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Sugarcane Aphid Resistance In Pearl Millet, D. D. Serba, J. P. Michaud 2019 Kansas State University

Sugarcane Aphid Resistance In Pearl Millet, D. D. Serba, J. P. Michaud

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sugarcane aphid, (Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)) has become an important pest of sorghum in the US. This recent invasion is assumed to be either as a result of a host shift from sugarcane in the south or introduction of a special­ized strain from tropical Africa. If host shift happened through adaptive change to infest sorghum, other closely related species such as pearl millet are in danger from this voracious pest. The resistance level of pearl millet genotypes representing A-, B-, R-lines and germplasm were evaluated under climate-controlled growth chamber along with resistant and susceptible sorghum hybrids. Ten plants ...


Host-Plant Specialization And Nesting Biology Of Anthidium Placitum (Megachilidae) In Northwest California, Christopher Pow 2019 Humboldt State University

Host-Plant Specialization And Nesting Biology Of Anthidium Placitum (Megachilidae) In Northwest California, Christopher Pow

Theses and projects

Premise of the study: Although the study of bees and their pollination services has grown immensely in recent years, the natural history of most solitary bee species is still largely unknown. The goal of this study was to contribute to the natural history dossier of a late-season wool carder bee, Anthidium placitum Cresson (Megachilidae), by establishing which plants it uses as sources of nectar and pollen as well as documenting details of its flower-handling behavior, mating behavior, and nesting biology in northwestern California.

• Methods: Field observations were made at five sites in Del Norte, Humboldt, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties. Pollen ...


Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest (Reduced File Size), Paul Switzer 2019 Eastern Illinois University

Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest (Reduced File Size), Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer 2019 Eastern Illinois University

Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Reduced File Size: Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer 2019 Eastern Illinois University

Reduced File Size: Quick And Easy Guide To Common Butterflies: An Introduction To The 25 Most Commonly Encountered Butterflies In The Midwest, Paul Switzer

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

If you are new to butterfly watching, this is the book for you! It covers 25 of the most commonly encountered butterflies in the Midwestern U.S. Learning these common species will give you a great start in your discovery of the more than 100 butterfly species in our region, many of which look very similar to those included in this guide.


Visual Attention In Jumping Spiders, Margaret Bruce 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Visual Attention In Jumping Spiders, Margaret Bruce

Masters Theses

The different ways that animals extract and analyze visual information from their environment is of interest to sensory ecologists. Jumping spiders, well-known for visually guided mating and hunting behavior, are an interesting model for the study of visual attention because they quickly and efficiently integrate information from eight eyes with a small brain. Stimuli in front of the spider are examined by two functionally and morphologically distinct pairs of forward-facing eyes. The principal eyes discern fine details and have small retinas and thus a small visual field. However, their position at the back of moveable tubes within the cephalothorax expands ...


Vitellogenin Receptor As A Target For Tick Control: A Mini-Review, Robert D. Mitchell III, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Adalberto A. Pérez de León 2019 Old Dominion University

Vitellogenin Receptor As A Target For Tick Control: A Mini-Review, Robert D. Mitchell Iii, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Adalberto A. Pérez De León

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

While much effort has been put into understanding vitellogenesis in insects and other organisms, much less is known of this process in ticks. There are several steps that facilitate yolk formation in developing oocytes of which the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is a key component. The tick VgR binds vitellogenin (Vg) circulating in the hemolymph to initiate receptor-mediated endocytosis and its transformation into vitellin (Vn). The conversion of Vg into Vn, the final form of the yolk protein, occurs inside oocytes of the female tick ovary. Vn is critical to tick embryos since it serves as the nutritional source for their ...


Effect Of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Consumption And Seed Feeding Behavior On Caterpillar Growth, Hannah Hartung 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Effect Of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Consumption And Seed Feeding Behavior On Caterpillar Growth, Hannah Hartung

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Caterpillars who feed on a wide variety of plant hosts must adapt to the defenses of every plant they feed on. For seed-eating caterpillars this can be particularly difficult because the seed is one of the most heavily defended bodies on a plant. Helicoverpa zea, the corn earworm, is both a seed eater and a generalist, feeding on plants belonging to over 30 families, including both agricultural crops and native plants, such as Lupinus texensis. I studied the corn earworm and L. texensis to answer three questions: i) what is the feeding behavior of these seed-eating caterpillars, ii) how do ...


Shaping The Tools Of Battle : Sexual Selection, Contest Dynamics, And Weapon Divergence In The Asian Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus, Jillian F. del Sol 2019 University of Montana

Shaping The Tools Of Battle : Sexual Selection, Contest Dynamics, And Weapon Divergence In The Asian Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus, Jillian F. Del Sol

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Exaggerated weapons of sexual selection often diverge more rapidly and dramatically than other body parts, suggesting that relevant agents of selection may be discernible in contemporary populations. I examined the ecology, reproductive behavior, and strength of sexual selection on horn length in five recently diverged beetle populations that differ in relative horn size. I show that mating system ecology differs between these locations and corresponds with the local strength of contemporary selection on horn length. Comparisons of ecological conditions and selection strength across populations offer a critical first step towards meaningfully linking mating system dynamics, selection patterns, and diversity in ...


Rates Of Water Loss And Metabolism In The Eggs Of Stick Insect Eurycantha Calcarata, Garret K. Jolma 2019 University of Montana, Missoula

Rates Of Water Loss And Metabolism In The Eggs Of Stick Insect Eurycantha Calcarata, Garret K. Jolma

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

The thorny devil stick insect (Eurycantha calcarata) of New Guinea has eggs that take four months or more to develop—incredibly long for an insect. Long development times can be a challenge for eggs because of their finite resources, including nutrients, energy to support development, and water. I investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying long development times in stick insect eggs.

The first experiment examined rates of water loss and survival of eggs held in different experimental humidities (0, 75, or 100% RH). Eggs dried quickly in the 0% humidity “dry” container; and more slowly in the 75% humidity “intermediate” container ...


Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng 2019 Eastern Illinois University

Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng

Masters Theses

Gall making insects form a special feeding guild of phytophagous animals, and by manipulating host plant tissue differentiation, are able to avoid plant chemical defenses and thus have no need for counter defense mechanisms. Host plant selection is crucial to the evolution of these insects because successful gall formation is largely dependent on host plant ability to respond to stimuli. In Illinois and neighboring states, Antistrophus gall wasps associated with the rosin weed (S. integrifolium) and the cup plant (S. perfoliatum) are morphologically indistinguishable and thus have been treated as belonging to single species. However, the wasps from the host ...


Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney 2019 Clemson University

Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney

Entomology Publications

More than any other group of macro-organisms, true flies (Diptera) dominate the freshwater environment. Nearly one-third of all flies—roughly 46,000 species—have some developmental connection with an aquatic environment. Their abundance, ubiquity, and diversity of adaptations to the aquatic environment position them as major drivers of ecosystem processes and as sources of products and bioinspiration for the benefit of human society. Larval flies are well represented as ecosystem engineers and keystone species that alter the abiotic and biotic environments through activities such as burrowing, grazing, suspension feeding, and predation. The enormous populations sometimes achieved by aquatic flies can ...


Transcriptomic Responses To Diet Quality And Viral Infection In Apis Mellifera, Lindsay Rutter, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Dianne Cook, Amy L. Toth, Adam G. Dolezal 2019 Iowa State University

Transcriptomic Responses To Diet Quality And Viral Infection In Apis Mellifera, Lindsay Rutter, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Dianne Cook, Amy L. Toth, Adam G. Dolezal

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Parts of Europe and the United States have witnessed dramatic losses in commercially managed honey bees over the past decade to what is considered an unsustainable extent. The large-scale loss of bees has considerable implications for the agricultural economy because bees are one of the leading pollinators of numerous crops. Bee declines have been associated with several interactive factors. Recent studies suggest nutritional and pathogen stress can interactively contribute to bee physiological declines, but the molecular mechanisms underlying interactive effects remain unknown. In this study, we provide insight into this question by using RNA-sequencing to examine how monofloral diets ...


Toxicity Of Bacillus Thuringiensis-Derived Pesticidal Proteins Cry1ab And Cry1ba Against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina Citri (Hemiptera), Maria Teresa Fernandez-Luna, Pavan Kumar, David G. Hall, Ashaki D. Mitchell, Michael B. Blackburn, Bryony C. Bonning 2019 Iowa State University

Toxicity Of Bacillus Thuringiensis-Derived Pesticidal Proteins Cry1ab And Cry1ba Against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina Citri (Hemiptera), Maria Teresa Fernandez-Luna, Pavan Kumar, David G. Hall, Ashaki D. Mitchell, Michael B. Blackburn, Bryony C. Bonning

Entomology Publications

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citriculture. The ACP vectors a bacterium that causes huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating and incurable disease of citrus. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces multiple toxins with activity against a diverse range of insects. In efforts to provide additional control methods for the ACP vector of HLB, we identified pesticidal proteins derived from Bt for toxicity against ACP. The trypsin proteolytic profiles of strain-derived toxins were characterized. Strain IBL-00200, one of six strains with toxins shown to have basal activity against ACP was selected for liquid chromatography-mass ...


Soybean Aphid Efficacy Screening Program, 2018, Erin W. Hodgson, Greg VanNostrand 2019 Iowa State University

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Screening Program, 2018, Erin W. Hodgson, Greg Vannostrand

Entomology Publications

Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has drastically changed soybean pest management in the North Central region. To date, SBA can be successfully managed by timely scouting and foliar insecticides in Iowa, but pyrethroid resistance is an emerging issue in the North Central region. In 2018, we established plots at two Iowa State University Research Farms (Northeast and Northwest) on 22 May and 30 May, respectively. NK S24-K2 soybean variety was used for all plots. Plots were arranged in an RCB design with four replications. Each plot was six rows in width and 50 ft in length at the Northeast location ...


Plant Essential Oils Synergize Various Pyrethroid Insecticides And Antagonize Malathion In Aedes Aegypti, E. J. Norris, A. D. Gross, L. C. Bartholomay, J. R. Coats 2019 Iowa State University

Plant Essential Oils Synergize Various Pyrethroid Insecticides And Antagonize Malathion In Aedes Aegypti, E. J. Norris, A. D. Gross, L. C. Bartholomay, J. R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Pyrethroid resistance is a significant threat to agricultural, urban and public health pest control activities. Because economic incentives for the production of novel active ingredients for the control of public health pests are lacking, this field is particularly affected by the potential failure of pyrethroid‐based insecticides brought about by increasing pyrethroid resistance. As a result, innovative approaches are desperately needed to overcome insecticide resistance, particularly in mosquitoes that transmit deadly and debilitating pathogens. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of plant essential oils to enhance the efficacy of pyrethroids. The toxicity of pyrethroids combined with plant oils is significantly ...


Evaluation Of Reference Genes For Real-Time Quantitative Pcr Analysis In Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Undecimpunctata Howardi (Barber), Saumik Basu, Adriano E. Pereira, Daniele H. Pinheiro, Haichuan Wang, Arnubio Valencia-Jimenez, Blair D. Siegfried, Joe Louis, Xuguo 'Joe' Zhou, Ana Maria Velez 2019 Washington State University

Evaluation Of Reference Genes For Real-Time Quantitative Pcr Analysis In Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Undecimpunctata Howardi (Barber), Saumik Basu, Adriano E. Pereira, Daniele H. Pinheiro, Haichuan Wang, Arnubio Valencia-Jimenez, Blair D. Siegfried, Joe Louis, Xuguo 'Joe' Zhou, Ana Maria Velez

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most efficient, reliable and widely used techniques to quantify gene expression. In this study, we evaluated the performance of six southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Barber), housekeeping genes (HKG), β-actin (Actin), β-tubulin (Tubulin), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α), glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 40 S ribosomal protein S9 (RpS9) and ubiquitin-conjugating protein (Ubi), under different experimental conditions such as developmental stage, exposure of neonate and adults to dsRNA, exposure of adults to different temperatures, different 3rd instar larva tissues, and neonate starvation. The HKGs were analyzed with four algorithms ...


Pests Of Woody Landscape Plants: An Integrated Pest Management Scouting Guide, Jennifer Klimowicz 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Pests Of Woody Landscape Plants: An Integrated Pest Management Scouting Guide, Jennifer Klimowicz

Internship Program Reports

Effective pest and disease management is a vital part of maintaining Morris Arboretum’s plant collection. The plant protection intern is responsible for scouting the living collection, researching treatment strategies and using integrated pest management techniques to treat infested/infected plants. To facilitate this process, Morris Arboretum is in need of an updated scouting guide that not only lists key Arboretum pests and diseases, but gives detailed information on when and how to scout for these problems and what to do when such problems arise. With the plant protection internship being only a year long, the intern often starts out ...


Covers, 2019 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Inferring Food Web Structure To Identify Seasonal And Longitudinal Patterns In Ogeechee River Invertebrate Communities, Julien Marc Buchbinder 2019 Georgia Southern University

Inferring Food Web Structure To Identify Seasonal And Longitudinal Patterns In Ogeechee River Invertebrate Communities, Julien Marc Buchbinder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how the structure and function of aquatic communities vary across space and time is essential for proper management of freshwater ecosystems. Current management relies on rapid biomonitoring using metrics of community structure, but metrics that incorporate ecosystem processes and functions are only just beginning to see use in assessment and management. Food webs inferred from known species interactions have been proposed as a method of incorporating function into bioassessment without expending extra effort or sacrificing the cost-effectiveness of current monitoring schemes. To apply food webs in biomonitoring, it is first necessary to understand how communities and food webs vary ...


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