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Human Skin Triglycerides Prevent Bed Bug (Cimex Lectularius L.) Arrestment, Sudip Gaire, Zachary C. DeVries, Russell Mick, Richard G. Santangelo, Grazia Bottillo, Emanuela Camera, Coby Schal 2021 University of Kentucky

Human Skin Triglycerides Prevent Bed Bug (Cimex Lectularius L.) Arrestment, Sudip Gaire, Zachary C. Devries, Russell Mick, Richard G. Santangelo, Grazia Bottillo, Emanuela Camera, Coby Schal

Entomology Faculty Publications

Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have proliferated globally and have become one of the most challenging pests to control indoors. They are nocturnal and use multiple sensory cues to detect and orient towards their human hosts. After feeding, usually on a sleeping human, they return to a shelter on or around the sleeping surface, but not directly on the host. We hypothesized that although human skin odors attract hungry bed bugs, human skin compounds may also prevent arrestment on hosts. We used arrestment assays to test human skin swabs, extracts from human skin swabs, and pure compounds identified from human skin ...


Validation Of Reference Genes For Quantitative Pcr In The Forest Pest, Ips Calligraphus, Mary Wallace, Lynne K. Rieske 2021 University of Kentucky

Validation Of Reference Genes For Quantitative Pcr In The Forest Pest, Ips Calligraphus, Mary Wallace, Lynne K. Rieske

Entomology Faculty Publications

The six-spined ips, Ips calligraphus, is a North American bark beetle that can exploit most eastern North American Pinus species and can cause mortality. Biotic and abiotic disturbances weaken trees, creating breeding substrate that promotes rapid population growth. Management historically relied on silvicultural practices, but as forests become increasingly stressed, innovative management is needed. Manipulation of the cellular RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to induce gene silencing is an emerging means of insect suppression, and is effective for some bark beetles. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool for analysis of gene expression, and is essential for examining RNAi. To compare ...


Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Ecology In Nebraska Agroecosystems, Blessing Ademokoya 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Ecology In Nebraska Agroecosystems, Blessing Ademokoya

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) have gained considerable attention in Nebraska in the last decade due to increasing densities of native stink bug and spread of invasive species in the Midwest. Little is known about stink bug dynamics in Nebraska cropping systems. Based on data from a recent field survey, specimens at the University of Nebraska State Museum and the diagnostic lab of the Entomology Department at the University of Nebraska Lincoln, as well as published literature, we present a checklist of 72 species and subspecies of Pentatomidae (55 Pentatominae, 13 Asopinae, 3 Podopinae and 1 Edessinae) that occur in ...


Use Of Attractant And Repellent Semiochemicals To Manage Stable Fly (Stomoxys Calcitrans (L.)) Populations On Pastured Cattle Using A Push-Pull Strategy, Alexander Thomas Lehmann 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Use Of Attractant And Repellent Semiochemicals To Manage Stable Fly (Stomoxys Calcitrans (L.)) Populations On Pastured Cattle Using A Push-Pull Strategy, Alexander Thomas Lehmann

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) are major economic pests of pastured cattle. Their feeding activity causes billions of dollars of damage to the cattle industry. This project investigated the management of stable flies on pastured cattle using a novel Push-Pull treatment in field trials. The repellent Push treatment, a hydrogenated coconut oil containing approximately 70% of C8, C10, and C12 fatty acids in a starch-pectin water formulation, was applied to the animals weekly. The Pull component was a stable fly trap augmented with an attractant (m-cresol). Permethrin and untreated controls were used as comparisons. Both permethrin and Push-Pull treatments reduced stable ...


The Impact Of Beneficial Organisms In Corn Agroecosystems, Callie Rosalind Braley 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Beneficial Organisms In Corn Agroecosystems, Callie Rosalind Braley

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Corn is one of the world’s, and Nebraska’s, most important crops. Millions of acres are planted to corn each year in the Cornhusker State. However, each year there are a plethora of arthropod, weed, and microorganism pests that rob farmers of reaching their maximum yield potential. There are many options available to manage these pests in corn agroecosystems, but one option is often underutilized: beneficial organisms. For each pest, there are a variety of natural enemies that can assist in mitigating the damage caused by pests.

Many beneficial organisms exist, and they can be grouped by the type ...


Examination Of Cajeput Oil (Melaleuca Cajuputi) Phytochemicals As Tools To Manage The Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes Aegypti L.), Ellis Johnson 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examination Of Cajeput Oil (Melaleuca Cajuputi) Phytochemicals As Tools To Manage The Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes Aegypti L.), Ellis Johnson

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., is among the most important insects as it pertains to public health. It vectors several health-endangering pathogens, including yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Insecticides are among the most effective tools used to manage mosquito populations however, their efficacy to manage mosquito populations is being threatened by insecticide resistance. This ongoing threat warrants new chemical strategies to reduce or incapacitate a mosquito population capable of pathogen transmission. Plant essential oils are candidates for identifying novel management tools for disease-vectoring arthropods. Commercially, essential oils have been used for pharmaceuticals, flavoring, fragrances, cosmetics ...


Evidence Of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte) Field-Evolved Resistance To Cry3bb1 + Cry34/35ab1 Maize In Nebraska, Jordan Reinders, Emily E. Reinders, Emily Robinson, Brian W. French, Lance J. Meinke 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evidence Of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte) Field-Evolved Resistance To Cry3bb1 + Cry34/35ab1 Maize In Nebraska, Jordan Reinders, Emily E. Reinders, Emily Robinson, Brian W. French, Lance J. Meinke

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

BACKGROUND: Western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) field-evolved resistance to transgenic maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been confirmed across the United States Corn Belt. Although use of pyramided hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 has increased in recent years to mitigate existing WCR Bt resistance, susceptibility of Nebraska WCR populations to this rootworm–Bt pyramid has not been assessed. Plant-based bioassays were used to characterize the susceptibility of WCR populations to Cry3Bb1 and Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 maize. Populations were collected from areas of northeastern Nebraska with a history of planting Bt maize that expressed ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson 2021 Southwestern Oklahoma State University

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


Adaptation Strategies For Wild Blueberry Growers In A Changing Climate: Mulching Effects On Crop Productivity And Fertility Effects On Blueberry Gall Midge, Rebecca Gumbrewicz 2021 University of Maine

Adaptation Strategies For Wild Blueberry Growers In A Changing Climate: Mulching Effects On Crop Productivity And Fertility Effects On Blueberry Gall Midge, Rebecca Gumbrewicz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton.) cropping systems are considered resilient to environmental changes due to ecological and genetic diversity within each field. However, wild blueberries can be sensitive to weather fluctuations that cause extreme temperature or moisture regimes. Climate change in Maine is represented by increasing rates of warming temperatures, more intense precipitation events, and more frequent atmospheric “blocking” patterns. Warming temperatures result in the northward expansion of pest ranges and altered growing seasons. More extreme rainfall events lead to damaged plantings and soil erosion. Atmospheric blocking leads to an increased likelihood of heat waves and drought. Two experiments were ...


A Preliminary Investigation Into The Effects Of Lucilia Sericata (Meigen) Blow Fly Larval Feeding On Sharp Force Trauma (Sft) Wound Patterns In Decomposing Bones Of Sus Scrofa Domesticus, Erica L. Klafehn 2021 CUNY John Jay College

A Preliminary Investigation Into The Effects Of Lucilia Sericata (Meigen) Blow Fly Larval Feeding On Sharp Force Trauma (Sft) Wound Patterns In Decomposing Bones Of Sus Scrofa Domesticus, Erica L. Klafehn

Student Theses

An important aspect of forensic investigations involves the characterization and analysis of bone related trauma as this can provide valuable information regarding the manner and circumstances of death. Bone trauma can be classified into three main categories, which include Sharp Force Trauma (SFT), Blunt Force Trauma (BFT), and Gunshot Trauma. Previous experiments have explored SFT on flesh and bones, specifically made with knives or saws, coupled with various microscopic analytical methods. Minimal research has been done integrating both a forensic entomology and forensic anthropology approach, so it is imperative to understand previous literature detailing the behaviors of insects (blow flies ...


Habitat Assessment Of Ozark Glades Using Selected Epigeal Predatory Arthropods, Austin Key Jones 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Habitat Assessment Of Ozark Glades Using Selected Epigeal Predatory Arthropods, Austin Key Jones

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epigeal predatory arthropods were collected with pitfall-style traps in nine sandstone glades of varying ecological stages, and management histories, in the Ozarks of Northern Arkansas over three years. These sites were categorized into three Site Types; Intact, high quality glades; Degraded, forest-encroached glades, and Restored glades which had received woody vegetation removal and burning. Collections of ground spiders (Gnaphosidae), predatory ground beetles (Carabidae), and the sole species of scorpion present in the Ozarks, Centruroides vittatus, were reported on as well as the applicability of arthropod collection methods for glade habitat assessment. Habitat characteristics were recorded for each site and analyzed ...


American Burying Beetle, Plant Richness, And Soil Property Responses To Collapse Of Juniperus Virginiana Woodlands With Fire, Alison Ludwig 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

American Burying Beetle, Plant Richness, And Soil Property Responses To Collapse Of Juniperus Virginiana Woodlands With Fire, Alison Ludwig

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Grasslands are declining in the Great Plains due to land use changes, woody plant encroachment, and loss of historic fire cycles. Prescribed burn associations have utilized prescribed fire to collapse invading woodlands and allow the restoration of grasslands. This fire is considered “extreme” because it is capable of changing the structure and function of an ecosystem. Our study site is the Loess Canyons Experimental Landscape, a long-term, ecoregion-scale experiment to apply prescribed fire across the region to restore grasslands. The Nebraska Natural Legacy Project established the Loess Canyons ecoregion as a Biologically-Unique Landscape in 2005 with the state’s wildlife ...


Examining Risks To Honey Bee Pollinators Foraging In Agricultural Landscapes, Jon Zawislak 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Risks To Honey Bee Pollinators Foraging In Agricultural Landscapes, Jon Zawislak

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bee pollinators provide essential ecological services to wild plant communities, and addtremendous economic value to agriculture by improving both the quality and quantity of crop yield. Beekeepers are often contracted by growers to provide colonies of honey bees for pollination of high-value produce (fruits, vegetables and nuts). Many of the major commodity crops produced in the central and mid-southern United States are wind-pollinated (rice, corn, grain sorghum, wheat), or are sufficiently self-fertile (soybeans, cotton), and so do not require bee pollination in order to produce yield. Beekeepers still rely on these agricultural landscapes to support honey bee colonies when not ...


Effects Of "Lemongrass Factor" On Galleria Mellonella Hemocytes, Jennifer C. Rice 2021 Missouri State University - Springfield

Effects Of "Lemongrass Factor" On Galleria Mellonella Hemocytes, Jennifer C. Rice

MSU Graduate Theses

The use of conventional chemical insecticides to control agricultural pest has become problematic as they may have a negative impact towards human health and the environment, resulting in a need to research alternative methods to insect pest control. Plant derived substances like essential oils have been used for generations as toxicants, repellants, and anti-feedants to control agricultural pest. More research is needed to understand how insect immune systems react to essential oils and if cellular immune responses of phagocytosis, encapsulation, and nodulation can be inhibited by such. Subjecting Galleria mellonella to various concentrations of “lemongrass factor” lets the researcher/scientist ...


Pollinator Community Homogenization And Pollination Services In Agroecosystems, Devon S. Eldridge . 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Pollinator Community Homogenization And Pollination Services In Agroecosystems, Devon S. Eldridge .

Masters Theses

Pollination, or the transfer of pollen to plant stigmas, is an essential part of plant reproduction. The term “pollination system” refers to the floral phenotype and pollinator of a given plant. Although angiosperms exhibit a variety of different pollination systems, most rely partially or completely on animals, particularly insects, to vector their pollen. In agricultural systems, understanding the pollination system of the crop species is necessary to produce an economically valuable yield. Moreover, agricultural management may affect pollination systems by altering the abundance, diversity, or function of the pollinator community. In natural ecosystems, there is a great diversity of pollinating ...


Feeding Behavior And Influence Of Hemp Varieties And Fertilization Rates On Damage Caused By Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa Zea, Julian Cosner 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Feeding Behavior And Influence Of Hemp Varieties And Fertilization Rates On Damage Caused By Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa Zea, Julian Cosner

Masters Theses

Production of industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa L., has increased tremendously in the U.S. after its legalization through the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, known as the 2018 Farm Bill, which allowed commercial hemp production. By grower number, in 2020, Tennessee was the nation’s largest hemp program with over 1,800 producers licensed to grow up to 6,500 hectares (16,000 acres) according to the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. Though fiber and seed have a role in the industry, most growers (ca. 98%) concentrate on cannabidiol production because of the expected higher cash value potential per hectare. Introducing ...


Seasonality, Distribution, And Biological Control Of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale, A New Invasive Threat In Tennessee, Amira Cornish 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Seasonality, Distribution, And Biological Control Of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale, A New Invasive Threat In Tennessee, Amira Cornish

Masters Theses

Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), an invasive pest from Asia, is a threat in the United States. to crape myrtles grown in ornamental nurseries and in landscapes. Although mortality to crape myrtles is rare, its negative effects on aesthetics is considerable. It should affect the sale (valued at >$66 million wholesale) and use of crape myrtle in landscapes. This pest species has been found in numerous states, including Tennessee, where little is known about its state-wide distribution, lifecycle, biology, natural enemies, and impact on crape myrtles. The purpose of this two-year study is to gain additional knowledge to ...


Revealing The Native Status Of Conyza Bonariensis: Specialization Of Insect Herbivores Associated With Conyza And Erigeron Spp. (Asteraceae) In Louisiana, Texas, And Mississippi, Carlos Wiggins 2021 LSU Agricultural Center

Revealing The Native Status Of Conyza Bonariensis: Specialization Of Insect Herbivores Associated With Conyza And Erigeron Spp. (Asteraceae) In Louisiana, Texas, And Mississippi, Carlos Wiggins

LSU Master's Theses

Flaxleaf fleabane [Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist] (Asterales: Asteraceae) is an annual herb which grows up to 1.0 m in height and is native to South America. Due to introduction and subsequent development of herbicide resistance, C. bonariensis has become a major agricultural weed in Australia. The purpose of this study was to catalog herbivorous insects associated with local populations of C. bonariensis in Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi in order to establish comparisons with the Australian fauna and identify potential biological control agents. Leaves, roots, stems, and flowers of C. bonariensis were inspected for signs of insects and pathogens. Results ...


A New Neotropical Predaceous Midge In The Genus Parabezzia Malloch From Guerrero, Mexico, And A Second Mexican Record Of P. Alexanderi Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Ceratopogoninae: Ceratopogonini), Herón Huerta, Gustavo R. Spinelli, William L. Grogan Jr. 2021 Laboratorio de Entomología, InDRE, México

A New Neotropical Predaceous Midge In The Genus Parabezzia Malloch From Guerrero, Mexico, And A Second Mexican Record Of P. Alexanderi Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Ceratopogoninae: Ceratopogonini), Herón Huerta, Gustavo R. Spinelli, William L. Grogan Jr.

Insecta Mundi

We describe and illustrate a new Neotropical predaceous midge, Parabezzia carlae Huerta, Spinelli and Grogan, new species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from males collected by Malaise trap in La Union, Ayutla de los Libres, state of Guerrero, Mexico. We also report a second record of P. alexanderi Wirth from Veracruz, Mexico. A key to the known species in Mexico is included.

Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva de mosquita predadora de la región Neotropical, Parabezzia carlae Huerta, Spinelli y Grogan, nueva especie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) sobre la base de machos colectados con trampa Malaise procedentes de La Unión, Ayutla de Los Libres ...


The First Record Of The Jumping Bristletail Pedetontus Gershneri Allen, 1995 (Microcoryphia: Machilidae) From Alabama, Usa Significantly Extends Its Known Range, Alexander B. Orfinger, Grant D. De Jong 2021 Florida A&M University

The First Record Of The Jumping Bristletail Pedetontus Gershneri Allen, 1995 (Microcoryphia: Machilidae) From Alabama, Usa Significantly Extends Its Known Range, Alexander B. Orfinger, Grant D. De Jong

Insecta Mundi

The jumping bristletail Pedetontus gershneri Allen, 1995 (Microcoryphia: Machilidae) is reported from the state of Alabama, USA, for the first time, extending its known range east-southeast by roughly 588 km. The first partial mtDNA barcode was generated for the species. Notes on color variation and sampling needs of Microcoryphia are briefly discussed.

The Microcoryphia (=Archaeognatha, or jumping bristletails) are a small order of insects with about 500 nominal species worldwide (Mendes 1990). The North American fauna includes 30 named species (De Jong 2020), with additional species expected to be discovered and described (Bowser 2019). Numerous records of species in the ...


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