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Articles 31 - 60 of 1233

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta May 2022

Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: The application of molecular diagnostics has identified enteric group adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41 as important causes of diarrhea in children. However, many aspects of the epidemiology of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea have not been described.
Methods: We used data from the 8-site Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project birth cohort study to describe site- and age-specific incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and seasonality.
Results: The incidence of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea was substantially higher by quantitative polymerase chain reaction than enzyme immunoassay and peaked at ∼30 episodes …


An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar May 2022

An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar

Stratford Campus Research Day

Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb that is derived from the extracts of the roots of Withania somnifera, an evergreen shrub endemic to India and Southeast Asia. It is generally utilized as a tonic to increase one’s energy and reduce stress levels. Often referred to as “Indian ginseng”, it provides neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that address stress, pain, and fatigue. Additionally, it may assist in dealing with rashes, diabetes, and arthritis. It has also been shown to counteract the effects of aging. Though these properties have not been shown in prospective studies, it has become a popular product among western …


Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold May 2022

Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


A Fatal Case Of Covid-19 Pneumonia In A Fully Vaccinated Heart Transplant Recipient, Agastya D. Belur, Diana Otero, Christina Dunbar Matos May 2022

A Fatal Case Of Covid-19 Pneumonia In A Fully Vaccinated Heart Transplant Recipient, Agastya D. Belur, Diana Otero, Christina Dunbar Matos

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The development and administration of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are seeing lower numbers of COVID-19 cases and fatalities among fully vaccinated, immunocompetent adults. We present a case of fatal COVID-19 pneumonia in a heart transplant recipient who had received two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine before the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had recommended additional doses.


Neurosyphilis: A Monkey Among Men, Cameron Rowe Do, Nathan Buckley Do, Bhaskar Chhetri Md, Suresh Paudel Md May 2022

Neurosyphilis: A Monkey Among Men, Cameron Rowe Do, Nathan Buckley Do, Bhaskar Chhetri Md, Suresh Paudel Md

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Neurosyphilis is the progression of the untreated sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. When the initial infection is not adequately treated, progression of primary syphilis can lead to a wide variety of serious health sequelae. While neurosyphilis can appear up to 10-30 years after the initial infection, syphilis can invade the nervous system at any stage of infection and can imitate symptoms of many other diseases. This variety of symptoms is why syphilis has been called “The Great Pretender” or “The monkey among diseases” (12). This is a case report of an 83-year-old female with a history of multiple …


Quantifying The Degree Of Programmed Cell Death In The Central Nervous System Among Different Genotypes Of The Drosophila Melanogaster, Radha Awasthi May 2022

Quantifying The Degree Of Programmed Cell Death In The Central Nervous System Among Different Genotypes Of The Drosophila Melanogaster, Radha Awasthi

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Investigation On Bacterial Signaling Through Generation Of A Ppgpp Biosensor, Andrew Robinson May 2022

Investigation On Bacterial Signaling Through Generation Of A Ppgpp Biosensor, Andrew Robinson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is a bacterial signaling molecule involved in activating the stringent response, a cellular reaction to environmental stress that downregulates cell division and metabolism processes to conserve nutrients. The stringent response is implicated in some instances of antibiotic persistence, so broadening the current understanding of ppGpp signaling is useful. This thesis seeks to generate a ppGpp biosensor that will bind ppGpp and emit fluorescent light in its presence, which will allow for improved research into the pathways and functions of the signaling molecule. To generate a novel ppGpp biosensor, I converted a biosensor previously used to detect cyclic …


Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff May 2022

Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff

Honors Theses

Bacteriophages are a possible solution to antibiotic resistance, which is predicted to be detrimental world-wide by the year 2050. Personal field research was also conducted for a project studying the characteristics of two bacteriophages on a single bacterial host.


Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov May 2022

Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov

Senior Honors Projects

The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden is a one-of-a-kind resource that houses close to 300 medicinal plants and is filled to the brim with educational opportunities. For the College of Pharmacy, this garden has been the centerpiece of many classes taught here at the University of Rhode Island and has roots as a physical teaching space. While the garden contains a plethora of plant species, medicinal fungi have yet to have been included in the garden, despite their relevance as both sources of pharmaceutical drug discovery and as natural products with inherent physiological benefits themselves. The purpose of my …


Cannabinoids And Retinal Fibrotic Disorders., Lucy June Sloan May 2022

Cannabinoids And Retinal Fibrotic Disorders., Lucy June Sloan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Retinal fibrosis is detrimental to vision. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contribute to several retinal fibrotic diseases. Upon exposure to TGF-β, a key fibrotic cytokine, RPE cells trans-differentiate to myofibroblasts marked by the integration of α-SMA fibers into F-actin stress fibers, which confer strong contractility. Myofibroblasts produce and contract the collagen-rich fibrotic scar and disrupt retinal architecture. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of the putative endocannabinoid compound N-oleoyl dopamine (OLDA) on TGF-β2 induced porcine RPE cell contraction and α-SMA expression. Using an in vitro collagen matrix contraction assay, we found that OLDA inhibited TGF-β2 induced contraction …


Bartonella Henselea Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Mimicking Vasculitis: A Case Report With Literature Review, Troy J. Fishman, Efrain Irizarry, Ayesha Kaleem, Robert Yancey, Uma Iyer Apr 2022

Bartonella Henselea Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Mimicking Vasculitis: A Case Report With Literature Review, Troy J. Fishman, Efrain Irizarry, Ayesha Kaleem, Robert Yancey, Uma Iyer

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

We present one of the first reported cases of Bartonella henselae prosthetic valve endocarditis, which mimicked p-antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (p-ANCA), an anti-proteinase 3 positive necrotizing glomerulonephritis caused by a cat scratch resulting in temporary dialysis. Documentation of such infections is necessary as zoonotic infections are becoming more prevalent with early identification essential for proper treatment. Although pauci-immune patterns are not a unique finding in bacterial endocarditis associated with glomerulonephritis, they are an atypical finding in Bartonella henselae endocarditis. Furthermore, p-ANCA-associated vasculitis can also be responsible for renal and cardiac disease. Because of the similar disease presentation of different etiologies (autoimmune …


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: A Case Report, Tammy E. Phillips, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho Apr 2022

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: A Case Report, Tammy E. Phillips, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Organizing pneumonia can be idiopathic or caused by multiple etiologies, including viral or bacterial pneumonia, drugs, and autoimmune disorders. It can rarely lead to cyst formation and pneumothorax with the exact mechanism remaining unclear. This case presents a previously healthy 50-year-old male who contracted COVID-19 with subsequent development of organizing pneumonia and pneumothorax. Patients presenting with hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 should be screened for organizing pneumonia upon discharge. This case also illustrates the importance of following such patients radiologically to monitor interstitial lung disease and consider pneumothorax for patients re-presenting with acute symptoms.


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas Apr 2022

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff Apr 2022

Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff

Scholars Day Conference

Antibiotics will not be used forever by society due to antibiotic resistance. By the year 2050, it is predicted to have caused millions of casualties throughout the world. Thankfully, bacteriophages and phage therapy could be a potential solution to this problem.


New Paenibacillus Bacteria Genome Assembly, Makenna Kager Apr 2022

New Paenibacillus Bacteria Genome Assembly, Makenna Kager

Scholars Day Conference

Due to DLA16’s ability to produce antibiotics it was selected for whole genome sequencing.


Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price Apr 2022

Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price

Honors Projects

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria and offer the potential of a therapeutic alternative to chronic infections that do not respond to antibiotic-based therapies. B. vietnamiensis is one of a number of Burkholderia species involved with chronic drug resistant infections in the lungs of individuals with compromised respiratory systems, as found in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, most especially, are of particular significance in patients with cystic fibrosis. The diversity of the Burkholderia species is explored by using online databases and looking at bacteriophage or phage-encoding viruses found in B. vietnamiensis. The open reading frames …


Predominantly Methicillin-Susceptible S. Aureus Bacteria Found In Csp Students’ S. Aureus Strains, Roma Ambo Apr 2022

Predominantly Methicillin-Susceptible S. Aureus Bacteria Found In Csp Students’ S. Aureus Strains, Roma Ambo

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Positive Staphylococcus aureus strains from CSP students were tested for methicillin resistance (MRSA) using the Kirby-bauer assay. Kirby-bauer assay technique was used to determine the sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus bacteria against oxacillin. MRSA infection is the result of a bacteria that has built resistance against the antibiotics used to treat staph infections. The results of this experiment concludes that majority of the strains tested are methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA).


Sotrovimab: Neutralizing Antibody To Combat Covid-19, Aya Allam, Steven Lippmann Apr 2022

Sotrovimab: Neutralizing Antibody To Combat Covid-19, Aya Allam, Steven Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Are Antipyretic Medications Compatible With Sars-Cov-2 Vaccines?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Niguma Rayamajhi, Steven B Lippmann Apr 2022

Are Antipyretic Medications Compatible With Sars-Cov-2 Vaccines?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Niguma Rayamajhi, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Development Of Evidence-Based Covid-19 Management Guidelines For Local Context: The Methodological Challenges, Sarah Nadeem, Salima Saleem Aamdani, Bushra Ayub, Nashia Ali Rizvi, Fatima Safi Arslan, Russell Seth Martins, Maria Khan, Syed Faisal Mahmood Apr 2022

Development Of Evidence-Based Covid-19 Management Guidelines For Local Context: The Methodological Challenges, Sarah Nadeem, Salima Saleem Aamdani, Bushra Ayub, Nashia Ali Rizvi, Fatima Safi Arslan, Russell Seth Martins, Maria Khan, Syed Faisal Mahmood

Section of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented as a therapeutic challenge for clinicians worldwide due to its rapid spread along with evolving evidence and understanding of the disease. Internationally, recommendations to guide the management of COVID-19 have been created and updated continuously by the WHO and CDC, which have been locally adapted by different countries. Similarly, Pakistan's National Command Operation Center (NCOC), in its national COVID-19 management strategy, generated guidelines for national implementation. Keeping the guidelines updated has proved challenging globally and locally. Here, we present a summary of the process to assess the evidence, including a time-restricted …


Mucormycosis: Covid-19 And Corticosteroids, Mittal Savaliya, Nivedita Jha, Steven B Lippmann Apr 2022

Mucormycosis: Covid-19 And Corticosteroids, Mittal Savaliya, Nivedita Jha, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino Apr 2022

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = …


Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti Apr 2022

Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti

Student Scholar Showcase

Widespread antibiotic resistance has quickly become one of the most concerning crises affecting modern medicine, especially in cases of Staphylococcal infections, which have become resistant to all ��-lactam antibiotics. As a result, research into alternative forms of treatment for bacterial infections is a top priority. Bacteriophage therapy is a popular candidate for replacing antibiotics, due to the way the viruses interact with the bacteria. The 80�� prophage integrates its DNA into Staphylococcus aureus strain 10616 via the lysogenic cycle, and replicates with the bacterial cell. When stressed, the bacteria stop replicating and the prophage stimulates the lytic cycle, activating transcription …


Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani Apr 2022

Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Results: When tested on the baseline of isolated tissues, Tfg.Cr was devoid of any activity (stimulant or relaxant) till 10 mg/ml. This is an interesting finding, keeping in mind that the fenugreek seeds are used to alleviate constipation and diarrhoea. When Tfg.Cr was tried for any potential AChE inhibitory activity, it did show an inhibitory effect in increasing concentrations (47-380 μg/ml). This inhibitory effect was comparable to the effect produced by a standard AChE inhibitor physostigmine. One of the known fenugreek constituents, diosgenin, was also tested, and it also showed an AChE inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner (11-190 …


Healthcare Simulation: A Key To The Future Of Medical Education - A Review, Omair Ayaz, Faisal Wasim Ismail Apr 2022

Healthcare Simulation: A Key To The Future Of Medical Education - A Review, Omair Ayaz, Faisal Wasim Ismail

Medical College Documents

Aim: Simulation originates from its application in the military and aviation. It is implemented at various levels of healthcare education and certification today. However, its use remains unevenly distributed across the globe due to misconception regarding its cost and complexity and to lack of evidence for its consistency and validity. Implementation may also be hindered by an array of factors unique to the locale and its norms. Resource-poor settings may benefit from diverting external funds for short-term simulation projects towards collaboration with local experts and local material sourcing to reduce the overall cost and achieve long-term benefits. The recent shift …


Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider Apr 2022

Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the complaint of involuntary loss of urine. UI affects both men and women but is more common in women. It has been identified as a World Health Organization priority. The burden related to UI at local, national, and global levels is huge and its impact in terms of physical, social, mental, and financial aspects makes it a concerning issue. However, there exist several barriers in terms of knowledge and attitude in seeking healthcare among women experiencing UI. This calls upon a multi-disciplinary approach involving professionals from different disciplines and tackling it with collaborative and …


A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor Apr 2022

A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pneumococcal serotype 35B is an important non-conjugate vaccine (non-PCV) serotype. Its continued emergence, post-PCV7 in the USA, was associated with expansion of a pre-existing 35B clone (clonal complex [CC] 558) along with post-PCV13 emergence of a non-35B clone previously associated with PCV serotypes (CC156). This study describes lineages circulating among 35B isolates in South Africa before and after PCV introduction. We also compared 35B isolates belonging to a predominant 35B lineage in South Africa (GPSC5), with isolates belonging to the same lineage in other parts of the world. Serotype 35B isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa in …


Outcomes Of Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration In Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcal Bacteremia, Theresa Tran Mar 2022

Outcomes Of Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration In Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcal Bacteremia, Theresa Tran

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez Mar 2022

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


Etiology, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcome Of Infective Endocarditis: 10-Year Experience From A Tertiary Care Center In Pakistan, Sara Salim Ali, Imran Ahmed Qureshi, Ahmed Ayaz, Ainan Arshad, Awais Farhad, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Rizwan Sohail Mar 2022

Etiology, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcome Of Infective Endocarditis: 10-Year Experience From A Tertiary Care Center In Pakistan, Sara Salim Ali, Imran Ahmed Qureshi, Ahmed Ayaz, Ainan Arshad, Awais Farhad, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad Rizwan Sohail

Medical College Documents

This study was conducted to assess the clinical characteristics, causative agents, complications, and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients presenting to our tertiary care center over the last decade. This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients admitted to the Aga Khan University Hospital with the diagnosis of IE over a ten-year period from 2010 to 2020. Outcomes variables included complications during hospitalization, surgical intervention, mortality, and length of stay. We identified a total of 305 cases out of which 176 (58%) were males and 129 (42%) were females. The mean age of the patients was 46.9±18.8 years. 95 …