat Transitions In Lizardfishes (Aulopiformes), Alex J. Maile, Matthew P. Davis

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Abstract

The lizardfishes and their allies (Aulopiformes, ~282 species) are investigated from a geometric morphometric approach to study the evolution of body shape changes across habitat transitions in this lineage of fishes. No previous studies have quantitatively examined changes in body shape across lizardfishes and their allies. Over 400 lizardfish specimens were digitized that included representatives from every family of these fishes. We identify that there are distinct patterns of body-shape change across the lizardfish radiation. Body shape trends of cigar-shapes are dominant in inshore and deep-sea benthic habitats while ...


High-Resolution Habitat And Bathymetry Maps For 65,000 Sq. Km Of Earth’S Remotest Coral Reefs, Samuel J. Purkis, Arthur C. R. Gleason, Charlotte R. Purkis, Alexandra C. Dempsey, Philip Renaud, Mohamed Faisal, Steven Saul, Jeremy M. Kerr 2019 University of Miami

High-Resolution Habitat And Bathymetry Maps For 65,000 Sq. Km Of Earth’S Remotest Coral Reefs, Samuel J. Purkis, Arthur C. R. Gleason, Charlotte R. Purkis, Alexandra C. Dempsey, Philip Renaud, Mohamed Faisal, Steven Saul, Jeremy M. Kerr

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

With compelling evidence that half the world’s coral reefs have been lost over the last four decades, there is urgent motivation to understand where reefs are located and their health. Without such basic baseline information, it is challenging to mount a response to the reef crisis on the global scale at which it is occurring. To combat this lack of baseline data, the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation embarked on a 10-yr survey of a broad selection of Earth’s remotest reef sites—the Global Reef Expedition. This paper focuses on one output of this expedition, which is ...


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