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Hexapod Herald, August 2019 (Vol 31, No 3), 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Hexapod Herald, August 2019 (Vol 31, No 3)

Hexapod Herald & Other Entomology Department Newsletters

Welcome: Dr. Kyle Koch, Dr. Débora Montezano, Dr. Lise Pingault, Dr. Prince Zogli, Dr. Tobiasz Druciarek, Zuguo Guo, Vilma Montenegro, Sabrina Ongaratto, Emily Reinders, Otávio Silva Xavier, plus Online M.S. students for Fall 2019:

Faculty News: Dr. Jeff Bradshaw, Dr. Louise Lynch-O’Brien, Dr. Matthew Smart, Dr. Ana Vélez, Dr. Judy Wu-Smart

Publications

Congratulations

Student News

Grants

Inaugural 10 week NIFA-funded Beneficial Insects Research and Extension Ex-periences for Undergraduates (REEU) program

Insects and Murder: educational murder mystery game created by graduate student Justine LaViolette.


An Analysis Of Arthropod Interceptions By Aphis-Ppq And Customs And Border Protection In Puerto Rico, David A. Jenkins, Russell F. Mizell, Skip Van Bloem, Stefanie Whitmire, Leyinska Wiscovitch, Crystal Zaleski, Ricardo Goenaga 2019 USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

An Analysis Of Arthropod Interceptions By Aphis-Ppq And Customs And Border Protection In Puerto Rico, David A. Jenkins, Russell F. Mizell, Skip Van Bloem, Stefanie Whitmire, Leyinska Wiscovitch, Crystal Zaleski, Ricardo Goenaga

Skip Van Bloem

USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine (APHIS-PPQ) and Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspect traffic entering the United States for arthropods posing a threat to national agriculture or ecosystems. We analyzed interceptions made by these agencies in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands between October 2006 and December 2009 for patterns with regard to the frequency of interceptions, origins of interceptions, and the taxa intercepted. 6,952 arthropods were intercepted in freight or luggage entering Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands from foreign countries and 9,840 arthropods were intercepted from freight ...


Forest Fragments As Barriers To Fruit Fly Dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations In Orchards And Adjacent Forest Fragments In Puerto Rico, David A. Jenkins, Paul E. Kendra, Skip Van Bloem, Stefanie Whitmire, Russ Mizell III, Ricardo Goenaga 2019 USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

Forest Fragments As Barriers To Fruit Fly Dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations In Orchards And Adjacent Forest Fragments In Puerto Rico, David A. Jenkins, Paul E. Kendra, Skip Van Bloem, Stefanie Whitmire, Russ Mizell Iii, Ricardo Goenaga

Skip Van Bloem

McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa(Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrephapopulations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function ...


Hippodamia Convergens Overwintering Feeding, Nathan Mercer 2019 University of Kentucky

Hippodamia Convergens Overwintering Feeding, Nathan Mercer

Lady Beetle Research Data

Impact of food supplements on overwintering Hippodamia convergens energy reserves, survival and spring reproduction.


Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini 2019 Universidade Federal de Lavras

Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean environments are poorly known regarding many ecological aspects, such as community structure and its response to different disturbances. To estimate the effects of ground area lost in a limestone cave community in Southeastern Brazil, the invertebrate fauna was sampled before 76% of the cave floor was submerged by the filling of a hydroeletric power plant reservoir. Then, a 2-year monitoring was conducted. A species-area curve based on empiric data was constructed and the z-value of the species-area equation was calculated, what allowed estimating the expected cave richness after flooding comparing with data obtained during the monitoring. The results support ...


Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo 2019 Randolph-Macon College

Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo

Virginia Journal of Science

The recent focus on the importance of native plants and their pollinators has highlighted the critical role of local species in their natural environment. As urban encroachment, climate change, and invasive species continues to threaten native habitats, it is increasingly important to promote the use of local green spaces as refugia for native plants and their pollinators. The aim of this project, therefore, was to identify and assess the visitation frequency of insect pollinators associated with an urban setting within the Piedmont region of Virginia, and compare their association with native versus closely-related but non-native summer-flowering plants. Several modes of ...


Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson

Western Research Forum

Using stable isotope measurements of insect tissues to determine origin and migratory patterns is well established. However, isotopically determining nutritional origins of lipids, the primary fuel of migration, has not been as thoroughly researched. We explored isotopic links between diet and stored lipids in laboratory raised True armyworm moths (Mythimna unipuncta) using δ13C and δ2H measurements. Pupae were randomly separated into four groups (n=20) and fed isotopically distinct nectar, each consisting of a combination of high δ13C (C4 sugar), or low δ13C (C3 sugar) carbohydrate, with high δ2H (deuterium ...


Symptoms, Distribution And Abundance Of The Stem-Boring Caterpillar, Blastobasis Repartella (Dietz), In Switchgrass, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw, Arvid A. Boe, DoKyoung Lee, David Adamski, Michael E. Gray 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Symptoms, Distribution And Abundance Of The Stem-Boring Caterpillar, Blastobasis Repartella (Dietz), In Switchgrass, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw, Arvid A. Boe, Dokyoung Lee, David Adamski, Michael E. Gray

Arvid Boe

A potential pest of switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., was first detected in South Dakota in 2004, where death of partially emerged leaves was noted in a small proportion of tillers. Similar “dead heart” symptoms were observed in switchgrass in Illinois during 2008 and adults of a stem-boring caterpillar were collected and identified as Blastobasis repartella (Dietz). In 2009, a survey of the central United States was used to estimate the distribution and abundance of this insect. In eight northern states, B. repartella was consistently found in both cultivated plots and natural stands of switchgrass. In four southern states, B. repartella ...


Native Grass And Legume Biology And Establishment, Arvid A. Boe, P. J. Johnson 2019 South Dakota State University

Native Grass And Legume Biology And Establishment, Arvid A. Boe, P. J. Johnson

Arvid Boe

No abstract provided.


Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter 2019 Missouri State University

Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter

MSU Graduate Theses

Dulosis is a type of social parasitism in which a parasitic ant has become dependent on captured workers (hosts) of a closely related species. Dulosis can be either facultative or obligate depending on the degree of dependence on host workers. As parasites become more specialized over evolutionary time, their domestic abilities degenerate until they become unable to survive without the host. However, the ‘lost’ behaviors may display some degree of recovery when host workers are unavailable to do the tasks. The Formica sanguinea group consists of 12 species of parasitic ants, which are all traditionally considered to be facultative parasites ...


Vertical Connectivity Influences Secondary Production, Community Diversity, And Resilience In An Ozark Stream, Nathan C. Dorff 2019 Missouri State University

Vertical Connectivity Influences Secondary Production, Community Diversity, And Resilience In An Ozark Stream, Nathan C. Dorff

MSU Graduate Theses

The hyporheic zone, a key component of stream vertical connectivity, supports stream function (e.g., nutrient regeneration) and provides habitat for aquatic biota. The Ozark Highlands ecoregion contains gravel-bed streams that have extensive hyporheic zones and that are subject to recurrent flash floods. I sampled Leuctra tenuis(Pictet) nymphs from the hyporheic habitat (30-45 cm below the streambed) in a gravel-bed reach and an intermittent tributary of an Ozark stream from early instar to adult emergence. Concurrently, I sampled benthic insects in two reaches of the same stream that differed primarily in amount of hyporheic habitat (bedrock vs. gravel) and ...


Using Pseudo Nomarski Contrast To Study Hemocytes Of Galleria Mellonella, Westley David Peterson 2019 Missouri State University

Using Pseudo Nomarski Contrast To Study Hemocytes Of Galleria Mellonella, Westley David Peterson

MSU Graduate Theses

Differentiation of insect hemocytes requires microscopes equipped with differential interference contrast (DIC), s.c. Nomarski’s contrast. However, the high price of DIC limits speed and efficacy of hemocyte studies. For my thesis, I developed two low cost microscope sets equipped with custom oblique illumination filters. The oblique illumination filters, that I produced, provided high quality images comparable with those produced by DIC, for a fraction of the cost and allowed me to train laboratory personnel quickly. Microscopes with these oblique illumination filters were used in studies of spherulocytes and for rapid screening of plant essential oils to impair insect ...


Physiological Characterization Of Inward Rectifier Potassium (Kir) Channels In Insect Neural Systems, Rui Chen 2019 Louisiana State University

Physiological Characterization Of Inward Rectifier Potassium (Kir) Channels In Insect Neural Systems, Rui Chen

LSU Master's Theses

A complete understanding of the physiological pathways critical for proper function of the insect nervous system is still lacking. The recent development of potent and selective small-molecule modulators of insect inward rectifier potassium channels has enabled the interrogation of the physiological role and toxicological potential of Kir channels within various insect tissue systems. Therefore, we aimed to highlight the physiological and functional role of neural Kir channels in the central nervous system, muscular system, and neuromuscular system through pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Our data provide significant evidence that Drosophila neural systems rely on the inward conductance of K+ ions for ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias 2019 University of Maine

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Neurotoxic Effects Of Paraoxon And Isofenphos On The Ventral Nerve Cord Of The American Cockroach, Periplaneta Americana , Thomas Jon Heppner 2019 Iowa State University

Neurotoxic Effects Of Paraoxon And Isofenphos On The Ventral Nerve Cord Of The American Cockroach, Periplaneta Americana , Thomas Jon Heppner

Thomas Jon

The phosphoramidates are a group of organophosphates whose mode of action is not as clear as other activated phosphates. To better understand the mode of action of phosphoramidates, the insecticidal activity and relative potency of paraoxon and the aryl phosphoramidate isofenphos (0-ethyl 0-(2-isopropoxycarbonyl)- phenyl isopropylphosphoramidothioate) and its metabolites, iso- fenphos oxon, des-N-isopropyl isofenphos (DNI) and des-N-iso- propyl isofenphos oxon (DNIO) were examined using the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Each chemical was dissolved in saline and applied to the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of a dissected cockroach. The electrical response of the normally quiescent giant interneurons (GIs) to each chemical ...


Mesopredator Distribution, Abundance And Potential Competition With The American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus Americanus) At Fort Chaffee Joint Maneuver Training Center, Karisa Fenton 2019 Arkansas Tech University

Mesopredator Distribution, Abundance And Potential Competition With The American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus Americanus) At Fort Chaffee Joint Maneuver Training Center, Karisa Fenton

Theses and Dissertations from 2019

The American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus, hereafter ABB) was listed as an endangered species in 1989 and many hypotheses have been developed to explain their rangewide decline. I investigated the carcass competition hypothesis that implicates increased competition between vertebrate scavengers and ABBs for appropriate-sized carcasses as a cause for ABB decline. Predators of medium size that occupy an intermediate trophic level (hereafter mesopredators) are potential competitors for carcasses. I used camera trapping to assess mesopredator abundances in nine different habitats at Fort Chaffee Joint Maneuver Training Center (FCJMTC) in western Arkansas because this area supports the largest known population of ...


Hexapod Herald - Vol. 31, No. 2, May 2019, 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Hexapod Herald - Vol. 31, No. 2, May 2019

Hexapod Herald & Other Entomology Department Newsletters

Congratulations -- Meeting News -- Welcome -- Publications -- Grants -- Faculty News -- Outreach -- Student News -- Busy as a Bee -- Distinguished Alumni Recognition -- Entomology Department Alumni Dinner


Biogeography Of Endemic Dragonflies Of The Ozark-Ouachita Interior Highlands, Wade Alexander Boys 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Biogeography Of Endemic Dragonflies Of The Ozark-Ouachita Interior Highlands, Wade Alexander Boys

Theses and Dissertations

A common pattern across many taxonomic groups is that relatively few species are widespread while the majority are restricted in their geographic ranges. Such species distributions are used to inform conservation status, which poses unique challenges for rare or cryptic species. Further, priority status is often designated within geopolitical boundaries, which may include only a portion of a species range. This, coupled with lack of distributional data, has resulted in species being designated as apparently rare throughout some portions of their range, which may not accurately reflect their overall conservation need. The Interior Highlands region of the central United States ...


Do Enallagma Exsulans From Streams And Lakes Show Patterns Of Divergence?, Savannah Rae Graham 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Do Enallagma Exsulans From Streams And Lakes Show Patterns Of Divergence?, Savannah Rae Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Divergent selection across heterogenous environments could lead to adaptive divergence in populations resulting in potential local adaption. These populations have phenotypic differences that are fitness related and make native individuals more fit than non-native individuals. My research focuses on a species of damselfly, Enallagma exsulans, to explore local adaptation and morphological differences as a result of divergent selection or plasticity. My first study explored potential local adaptation of wild caught stream and lake E. exsulans using a reciprocal transplant design, a classic approach for this objective. The stream and lake sites chosen were on a small spatial scale allowing for ...


The Impact Of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera Frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Feeding And Mechanical Defoliation On Growth And Yield Of Rice, Oryza Sativa (L.), Layton Denman McCullars 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impact Of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera Frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Feeding And Mechanical Defoliation On Growth And Yield Of Rice, Oryza Sativa (L.), Layton Denman Mccullars

Theses and Dissertations

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), (FAW) is a serious pests of many crops, and can be observed feeding throughout the entire growing season on rice, Oryza sativa, (L.). A new defoliation based threshold would help rice growers and consultants make more economically sound decisions for FAW. Work from this thesis focuses on determining the amount of damage caused by FAW feeding at different growth stages and effective insecticide seed treatments for controlling this pest.

Field plots were mechanically defoliated to determine grain yield loss across multiple growth stages and defoliation percentages. Results indicated that defoliation in late ...


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