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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo Do Oct 2022

Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo Do

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann Oct 2022

What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann Sep 2022

Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


An Unexpected Case Of Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis Presenting Amidst Corticosteroid Therapy For An Acute Copd Exacerbation: A Case Report, Aqeel Khanani, Kayvan Mirhadi Sep 2022

An Unexpected Case Of Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis Presenting Amidst Corticosteroid Therapy For An Acute Copd Exacerbation: A Case Report, Aqeel Khanani, Kayvan Mirhadi

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is prevalent worldwide, with a recent report by the World Health Organization estimating that 3.7 billion individuals under the age of 50 have been infected by the virus. After the initial infection, HSV-1 enters a latent phase with the potential for intermittent reactivation, often secondary to episodes of infection, stress, or immunosuppression. Per current literature review, esophageal involvement in the form of herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) is more commonly associated with immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients and HIV-positive individuals. The patient discussed in this report is a 79-year-old female with a past medical history …


Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang Sep 2022

Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Children in low-resource settings carry enteric pathogens asymptomatically and are frequently treated with antibiotics, resulting in opportunities for pathogens to be exposed to antibiotics when not the target of treatment (i.e., bystander exposure). We quantified the frequency of bystander antibiotic exposures for enteric pathogens and estimated associations with resistance among children in eight low-resource settings. We analyzed 15,697 antibiotic courses from 1,715 children aged 0 to 2 y from the MAL-ED birth cohort. We calculated the incidence of bystander exposures and attributed exposures to respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. We associated bystander exposure with phenotypic susceptibility of E. coli isolates in …


Behavioural Support And Nicotine Replacement Therapy For Smokeless Tobacco Cessation: Protocol For A Pilot Randomised-Controlled Multi-Country Trial, Faraz Siddiqui, Linda Bauld, Ray Croucher, Cath Jackson, Ian Kellar, Mona Kanaan, Subhash Pokhrel, Rumana Huque, Romaina Iqbal, Javaid Ahmed Khan Aug 2022

Behavioural Support And Nicotine Replacement Therapy For Smokeless Tobacco Cessation: Protocol For A Pilot Randomised-Controlled Multi-Country Trial, Faraz Siddiqui, Linda Bauld, Ray Croucher, Cath Jackson, Ian Kellar, Mona Kanaan, Subhash Pokhrel, Rumana Huque, Romaina Iqbal, Javaid Ahmed Khan

Community Health Sciences

Background: Smokeless tobacco (ST) is consumed globally by more than 350 million people, with approximately 85% of all users based in South and Southeast Asia. In this region, ST products are cheap and easily accessible. Evidence-based interventions to people quit ST use are lacking. This study aims to test the feasibility of conducting a future definitive trial of ST cessation, using a culturally adapted behavioural intervention, and/or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in three South Asian countries.
Methods: We will conduct a factorial design, randomised-controlled pilot trial in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Daily ST users will be recruited from primary health …


Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi Aug 2022

Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: CMV and EBV co-infections can affect the HIV disease progression by modulating the immune system. The disease dynamics can differ in HIV-positive adults and children. In Pakistan, HIV is rapidly expanding, especially in children; however, the prevalence of CMV and EBV co-infection and the effect on immune modulation in HIV-positive children are not known. This study aimed to bridge this gap by estimating the rate of active CMV and EBV co-infection in HIV-positive children, followed by the analysis of differential expression of cytokines in HIV mono- and HIV/CMV/EBV co-infected children.
Methods: DNA samples from 319 HIV-positive children, previously recruited …


"Don't Look Up" Your Science-Herd Immunity Or Herd Mentality?, Botond Z Igyártó Jul 2022

"Don't Look Up" Your Science-Herd Immunity Or Herd Mentality?, Botond Z Igyártó

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

This analysis piece will attempt to examine some of the critical pandemic-related measures implemented in the United States from an immunological perspective and pinpoint caveats that should have been considered before their implementation. I also discuss alternative measures grounded in scientific data that were not thoroughly explored and likely could have helped fight the pandemic.


What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann Jul 2022

What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann Jun 2022

Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur May 2022

A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

The implications of misdiagnosis can be drastic, especially when the correct diagnosis is treatable. Pulmonary actinomycosis is one of the complications of infection with actinomyces, an anaerobic gram-positive organism that is usually found as a part of the normal flora in the human body infection. It is a very rare disease and is frequently mistaken with other diagnoses owing to its nonspecific presentation. In this report, we present a 67-year-old male with a mass like lesion on a CT scan of his chest that was done due to progressively worsening productive cough, weight loss and fatigue. These symptoms could have …


Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde May 2022

Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship efforts have traditionally focused on inpatient settings. Antibiotic prescribing at discharge is often an overlooked area of focus for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Discharge prescribing optimization is necessary to combat antibiotic overuse.

Methods: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study at a four–adult community hospital system. Four hundred adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia and discharged with antibiotics were included. The primary outcome was overall (inpatient and discharge) antibiotic length of therapy. The secondary outcome was percentage of patients discharged on a fluoroquinolone who had not received one in the hospital. Descriptive statistics were utilized.

Results: The …


Effect Of Bovine Lactoferrin On Seroconversion Following Polio Vaccine Administration In Children: Protocol For A Double-Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial, Atif Habib, Sidrah Nausheen, Shanila Nooruddin, Tooba Javed, Tariq Samejo, Amjad Hussain, Suneeta Namdave, Sehrish Amirali, Muhammad Umer, Lumaan Sheikh May 2022

Effect Of Bovine Lactoferrin On Seroconversion Following Polio Vaccine Administration In Children: Protocol For A Double-Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial, Atif Habib, Sidrah Nausheen, Shanila Nooruddin, Tooba Javed, Tariq Samejo, Amjad Hussain, Suneeta Namdave, Sehrish Amirali, Muhammad Umer, Lumaan Sheikh

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: The oral polio vaccine (OPV) has substantial results in eliminating wild poliovirus and the vaccine of choice in polio eradication. However, the mucosal immunity induced by the OPV is still uncertain. Literature has shown that bovine lactoferrin (BLF) is a safe and useful protein found in cow's milk with extraordinary antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory and immune-modulatory functions that help children's gut to fight against micro-organisms like poliovirus. However, limited data exist regarding the effect of BLF on polio vaccine immune response. The primary objective is to evaluate the effect of BLF in enhancing mucosal and humoral immunity in children following …


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho May 2022

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan May 2022

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors, …


Medical Students In Karachi And Covid-19: Myths And Facts, Omer Bin Khalid Jamil, Muhammad Muhib, Muhammad Anas Abbal, Amna Muhammed Ahmed, Hafsa Hayat Khan, Nabeela Yar Khan May 2022

Medical Students In Karachi And Covid-19: Myths And Facts, Omer Bin Khalid Jamil, Muhammad Muhib, Muhammad Anas Abbal, Amna Muhammed Ahmed, Hafsa Hayat Khan, Nabeela Yar Khan

Department of Surgery

Objectives: COVID-19 pandemic brought mortalities, morbidities, fear, and financial despair among people around the world. As it advanced, misinformation and myths about it caught wildfire, contributing to misbelief among the already shocked population. Medical students are the building blocks of the medical community and can provide a pivotal role in combating COVID-19 misinformation by delivering correct knowledge and awareness to the non-medical population of the country. Hence, it is important to assess their knowledge and perception of COVID-19 myths. Therefore, this study evaluates medical student's knowledge regarding myths and misinformation related to COVID-19 infection and its vaccine. The study also …


Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta May 2022

Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: The application of molecular diagnostics has identified enteric group adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41 as important causes of diarrhea in children. However, many aspects of the epidemiology of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea have not been described.
Methods: We used data from the 8-site Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project birth cohort study to describe site- and age-specific incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and seasonality.
Results: The incidence of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea was substantially higher by quantitative polymerase chain reaction than enzyme immunoassay and peaked at ∼30 episodes …


An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar May 2022

An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar

Stratford Campus Research Day

Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb that is derived from the extracts of the roots of Withania somnifera, an evergreen shrub endemic to India and Southeast Asia. It is generally utilized as a tonic to increase one’s energy and reduce stress levels. Often referred to as “Indian ginseng”, it provides neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that address stress, pain, and fatigue. Additionally, it may assist in dealing with rashes, diabetes, and arthritis. It has also been shown to counteract the effects of aging. Though these properties have not been shown in prospective studies, it has become a popular product among western …


Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold May 2022

Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


A Fatal Case Of Covid-19 Pneumonia In A Fully Vaccinated Heart Transplant Recipient, Agastya D. Belur, Diana Otero, Christina Dunbar Matos May 2022

A Fatal Case Of Covid-19 Pneumonia In A Fully Vaccinated Heart Transplant Recipient, Agastya D. Belur, Diana Otero, Christina Dunbar Matos

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The development and administration of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are seeing lower numbers of COVID-19 cases and fatalities among fully vaccinated, immunocompetent adults. We present a case of fatal COVID-19 pneumonia in a heart transplant recipient who had received two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine before the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had recommended additional doses.


Neurosyphilis: A Monkey Among Men, Cameron Rowe Do, Nathan Buckley Do, Bhaskar Chhetri Md, Suresh Paudel Md May 2022

Neurosyphilis: A Monkey Among Men, Cameron Rowe Do, Nathan Buckley Do, Bhaskar Chhetri Md, Suresh Paudel Md

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Neurosyphilis is the progression of the untreated sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. When the initial infection is not adequately treated, progression of primary syphilis can lead to a wide variety of serious health sequelae. While neurosyphilis can appear up to 10-30 years after the initial infection, syphilis can invade the nervous system at any stage of infection and can imitate symptoms of many other diseases. This variety of symptoms is why syphilis has been called “The Great Pretender” or “The monkey among diseases” (12). This is a case report of an 83-year-old female with a history of multiple …


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: A Case Report, Tammy E. Phillips, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho Apr 2022

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: A Case Report, Tammy E. Phillips, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Organizing pneumonia can be idiopathic or caused by multiple etiologies, including viral or bacterial pneumonia, drugs, and autoimmune disorders. It can rarely lead to cyst formation and pneumothorax with the exact mechanism remaining unclear. This case presents a previously healthy 50-year-old male who contracted COVID-19 with subsequent development of organizing pneumonia and pneumothorax. Patients presenting with hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 should be screened for organizing pneumonia upon discharge. This case also illustrates the importance of following such patients radiologically to monitor interstitial lung disease and consider pneumothorax for patients re-presenting with acute symptoms.


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas Apr 2022

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Sotrovimab: Neutralizing Antibody To Combat Covid-19, Aya Allam, Steven Lippmann Apr 2022

Sotrovimab: Neutralizing Antibody To Combat Covid-19, Aya Allam, Steven Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Are Antipyretic Medications Compatible With Sars-Cov-2 Vaccines?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Niguma Rayamajhi, Steven B Lippmann Apr 2022

Are Antipyretic Medications Compatible With Sars-Cov-2 Vaccines?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Niguma Rayamajhi, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Mucormycosis: Covid-19 And Corticosteroids, Mittal Savaliya, Nivedita Jha, Steven B Lippmann Apr 2022

Mucormycosis: Covid-19 And Corticosteroids, Mittal Savaliya, Nivedita Jha, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino Apr 2022

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = …


Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani Apr 2022

Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Results: When tested on the baseline of isolated tissues, Tfg.Cr was devoid of any activity (stimulant or relaxant) till 10 mg/ml. This is an interesting finding, keeping in mind that the fenugreek seeds are used to alleviate constipation and diarrhoea. When Tfg.Cr was tried for any potential AChE inhibitory activity, it did show an inhibitory effect in increasing concentrations (47-380 μg/ml). This inhibitory effect was comparable to the effect produced by a standard AChE inhibitor physostigmine. One of the known fenugreek constituents, diosgenin, was also tested, and it also showed an AChE inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner (11-190 …


Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider Apr 2022

Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the complaint of involuntary loss of urine. UI affects both men and women but is more common in women. It has been identified as a World Health Organization priority. The burden related to UI at local, national, and global levels is huge and its impact in terms of physical, social, mental, and financial aspects makes it a concerning issue. However, there exist several barriers in terms of knowledge and attitude in seeking healthcare among women experiencing UI. This calls upon a multi-disciplinary approach involving professionals from different disciplines and tackling it with collaborative and …


A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor Apr 2022

A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pneumococcal serotype 35B is an important non-conjugate vaccine (non-PCV) serotype. Its continued emergence, post-PCV7 in the USA, was associated with expansion of a pre-existing 35B clone (clonal complex [CC] 558) along with post-PCV13 emergence of a non-35B clone previously associated with PCV serotypes (CC156). This study describes lineages circulating among 35B isolates in South Africa before and after PCV introduction. We also compared 35B isolates belonging to a predominant 35B lineage in South Africa (GPSC5), with isolates belonging to the same lineage in other parts of the world. Serotype 35B isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa in …