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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

A Potential Klebsiella Bacteriocin With Efficacy Toward The Enterbacteriaceae Family, Kasey Barber May 2024

A Potential Klebsiella Bacteriocin With Efficacy Toward The Enterbacteriaceae Family, Kasey Barber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drug resistance is unfortunately becoming a prevalent issue in the course of patient treatment, ranging from chemotherapy resistance to antimicrobial resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated in 2016 that at least 23,000 people die every year in the United States from an infection with an antibiotic-resistant organism (Munita, et al, 2016). Carl Friedlander was the first scientist to describe Klebsiella pneumoniae in 1882 as an encapsulated bacillus after isolating the bacterium from the lungs of patients who had died from pneumonia (Ashurst and Dawson, 2022). Klebsiella pneumoniae is the type species for the Klebsiella genus and …


Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md Apr 2024

Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Education Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention In Adult Intensive Care Patients, Carlin Morgan Apr 2024

Education Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention In Adult Intensive Care Patients, Carlin Morgan

Scholars Week

The purpose of this project was to improve knowledge related to evidence-based ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) preventative measures that decrease the prevalence of VAP in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). An educational presentation was provided to twelve critical care nurses at a 349-bed hospital in western Kentucky. A pretest was obtained to measure the nurse’s knowledge prior to the presentation. A PowerPoint and pamphlet containing VAP prevention techniques were presented to the twelve critical care nurses during each meeting. A posttest was then administered after the presentation to measure the efficacy of the educational presentation. The mean of …


Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty Feb 2024

Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty

Annual Research Symposium

Osteomyelitis may be classified as Bacterial (Actinomycotic), Fungal (Mucormycotic), or combined based on the etiological agent. During histopathological examination, there is a high chance that bacterial colonies or fungal hyphae may be missed by the human eye, especially when there is a paucity of organisms. This may lead to a faulty diagnosis of the type of osteomyelitis which along with an improper treatment plan would cause further progression of the disease and various other complications. Therefore, the diagnosis of the exact etiological variant of osteomyelitis is of prime importance to design an appropriate treatment plan. In the present study, bone …


A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier Jan 2024

A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

IgA vasculitis, previously known as Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP), is a disease more common in children and occurs when IgA1 immune complexes attach to the walls of small blood vessels causing inflammation. This case report is of an adult male who presented with a purpuric rash affecting both legs, microhematuria, and knee pain. Blood cultures were positive for Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Computed tomography of the pelvis revealed a prostate abscess. Skin biopsy demonstrated IgA and C3 in the dermal vessels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgA vasculitis associated with MSSA bacteremia due to a prostate …


Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova Jan 2024

Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage P23-45 encodes a giant 5,002-residue tail tape measure protein (TMP) that defines the length of its extraordinarily long tail. Here, we show that the N-terminal portion of P23-45 TMP is an unusual RNA polymerase (RNAP) homologous to cellular RNAPs. The TMP-fused virion RNAP transcribes pre-early phage genes, including a gene that encodes another, non-virion RNAP, that transcribes early and some middle phage genes. We report the crystal structures of both P23-45 RNAPs. The non-virion RNAP has a crab-claw-like architecture. By contrast, the virion RNAP adopts a unique flat structure without a clamp. Structure and sequence comparisons of …


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori Jan 2024

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are increasing in incidence and have led to higher rates of hospitalization. In this study, we measured MRSA inactivation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), a promising new cell ablation technology. Our results show that treatment with 120 pulses of 600 ns duration (28 kV/cm, 1 Hz), caused modest inactivation, indicating cellular damage. We anticipated that the perturbation created by nsPEF could increase antibiotic efficacy if nsPEF were applied as a co-treatment. To test this …


Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared Mr Crocco Jan 2024

Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared Mr Crocco

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Bacterial human pathogens are among the leading causes of death around the world, especially in low income and developing countries. One important element in a bacterium’s ability to cause disease are genes that directly contribute to pathogenicity called virulence factors. A second significant aspect are antimicrobial resistance genes which allow microorganisms to persist in the presence of antimicrobial agents. In this project I aimed to determine if Salmonella isolated from different sources differed in pathogenicity profiles based on the complement of genes identified through genomic analysis. Accordingly, Salmonella genomes were organized into 8 groups: animal, clinical, human, environmental, food, water …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Genomic Diversity And Carbohydrate Utilisation In Human-Associated Bifidobacterial Isolates, Ortensia Catalano Gonzaga Nov 2023

Genomic Diversity And Carbohydrate Utilisation In Human-Associated Bifidobacterial Isolates, Ortensia Catalano Gonzaga

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Bifidobacteria are beneficial commensals of the human gastrointestinal tract and their presence in the gut has been associated with positive health effects on the host. They account for a vast proportion of the infant gut microbiota, when the infant is fed on a milk-based diet, with their number progressively decreasing in adult and elderly. The gut microbiota and associated metabolic activities significantly impact on human health by promoting appropriate development of the infant immune system and contributing to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis. In recent years it has become clear that microbial colonization of the gut immediately following birth …


Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones Nov 2023

Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. As global incidences of UTIs caused by multidrug resistant bacteria continue to increase, so too does the demand for novel antimicrobial therapies.

Due to its relatively understudied nature, the urinary microbiome represents a niche with an untapped source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted these potential alternative treatments and control strategies to target antibiotic resistant uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

METHODS: Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine samples. Urinary isolates …


Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky Od Oct 2023

Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are becoming more common. These infections can cause various ocular conditions including conjunctivitis. Conjunctival cultures are an important tool to assist with proper diagnosis and treatment of these infections. Case Report : A 61-year-old African American male presented with the complaint of redness and drainage from his eyes. With the assistance of conjunctival cultures, he was diagnosed with MRSA conjunctivitis. Treatment with vancomycin ultimately led to resolution of the condition. Conclusion : MRSA conjunctivitis should always be considered when a conjunctivitis is not responding to empirical therapy. Eye care professionals should be aware …


Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado Oct 2023

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado

Research Colloquium

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) account for 40 percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Their elimination is at the forefront of quality improvement in one South Texas acute care hospital.

Methods: Over a period of 6 months, five CA-UTIs occurred in one South Texas acute care hospital. These cases were identified via regular surveillance by Infection Prevention staff and the Laboratory Department of the hospital. This research reviews patient age, sex, length of stay, bacteria contracted, appropriate antibiotic use, patient characteristics, and overall outcomes.

Results: Between the months of July and December 2021, 5 CAUTIs were contracted. Patients ranged in …


Disseminated Infection With Bartonella Henselae In A Drug-Induced Immunosuppressed Adult Causing Fever, Thrombocytopenia, And Encephalitis: Case Report, Celin Rajan, Ileana Mendez, Jacinto Kadour, Mohammed Jamal, Maria Najam Sep 2023

Disseminated Infection With Bartonella Henselae In A Drug-Induced Immunosuppressed Adult Causing Fever, Thrombocytopenia, And Encephalitis: Case Report, Celin Rajan, Ileana Mendez, Jacinto Kadour, Mohammed Jamal, Maria Najam

Research Symposium

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae, typically characterized by self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. CSD is more prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. However, serious illness is infrequent. This case report demonstrates uncommon symptoms of disseminated Bartonella henselae infection manifesting as encephalopathy, thrombocytopenia, and septic shock.

A 62-year-old malnourished, Hispanic man presented with fever and malaise for 1 week which was associated with headache. Past medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis treated with prolonged, unmonitored prednisone, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a history of 18 cats at home. On examination, the patient was alert and oriented, febrile, and …


Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio Sep 2023

Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Over past few decades, new insight has been revealed in the scientific community about the importance of the human gut microbiome relating to general health. It is known that imbalances in the species that reside in the human gut can cause organism-wide problems in humans. When prescribing or injecting oral medications, the thought of the downstream effects on the gut microbiome are not always considered. By exposing known healthy members of the gut; Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium sordellii, and Clostridium difficile to the Aspirin, this study attempted to provide insight into the effects of the drug on bacterial growth. …


Tailoring The Gut Microbiome Through Diet To Target Short Chain Fatty Acids And Trimethylamine N-Oxide For Heart Failure Prevention, Julia M. Gabel Sep 2023

Tailoring The Gut Microbiome Through Diet To Target Short Chain Fatty Acids And Trimethylamine N-Oxide For Heart Failure Prevention, Julia M. Gabel

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

The number of people diagnosed with heart failure is on the rise—it’s becoming an epidemic. There are treatment options available for heart failure, but unfortunately there is not a cure. However, most cases of heart failure can be prevented. One mechanism that provides promise for preventing heart failure is the implementation of a heart healthy diet. However, not in the context that most are familiar with. In this case, a heart healthy diet is in reference to the ability of diet to tailor the gut microbiome in order to target specific metabolites that are associated with heart failure. Diet plays …


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke Aug 2023

Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of daily bacterial infections is climbing and the CDC explains that this is due to the antibiotic-resistant threat in the United States. Finding a faster way of bacterial identification is necessary as it currently takes 1-4 days for a medical lab to culture and identify bacteria. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) can be used as an alternative method resulting in swift identification within an hour (Edgar, 2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell line PA01, will be coated in up to a few hundred red dyed phages making it detectible by the photoacoustic flow cytometry system. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that …


Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen Aug 2023

Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

Locus SMU.243 in Streptococcus mutans was annotated as a member of the DUF2207 family proteins highly conserved in all bacteria but with unknown function. To investigate its role in S. mutans physiology, a SMU.243-deficient mutant was constructed using allelic exchange mutagenesis, and the impacts of SMU.243 deletion on bacterial growth, stress tolerance response, and biofilm formation were analyzed. Compared to the wild-type UA159, S. mutans lacking SMU.243 displayed a reduced growth rate and a reduced overnight culture density (p < 0.01) when grown at low pH and in the presence of methyl viologen. Relative to the parent strain, the deficient mutant also had a reduced survival rate following incubation in a buffer of pH 2.8 (p < 0.01) and in a buffer containing hydrogen peroxide at 58 mM after 60 min (p < 0.001) and had a reduced capacity in biofilm formation especially in the presence of sucrose (p < 0.01). To study any ensuing functional/phenotypical links between SMU.243 and uppP, which is located immediately downstream of SMU.243 and encodes an undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in recycling of carrier lipid undecaprenyl phosphate, a uppP deficient mutant was generated using allelic exchange mutagenesis. Unlike the SMU.243 mutant, deletion of uppP affected cell envelope biogenesis and caused major increases in susceptibility to bacitracin. In addition, two variant morphological mutants, one forming rough colonies and the other forming mucoid, smooth colonies, also emerged following the deletion of uppP. The results suggest that the SMU.243-encoded protein of the DUF2207 family in S. mutans plays an important role in stress tolerance response and biofilm formation, but unlike the downstream uppP, does not seem to be involved in cell envelope biogenesis, although the exact roles in S. mutans’ physiology awaits further investigation.


Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor Jul 2023

Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States. Because symptoms of these infections often overlap with other urogenital infections, misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment can occur unless appropriate STI diagnostic testing is performed in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to describe STI diagnostic testing and antimicrobial treatment patterns and trends among adolescent and adult men and women with lower genitourinary tract symptoms (LGUTS). Methods: We analyzed insurance claims data from the IBM® MarketScan® Research Databases. Patients included were between 14 and 64 years old with …


On The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine, Forest W. Arnold Jun 2023

On The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron May 2023

Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Campylobacter ureolyticus is an emerging pathogen increasingly appreciated as a common cause of gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Outside the setting of gastroenteritis, little work has been done to describe the genomic content and relatedness of the species, especially regarding clinical isolates. We reviewed the epidemiology of clinical C. ureolyticus cultured by our institution over the past 10 years. Fifty-one unique C. ureolyticus isolates were identified between January 2010 and August 2022, mostly originating from abscesses and blood cultures. To clarify the taxonomic relationships between isolates and to attribute specific genes with different clinical manifestations, we sequenced 19 available …


Aging Manuka Honey Improves Antimicrobial Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria, Rayna M. Carlson May 2023

Aging Manuka Honey Improves Antimicrobial Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria, Rayna M. Carlson

2023 Symposium

Manuka honey (MH) has been documented to possess powerful anti-microbial properties through multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms include a low pH, high osmolarity, iron chelation, and its unique manuka factor (UMF), methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is purported to be a major pillar in the honey’s antimicrobial properties, its activity is variable against different bacterial species. We hypothesize that MH’s other antimicrobial mechanisms may also exhibit variable activity against different bacterial species. Preliminary experiments to determine the Manuka honey minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, suggested that some Manuka honey antimicrobial mechanisms …


The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon May 2023

The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon

Journal of Pharmacology & Nutritional Sciences

The "psilocybiome" represents the mutually beneficial relationship between ourselves, our bacteria, and psychedelic drugs. This short review briefly discusses the benefits and limitations surrounding the potential for psychedelic therapy to synergize with gut bacteria to help regulate and maintain proper balance in the immune system, diet, and stress levels. Psychedelic therapy is a novel treatment strategy that has the potential to improve patient mental health, and, by identifying the types of gut bacteria present in patients, it can aid in personalizing medicine by determining how well their "psilocybiome" may respond.


Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield May 2023

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield

Honors Scholar Theses

Antibiotic treatment failure is a public health crisis, with a 2019 report stating that roughly 35,000 deaths occur in the United States yearly due to bacterial infections that are unresponsive to antibiotics (1). One complication in the treatment of bacterial infection is antibiotic persistence which further compromises our battle to effectively treat infection. Bacterial persisters can exist in clonal bacterial cultures and can tolerate antibiotic treatment by undergoing reversible phenotypic changes. They can survive drug concentrations that their genetically identical kin cannot. Some persisters remain in a slow growing state and are difficult to target with current antibiotics. A specific …


The Effects Of Light Intensity And Cell Structure On The Cultivation Of Arthrospira Platensis, Taylor Barnhart May 2023

The Effects Of Light Intensity And Cell Structure On The Cultivation Of Arthrospira Platensis, Taylor Barnhart

Honors Theses

As scientists explore further into space, more cost-effective resources are needed for long-term space travel. An interesting solution is Arthrospira platensis, a filamentous cyanobacteria high in proteins and nutrients, and known for its helical structure. In unfavorable conditions, coiled spirulina cells become straight. Spirulina converts carbon dioxide gas into pure oxygen and the different cell structures stimulate different responses in oxygen production and cultivation. In these experiments, 2.3 L containers of pure coiled spirulina and mixed (coiled and straight) spirulina were placed into 3 incubators with different light intensities: 51μmol/m2/s, 25μmol/m2/s, 12μmol/m2/s. Each experiment length was 72 hours and the …


Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell May 2023

Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks are invasive to the United States with potential to transmit several tick-borne pathogens that are native to the United States. Based on existing locations of H. longicornis in its native regions in Asia, as well as its invasive populations that are established in the United States, several geographic range prediction models have been produced to help understand future range expansion and distribution of this invasive tick in North America. Unfortunately, these models do not all agree and there is uncertainty associated with the potential geographic range expansion of H. longicornis ticks in North America. Climate can affect …


Identification Of Molecular Markers Associated With Copd In Non-Smokers And Smokers: A Bioinformatics Analysis, Agede O. Ayodele, Isa M. Wasagu, Ademola E. Fawibe, Alakija K. Salami May 2023

Identification Of Molecular Markers Associated With Copd In Non-Smokers And Smokers: A Bioinformatics Analysis, Agede O. Ayodele, Isa M. Wasagu, Ademola E. Fawibe, Alakija K. Salami

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background

Even though the proportional burden of COPD among never-smokers is significant in both developing and developed nations, accounting for around 30% of all COPD in the community, there is little awareness of the prevalence of COPD in this population. Understanding the molecular processes that underlie COPD in nonsmokers is essential.

Methods

Dataset (GSE146560) was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The limma and clusterProfiler software tools were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and conduct a functional enrichment analysis respectively.

Results

In all, 10,583 DEGs were found, of which 1,065 were up-regulated and 9,518 were down-regulated. The …


Leptospira Seroprevalence In Companion Animals In Tennessee, Kellie Anne Mccreight May 2023

Leptospira Seroprevalence In Companion Animals In Tennessee, Kellie Anne Mccreight

Masters Theses

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in humans and animals. The bacteria Leptospira spp. causing this disease is maintained in the kidneys of animals such as rodents and cattle as well as in the environment. Animals harboring Leptospira spp. in the kidneys frequently shed the bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Contact with contaminated soil and water may result in infection. Animals and humans may develop serious life threatening disease from Leptospira infection. Approximately 1 million new human cases and over 50,000 deaths are reported worldwide. Numerous animal species including rodents, cattle, and dogs may serve as reservoir …


A Dna-Peptide Crosslink (Dpc) Increases Mutagenicity In Sos-Induced Escherichia Coli, Alessandra Bassani May 2023

A Dna-Peptide Crosslink (Dpc) Increases Mutagenicity In Sos-Induced Escherichia Coli, Alessandra Bassani

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, have an inducible system in response to DNA damage termed the SOS response. This system is activated when the replicative DNA polymerase (Pol) III encounters a lesion, uncouples from DNA helicase, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulates at the replication fork. In this study, we investigated DNA-peptide crosslink (DpC), a common lesion that results from cross-linking of proteins or peptides, UV irradiation, and alkylating agents. To increase survival following formation of a lesion, the SOS response can utilize homologous recombination, translesion synthesis (TLS), or excision repair. With TLS, the levels of DNA Pol II, IV, …