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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar May 2022

An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar

Stratford Campus Research Day

Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb that is derived from the extracts of the roots of Withania somnifera, an evergreen shrub endemic to India and Southeast Asia. It is generally utilized as a tonic to increase one’s energy and reduce stress levels. Often referred to as “Indian ginseng”, it provides neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that address stress, pain, and fatigue. Additionally, it may assist in dealing with rashes, diabetes, and arthritis. It has also been shown to counteract the effects of aging. Though these properties have not been shown in prospective studies, it has become a popular product among western …


Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood May 2021

Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood

Stratford Campus Research Day

Social behavior is inextricably linked to human health, shaping both our susceptibility and resilience to disease and stress. Positive interactions as simple as maternal contact or friendships among children and adults can protect against emotional distress and improve treatment outcomes, whereas negative interactions such as abuse, social isolation, or bullying can increase aggression and precipitate mood disorders. Discovering the structure and function of neural circuits underlying social behavior is critical to understanding the link between social interaction and health. The neuropeptide vasopressin has been implicated in the regulation of multiple social interactions including social memory, aggression, mating, pair-bonding, and parental …


Neuroactivational And Behavioral Correlates Of Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine Seeking In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Stephany J. Mcdonald, Samantha De Guzman, Nicole E. Hubbard, Colin M. Kulick-Soper, Jessica J. Debski, Bianca Patel, Daniel Manvich May 2021

Neuroactivational And Behavioral Correlates Of Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine Seeking In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Stephany J. Mcdonald, Samantha De Guzman, Nicole E. Hubbard, Colin M. Kulick-Soper, Jessica J. Debski, Bianca Patel, Daniel Manvich

Stratford Campus Research Day

A prominent feature of cocaine abuse is a high risk of relapse even despite prolonged periods of abstinence. Psychosocial stress is thought to be a major contributor to the onset of cocaine craving and relapse in human substance abusers, yet most preclinical models of stress-induced relapse employ physical stressors (e.g., unpredictable footshock) or pharmacological stressors (e.g., yohimbine to elicit a drug seeking response) and do not rely upon psychosocial stress per se. Importantly, social stressors are well known to activate distinct neural circuits within the brain as compared to other stressors. It is therefore possible that currently available animal models …


Amphotercin Washout Of Fungal Peritonitis In Liver Transplant Recipient: A Novel Approach, Ann Thompson Do, Mara Piltin Do, Alyssa Imperatore Do, Ely Sebastian Md, Sandra Paluzzi Md May 2019

Amphotercin Washout Of Fungal Peritonitis In Liver Transplant Recipient: A Novel Approach, Ann Thompson Do, Mara Piltin Do, Alyssa Imperatore Do, Ely Sebastian Md, Sandra Paluzzi Md

Stratford Campus Research Day

Invasive fungal infection has a significant prevalence among organ transplant patients and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Fungal infection is difficult to identify early and subsequently difficult to effectively treat. In this case presentation we have a 45 y/o orthotopic liver transplant recipient who was profoundly sick from fungal peritonitis and due to the appearance of her abdomen and intestines, with the help of infectious disease, decided to proceed with direct amphotercin washout of the abdomen in the operating room. The patient had complete resolution of her fungal peritonitis and is doing well.


Snf1 Cooperates With The Cwi Mapk Pathway To Mediate The Degradation Of Med13 Following Oxidative Stress, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, Kai Li Ong, Ravina Shah, Alexandra K. Strich, Julianne H Grose, Katrina F Cooper Jun 2018

Snf1 Cooperates With The Cwi Mapk Pathway To Mediate The Degradation Of Med13 Following Oxidative Stress, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, Kai Li Ong, Ravina Shah, Alexandra K. Strich, Julianne H Grose, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, mount either pro-survival or pro-death programs. The conserved cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase plays a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core Mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction, which releases cyclin C into the cytoplasm to promote mitochondrial fission and programmed cell death. The SCFGrr1 ubiquitin ligase mediates Med13 degradation dependent on the cell wall integrity pathway, MAPK Slt2. Here we show that the AMP kinase Snf1 activates a second …


Guidelines And Recommendations On Yeast Cell Death Nomenclature, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Maria Anna Bauer, Andreas Zimmermann, Andrés Aguilera, Nicanor Austriaco, Kathryn Ayscough, Rena Balzan, Shoshana Bar-Nun, Antonio Barrientos, Peter Belenky, Marc Blondel, Ralf J Braun, Michael Breitenbach, William C Burhans, Sabrina Büttner, Duccio Cavalieri, Michael Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Manuela Côrte-Real, Vítor Costa, Christophe Cullin, Ian Dawes, Jörn Dengjel, Martin B Dickman, Tobias Eisenberg, Birthe Fahrenkrog, Nicolas Fasel, Kai-Uwe Fröhlich, Ali Gargouri, Sergio Giannattasio, Paola Goffrini, Campbell W Gourlay, Chris M Grant, Michael T Greenwood, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Thomas Heger, Jürgen Heinisch, Eva Herker, Johannes M Herrmann, Sebastian Hofer, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Helmut Jungwirth, Katharina Kainz, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Paula Ludovico, Stéphen Manon, Enzo Martegani, Cristina Mazzoni, Lynn A Megeney, Chris Meisinger, Jens Nielsen, Thomas Nyström, Heinz D Osiewacz, Tiago F Outeiro, Hay-Oak Park, Tobias Pendl, Dina Petranovic, Stephane Picot, Peter Polčic, Ted Powers, Mark Ramsdale, Mark Rinnerthaler, Patrick Rockenfeller, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Raffael Schaffrath, Maria Segovia, Fedor F Severin, Amir Sharon, Stephan J Sigrist, Cornelia Sommer-Ruck, Maria João Sousa, Johan M Thevelein, Karin Thevissen, Vladimir Titorenko, Michel B Toledano, Mick Tuite, F-Nora Vögtle, Benedikt Westermann, Joris Winderickx, Silke Wissing, Stefan Wölfl, Zhaojie J Zhang, Richard Y Zhao, Bing Zhou, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Frank Madeo Jan 2018

Guidelines And Recommendations On Yeast Cell Death Nomenclature, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Maria Anna Bauer, Andreas Zimmermann, Andrés Aguilera, Nicanor Austriaco, Kathryn Ayscough, Rena Balzan, Shoshana Bar-Nun, Antonio Barrientos, Peter Belenky, Marc Blondel, Ralf J Braun, Michael Breitenbach, William C Burhans, Sabrina Büttner, Duccio Cavalieri, Michael Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Manuela Côrte-Real, Vítor Costa, Christophe Cullin, Ian Dawes, Jörn Dengjel, Martin B Dickman, Tobias Eisenberg, Birthe Fahrenkrog, Nicolas Fasel, Kai-Uwe Fröhlich, Ali Gargouri, Sergio Giannattasio, Paola Goffrini, Campbell W Gourlay, Chris M Grant, Michael T Greenwood, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Thomas Heger, Jürgen Heinisch, Eva Herker, Johannes M Herrmann, Sebastian Hofer, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Helmut Jungwirth, Katharina Kainz, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Paula Ludovico, Stéphen Manon, Enzo Martegani, Cristina Mazzoni, Lynn A Megeney, Chris Meisinger, Jens Nielsen, Thomas Nyström, Heinz D Osiewacz, Tiago F Outeiro, Hay-Oak Park, Tobias Pendl, Dina Petranovic, Stephane Picot, Peter Polčic, Ted Powers, Mark Ramsdale, Mark Rinnerthaler, Patrick Rockenfeller, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Raffael Schaffrath, Maria Segovia, Fedor F Severin, Amir Sharon, Stephan J Sigrist, Cornelia Sommer-Ruck, Maria João Sousa, Johan M Thevelein, Karin Thevissen, Vladimir Titorenko, Michel B Toledano, Mick Tuite, F-Nora Vögtle, Benedikt Westermann, Joris Winderickx, Silke Wissing, Stefan Wölfl, Zhaojie J Zhang, Richard Y Zhao, Bing Zhou, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Frank Madeo

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cellular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the definition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic …


Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich Dec 2017

Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Eukaryotic cells take cues from their environment and interpret them to enact a response. External stresses can produce a decision between adjusting to behaviors which promote surviving the stress, or enacting a cell death program. The decision to undergo programmed cell death (PCD) is controlled by a complex interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial signals. The mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion. However, a dramatic shift in mitochondrial morphology toward fission occurs early in the PCD process. We have identified the transcription factor cyclin C as the biochemical trigger for stress‐induced mitochondrial hyper‐fragmentation in yeast (Cooper …


The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Dec 2017

The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

In response to stress, the yeast1 and mammalian2 cyclin C translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with the GTPase Drp1/Dnm1 to drive mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. Therefore, the decision to release cyclin C represents a key life or death decision. In unstressed cells, the cyclin C‐Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription by associating with the Mediator of RNA polymerase II. We previously reported that the Mediator component Med13 anchors cyclin C in the nucleus3. Loss of Med13 function leads to constitutive cytoplasmic localization of cyclin C, resulting in fragmented mitochondria, hypersensitivity to stress and …


Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Dec 2017

Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

All eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, have to decide whether to mount a survival or cell death response. The conserved cyclin C and its kinase partner Cdk8 play a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In S. cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction1, which thereafter releases cyclin Ci nto the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic cyclin C associates with mitochondria where it induces hyper-fragmentation and programmed cell death2. This suggests a model in …


Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Dec 2017

Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Living organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and internal stressors tha tare detrimental to their cellular physiology and viability. One such condition, oxidativestress, is caused by abnormal amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that can lead to damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Although the mechanisms to neutralize ROS have been widely studied, the understanding of ROS‐mediated signaling for these mechanisms is rather incomplete and sparse. We have uncovered a previously undescribed phenomenon of yeast ribosomes to respond to elevated levels of ROS through a specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 25S rRNA in the c‐loop of …


One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov Dec 2017

One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Current methods for isolating RNA from budding yeast require lengthy and laborious steps such as freezing and heating with phenol, homogenization with glass beads, or enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. Here, extraction with a solution of formamide and EDTA was adapted to isolate RNA from whole yeast cells through a rapid and easily scalable procedure that does not require mechanical cell lysis, phenol, or enzymes. RNA extracted with formamide-EDTA can be directly loaded on gels for electrophoretic analysis without alcohol precipitation. A simplified protocol for downstream DNase treatment and reverse transcription reaction is also included. The formamide-EDTA extraction of …


Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Nov 2017

Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The ability to detect and respond to oxidative stress is crucial to the survival of living organisms. In cells, sensing of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates many defensive mechanisms that limit or repair damage to cell components. The ROS-signaling responses necessary for cell survival under oxidative stress conditions remain incompletely understood, especially for the translational machinery. Here, we found that drug treatments or a genetic deficiency in the thioredoxin system that increase levels of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae promote site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage in 25S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) adjacent to the c loop of …