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Seagrass Sedimentary Deposits As Security Vaults And Time Capsules Of The Human Past, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Oscar Serrano, Eugenia T. Apostolaki, David J. Gregory, Carlos M. Duarte 2019 Edith Cowan University

Seagrass Sedimentary Deposits As Security Vaults And Time Capsules Of The Human Past, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Oscar Serrano, Eugenia T. Apostolaki, David J. Gregory, Carlos M. Duarte

ECU Publications Post 2013

Seagrass meadows form valuable ecosystems, but are considered to have low cultural value due to limited research efforts in this field. We provide evidence that seagrass deposits play a hitherto unrealized central role in preserving valuable submerged archaeological and historical heritage across the world, while also providing an historical archive of human cultural development over time. We highlight three case studies showing the significance of seagrass in protecting underwater cultural heritage in Denmark, the Mediterranean and Australia. Moreover, we present an overview of additional evidence compiled from the literature. We emphasize that this important role of seagrasses is linked to ...


Assessing Freshwater Mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) Assemblages And Effects Of Eutrophication On Pyganodon Grandis In Lakes Of Eastern South Dakota, Katherine M. Wollman 2019 South Dakota State University

Assessing Freshwater Mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) Assemblages And Effects Of Eutrophication On Pyganodon Grandis In Lakes Of Eastern South Dakota, Katherine M. Wollman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Globally, the family Unionidae is the most threatened group of freshwater fauna. South Dakota is well known for its agricultural production, leading to cultural eutrophication from enhanced fertilizers and sediments. This impact can alter species presence, age, growth and mortality. Objectives of this study were to 1) implement the first comprehensive lake survey of freshwater mussels in eastern South Dakota lakes and document distribution, occurrence and relative abundance, 2) evaluate relationships between age, growth and mortality of Pyganodon grandis and lake trophic state. Freshwater mussels were sampled in 2017 from 116 proportionally and randomly selected natural lakes and reservoir basins ...


Seagrass Removal Leads To Rapid Changes In Fauna And Loss Of Carbon, Michael N. Githaiga, Anna M. Frouws, James G. Kairo, Mark Huxham 2019 Edith Cowan University

Seagrass Removal Leads To Rapid Changes In Fauna And Loss Of Carbon, Michael N. Githaiga, Anna M. Frouws, James G. Kairo, Mark Huxham

ECU Publications Post 2013

Seagrass habitats are important natural carbon sinks, with an average of ~14 kg C m−2 buried in their sediments. The fate of this carbon following seagrass removal or damage has major environmental implications but is poorly understood. Using a removal experiment lasting 18 months at Gazi Bay, Kenya, we investigated the impacts of seagrass loss on sediment topography, hydrodynamics, faunal community structure and carbon dynamics. Sediment pins were used to monitor surface elevation. The effects of seagrass removal on water velocity was investigated using Plaster of Paris dissolution. Sediment carbon concentration was measured at the surface and down to ...


Patterns Of Diatom Diversity Correlate With Dissolved Trace Metal Concentrations And Longitudinal Position In The Notheast Pacific Coastal Offshore Transition Zone, P. Dreux Chappell, E. Virginia Armbrust, Katherine A. Barbeau, Randelle M. Bundy, Jagruti Vedamati, Bethany D. Jenkins 2019 Old Dominion University

Patterns Of Diatom Diversity Correlate With Dissolved Trace Metal Concentrations And Longitudinal Position In The Notheast Pacific Coastal Offshore Transition Zone, P. Dreux Chappell, E. Virginia Armbrust, Katherine A. Barbeau, Randelle M. Bundy, Jagruti Vedamati, Bethany D. Jenkins

OEAS Faculty Publications

Diatoms are important primary producers in the northeast Pacific Ocean, with their productivity closely linked to pulses of trace elements in the western high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the oceanographic time series transect 'Line P.' Recently, the coastal-HNLC transition zone of the Line P transect was identified as a hotspot of phytoplankton productivity, potentially controlled by a combination of trace element and macronutrient concentrations. Here we describe diatom community composition in the eastern Line P transect, including the coastal- HNLC transition zone, with a method using high-throughput sequencing of diatom 18S gene amplicons. We identified significant correlations between ...


Evaluating Confidence In The Impact Of Regulatory Nutrient Reduction On Chesapeake Bay Water Quality, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Evaluating Confidence In The Impact Of Regulatory Nutrient Reduction On Chesapeake Bay Water Quality, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

Excess nutrients derived from anthropogenic activity have resulted in the degradation of coastal water quality and an increase in low-oxygen and hypoxic events worldwide. In an effort to curb these impacts and restore water quality in the Chesapeake Bay, a maximum load of nutrients has been established based on a framework of regulatory standards and models. This research aims to evaluate the projected changes in water quality resulting from the implementation of these nutrient reductions by applying the regulatory methodology to two different models that have been previously shown to have similar model skill. Results demonstrate that although the two ...


Changing Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticuschanging Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticus, Clare Flynn 2019 Claremont Colleges

Changing Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticuschanging Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticus, Clare Flynn

Pomona Senior Theses

Cassin’s auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) reproductive success has been monitored on Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI) for the past 45 years. Their productivity has varied with oceanic conditions. The purpose of this study is to connect how oceanic conditions affect Cassin’s auklet foraging behaviors. The California Current System (CCS) can normally maintain high plankton productivity, and thus high seabird productivity, because of coastal upwelling. I hypothesized that lower upwelling and/or higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) lead Cassin’s auklets to spend more time on intensive foraging behaviors such as flying and diving, and have less time to spend resting ...


Effects Of Aquatic Acidification On Calcium Uptake In White River Shrimp Litopenaeus Setiferus Gills, Maria-Flora Jacobs 2019 University of North Florida

Effects Of Aquatic Acidification On Calcium Uptake In White River Shrimp Litopenaeus Setiferus Gills, Maria-Flora Jacobs

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research regarding aquatic acidification has examined the protonation of the carbonate and does not consider calcium to be a limiting factor. This is the first study to suggest that pH may affect the uptake of calcium in crustacean gills. This project describes ion transport mechanisms present in the cell membranes of white river shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus gill epithelium, and the effects of pH on the uptake of calcium by these means. Partially purified membrane vesicles (PPMV) of shrimp gills were prepared through a homogenization process that has been used previously to define ion transport in crab and lobster gill ...


Partitioning Of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants And Microbial Communities On Microplastics, Kelley Ann Uhlig 2019 William & Mary - Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Partitioning Of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants And Microbial Communities On Microplastics, Kelley Ann Uhlig

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Microplastic contamination of aquatic environments has only recently caught the attention of scientists, regulators and the public. Microplastics are typically more recalcitrant than naturally occurring polymers and so have the potential to cause a range of issues, including increased exposure of marine life to chemical contaminants sorbed to or leached from microplastics, negative impacts due to ingestion of microplastics by biota, and the potential to carry and transport pathogenic and invasive species long distances. Bio-based, bio-degradable polymers have begun to gain market share as an alternative to traditional petrochemical-based plastics, but not much is known about their impacts in marine ...


An Exploration Into The Identification, Etiology, And Distribution Of Idiopathic Blindness In The American Lobster, Homarus Americanus, Addison T. Ochs 2019 William & Mary - Virginia Institute of Marine Science

An Exploration Into The Identification, Etiology, And Distribution Of Idiopathic Blindness In The American Lobster, Homarus Americanus, Addison T. Ochs

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Idiopathic blindness is an environmental disease observed in the American lobster, Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837. The only diagnostic assay for idiopathic blindness has been the histological assessment of the eye, which is a time consuming, invasive, and a delicate procedure. I investigated several tools, including the otolaryngoscope and enhanced counterstaining using Bouin’s fixative as alternative, rapid methods for the detection of idiopathic blindness in lobsters. I applied these new diagnostic techniques to toxicology studies to explore a possible lead on the etiology of this condition. Divalent manganese is a well-established neurotoxin released from sediments under hypoxic conditions ...


Adult Atlantic Sturgeon Population Dynamics In The York River, Virginia, Jason E. Kahn 2019 West Virginia University

Adult Atlantic Sturgeon Population Dynamics In The York River, Virginia, Jason E. Kahn

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Sturgeon first appear in the fossil record in the Triassic Period just over 200 million years ago and are among the most primitive of the bony fishes. Despite their large size and historic presence along the East Coast, Atlantic sturgeon were not targeted for their meat and caviar as a commercial fishery until 1880. By 1905 they had declined to less than one percent of their pre-fishing abundance but the fishery continued. Prior to 1980, there had been very little research on Atlantic sturgeon, primarily limited to documenting landing location and poundage, maximum longevity, or weight of eggs per fish ...


The ‘Thing’ From This World, Sergio M. Pellis 2019 University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada

The ‘Thing’ From This World, Sergio M. Pellis

Animal Sentience

Science progresses by making contrasts, and the living world is a gold mine of contrasts. Often disciplines become victims by focusing on too narrow a slice of that diversity, leading to a myopic view of how nature works. The relationships between the brain and behavior have been intensively studied in vertebrates, especially mammals, and we have become complacent in our assumptions about how behavior is constructed. As the target article by Mather (2019) shows, the relationship between the brain and behavior in octopuses forces us to reevaluate some of those assumptions.


Covers, 2019 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Shrimp Production Environment And The Effect Of Gut Microbiome: Effects Of Aquaculture Practices And Selective Breeding On The Gut Microbiome Of Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus Vannamei, Angela Landsman 2019 South Dakota State University

Shrimp Production Environment And The Effect Of Gut Microbiome: Effects Of Aquaculture Practices And Selective Breeding On The Gut Microbiome Of Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus Vannamei, Angela Landsman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Knowledge of the functional role of the gut microbiome in animal health and nutrition may provide solutions to shrimp aquaculture challenges, such as improving disease resistance and optimizing growth particularly with low cost feeds. Successful manipulation of bacteria found in the gut requires a deeper understanding of shrimp microbial communities and how their compositional structure is influenced by environmental conditions, and inherent host factors such as genetics. The initial research investigated the intestinal bacterial communities of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in pond systems compared to indoor aquaculture facilities as an exploration of the effects of aquaculture practices ...


In The Eye Of The Storm: Houston After Hurricane Harvey, Brandon Tolentino-Serrano 2019 Claremont Colleges

In The Eye Of The Storm: Houston After Hurricane Harvey, Brandon Tolentino-Serrano

Pomona Senior Theses

Situated in one of the wettest climates in America, Houston, TX has had a long history of heavy rains and unprecedented floods. Unfortunately, floods have become more common over the last few decades as climate change increases the frequency and intensity of hurricanes around the globe. To complicate matters further, Houston has quickly sprawled to accommodate over 2.5 billion people. Rapid urbanization has rendered the landscape even more susceptible to floods through excess concretization and watershed disturbance. This thesis traces the history of the Bayou City in relation to the damages caused by Hurricane Harvey. By mapping out the ...


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay. Annual Progress Report: 2018-2019, Brian K. Gallagher, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay. Annual Progress Report: 2018-2019, Brian K. Gallagher, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey

Reports

The 2018 Striped Bass juvenile abundance index was 10.72 and was not significantly different than the reference mean of 7.77 from 1980-2009. Abundance indices in the James and York river systems in 2018 were average compared to their individual reference means (1980-2009), whereas abundance was above average in the Rappahannock River. Relatively high catches of young‐of‐the‐year Striped Bass at downriver sites in 2018 suggested Striped Bass were displaced downstream of their typical core nursery areas, likely due to high volumes of freshwater discharge and low salinities before and during the sampling period. Juvenile White Perch ...


Trawling Through The Five Gyres: A Microplastic Research Study Subjects: Life Science, Earth Science, Marine/Ocean Science - Grade 6, Meredith Seeley 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Trawling Through The Five Gyres: A Microplastic Research Study Subjects: Life Science, Earth Science, Marine/Ocean Science - Grade 6, Meredith Seeley

Reports

This activity challenges students to help researchers understand what types of plastics are polluting the oceans!

Teachers will prepare samples of microplastics that were collected in each of the 5 ocean gyres, mimicking plastic concentrations actually found in the oceans! Working as a group, students will count the items of plastic and graph their results. They will share their results with the class to compare their gyre to the other four gyres. Finally, students will understand the link between ocean microplastic pollution, and our use of single-use plastics.

This activity can be completed in 45 minutes in the class. An ...


Atlantic Wolffish: A Tale Of Missing Teeth Subjects: Life Science, Biology, Marine/Ocean Science - Grades: 6-8, Kate Bemis 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Atlantic Wolffish: A Tale Of Missing Teeth Subjects: Life Science, Biology, Marine/Ocean Science - Grades: 6-8, Kate Bemis

Reports

This lesson plan asks students to make observations based on photographs of real specimens from a natural history collection.

Students collect data to make graphs, which allow them to compare trends for how different variables impact the ecology of Atlantic Wolffish.


Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan B. Carnegie, Jessica Moss Small, Karen Hudson, Kimberley S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr. 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan B. Carnegie, Jessica Moss Small, Karen Hudson, Kimberley S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr.

VIMS Articles

Since 2012, aquacultured eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica have been reported by oyster farmers to display mortality approaching 30%, and in some cases 85%, in areas of the lower Chesapeake Bay, VA. Based on accounts from industry, this mortality has typically affected 1-y-old oysters between May and early July, and has tended to occur in triploid oysters, which represent the vast bulk of production in the area. During this period, samples submitted for pathology have not revealed the presence of major pathogens as a cause. In 2015, to gain deeper insight into this mortality and determine whether specific sites, ploidy condition ...


Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, PS Thibodeau, DK Steinberg, SE Stammerjohn, C Hauri 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Dk Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri

VIMS Articles

Pteropods are abundant zooplankton in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and important grazers of phytoplankton and prey for higher trophic levels. We analyzed long-term (1993-2017) trends in summer (January-February) abundance of WAP pteropods in relation to environmental controls (sea ice, sea surface temperature, climate indices, phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and carbonate chemistry) and interspecies dynamics using general linear models. There was no overall directional trend in abundance of thecosomes, Limacina helicina antarctica and Clio pyramidata, throughout the entire WAP, although L. antarctica abundance increased in the slope region and C. pyramidata abundance increased in the South. High L. antarctica abundance ...


Nursery Habitat Quality Assessed By The Condition Of Juvenile Fishes: Not All Estuarine Areas Are Equal, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Nursery Habitat Quality Assessed By The Condition Of Juvenile Fishes: Not All Estuarine Areas Are Equal, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

High-quality nursery habitats support greater numbers of juveniles that survive to adulthood, but characteristics underlying high-quality habitats remain elusive because their productivity varies spatially and temporally and may be species-specific. Fish condition is an energy-integrative measure of ecological interactions, stress, and activity within a habitat, such that juvenile fish condition is representative of the quality of nursery habitats. We apply spatially explicit models to examine patterns in nursery habitat quality of Virginia estuaries based on nutritional condition for Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus, summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus, and striped bass Morone saxatilis. Environmental factors (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and depth ...


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