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Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

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Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz Nov 2022

Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction

The response of enterobacteria to oxidative stress is usually considered to be regulated by transcription factors such as OxyR and SoxR. Nevertheless, several reports have shown that under oxidative stress the levels, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAs may be altered suggesting a role of codon bias in regulation of gene expression under this condition.

Methods

In order to characterize the effects of oxidative stress on translation elongation we constructed a library of 61 plasmids, each coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) translationally fused to a different set of four identical codons.

Results

Using these reporters, we observed that …


Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König Jul 2020

Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Appropriate social interactions influence animal fitness by impacting several processes, such as mating, territory defense, and offspring care. Many studies shedding light on the neurobiological underpinnings of social behavior have focused on nonapeptides (vasopressin, oxytocin, and homologues) and on sexual or parent-offspring interactions. Furthermore, animals have been studied under artificial laboratory conditions, where the consequences of behavioral responses may not be as critical as when expressed under natural environments, therefore obscuring certain physiological responses. We used automated recording of social interactions of wild house mice outside of the breeding season to detect individuals at both tails of a distribution …


Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König Feb 2020

Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Social interactions are critically important for survival and impact overall-health, but also impose costs on animals, such as exposure to contagious agents. The immune system can play a critical role in modulating social behavior when animals are sick, as has been demonstrated within the context of “sickness behaviors.” Can immune molecules affect or be affected by social interactions even when animals are not sick, therefore serving a role in mediating pathogen exposure? We tested whether markers of immune function in both the blood and the brain are associated with gregariousness, quantified as number of animals interacted with per day. To …


No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König Nov 2018

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both …


Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman Jan 2015

Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s(-1). Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind …


Connecting Model Species To Nature: Predator-Induced Long-Term Sensitization In Aplysia Californica, Maria J. Mason, Amanda J. Watkins, Jordann Wakabayashi, Jennifer Buechler, Christine Pepino, Michelle Brown, William G. Wright Jan 2014

Connecting Model Species To Nature: Predator-Induced Long-Term Sensitization In Aplysia Californica, Maria J. Mason, Amanda J. Watkins, Jordann Wakabayashi, Jennifer Buechler, Christine Pepino, Michelle Brown, William G. Wright

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Previous research on sensitization in Aplysia was based entirely on unnatural noxious stimuli, usually electric shock, until our laboratory found that a natural noxious stimulus, a single sublethal lobster attack, causes short-term sensitization. We here extend that finding by demonstrating that multiple lobster attacks induce long-term sensitization (>= 24 h) as well as similar, although not identical, neuronal correlates as observed after electric shock. Together these findings establish long-and short-term sensitization caused by sublethal predator attack as a natural equivalent to sensitization caused by artificial stimuli.


Regional Dust Storm Modeling For Health Services: The Case Of Valley Fever, William A. Sprigg, Slobodan Nickovic, John N. Galgiani, Goran Pejanovic, Slavo Petkovic, Mirjam Vujadinovic, Ana Vukovic, Milan Dacic, Scott Dibiase, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham El-Askary Jan 2014

Regional Dust Storm Modeling For Health Services: The Case Of Valley Fever, William A. Sprigg, Slobodan Nickovic, John N. Galgiani, Goran Pejanovic, Slavo Petkovic, Mirjam Vujadinovic, Ana Vukovic, Milan Dacic, Scott Dibiase, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham El-Askary

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to …


Intermediate Filaments Regulate Tissue Size And Stiffness In The Murine Lens, Douglas S. Fudge, John V. Mccuaig, Shannon Van Stralen, John F. Hess, Huan Wang, Richard T. Mathias, Paul G. Fitzgerald May 2011

Intermediate Filaments Regulate Tissue Size And Stiffness In The Murine Lens, Douglas S. Fudge, John V. Mccuaig, Shannon Van Stralen, John F. Hess, Huan Wang, Richard T. Mathias, Paul G. Fitzgerald

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. To define the contributions of the beaded filament (BF), a lens-specific intermediate filament (IF), to lens morphology and biomechanics.

METHODS. Wild-type and congenic CP49 knockout (KO) mice were compared by using electrophysiological, biomechanical, and morphometric approaches, to determine changes that occurred because of the absence of this cytoskeletal structure.

RESULTS. Electrophysiological assessment established that the fiber cells lacking the lens-specific IFs were indistinguishable from wild-type fiber cells. The CP49 KO mice exhibited lower stiffness, and an unexpected higher resilience than the wildtype lenses. The absence of these filaments resulted in lenses that were smaller, and exhibited a higher ratio …


Different Training Volumes Yield Equivalent Increases In Bmd, R. A. Pierce, L. C. Lee, C. P. Ahles, S. M. Shdo, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2010

Different Training Volumes Yield Equivalent Increases In Bmd, R. A. Pierce, L. C. Lee, C. P. Ahles, S. M. Shdo, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise threshold existed in stimulating an elevation in bone mineral density (BMD), via resistance training, during the growth period in male rats. 27 male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 9), 3 ladder climb resistance trained group (3LC, n = 9), and 6 ladder climb resistance trained group (6LC, n = 9). The 3LC and 6LC groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their tail 3 days/wk for a total of 6 wks, but the 6LC group performed significantly more work than …


Equal Bmd After Daily Or Triweekly Exercise In Growing Rats, B. D. Kayser, J. K. Godfrey, R. M. Cunningham, R. A. Pierce, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2010

Equal Bmd After Daily Or Triweekly Exercise In Growing Rats, B. D. Kayser, J. K. Godfrey, R. M. Cunningham, R. A. Pierce, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of continuous resistance training (3 days/wk) compared to interrupted resistance training where 20-24 h separated an exercise bout (i.e. 6 days/wk) for enhancing bone mineral density (BMD) in growing male rats. The total volume of work performed per week between the two resistance training programs was equivalent by design. Young male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 9), 3 days/wk resistance trained group (RT3, n = 9), and 6 days/wk resistance trained group (RT6, n = 9). The RT3 and RT6 groups were conditioned to climb a …


Interrupted Resistance Training And Bmd In Growing Rats, J. K. Godfrey, B. D. Kayser, G. V. Gomez, Jason Bennett, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2009

Interrupted Resistance Training And Bmd In Growing Rats, J. K. Godfrey, B. D. Kayser, G. V. Gomez, Jason Bennett, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

A resistance training program, where the exercise was uninterrupted (UT, i.e. continuous repetitions) was compared against another resistance training program where the exercise was interrupted (IT, i.e. 2 exercise sessions during a training day) for enhancing bone modeling and bone mineral density (BMD) in maturating animals. The total volume of work performed between the two resistance training programs was equivalent by design. Young male rats (similar to 8 weeks old) were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 8), UT (n = 8) and IT (n = 7) resistance trained groups. The UT and IT groups were conditioned to climb …


The Guinea Pig Ileum Lacks The Direct, High-Potency, M2-Muscarinic, Contractile Mechanism Characteristic Of The Mouse Ileum, Michael T. Griffin, Minoru Matsui, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Frederick J. Ehlert Jan 2009

The Guinea Pig Ileum Lacks The Direct, High-Potency, M2-Muscarinic, Contractile Mechanism Characteristic Of The Mouse Ileum, Michael T. Griffin, Minoru Matsui, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Frederick J. Ehlert

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We explored whether the M2 muscarinic receptor in the guinea pig ileum elicits a highly potent, direct-contractile response, like that from the M3 muscarinic receptor knockout mouse. First, we characterized the irreversible receptor-blocking activity of 4-DAMP mustard in ileum from muscarinic receptor knockout mice to verify its M3 selectivity. Then, we used 4-DAMP mustard to inactivate M3 responses in the guinea pig ileum to attempt to reveal direct, M2 receptor-mediated contractions. The muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, elicited potent contractions in ileum from wild-type, M2 receptor knockout, and M3 receptor knockout mice characterized by negative log EC50 (pEC 50 ) values ± …


Resistance Training And Bone Mineral Density During Growth, M. Z. Smith, B. M. Goettsch, R. D. Van Ramshorst, J. A. O'Brien, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2008

Resistance Training And Bone Mineral Density During Growth, M. Z. Smith, B. M. Goettsch, R. D. Van Ramshorst, J. A. O'Brien, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

This study examined the efficacy of two different resistance training programs in enhancing bone modeling and bone mineral density (BMD) in maturating rats. One exercise mode involved lifting a lighter weight with more repetitions (LI), while the other regimen involved lifting a heavier weight with fewer repetitions (HI) where the total volume of work between exercise programs was equivalent by design. Twenty-three male rats were randomly divided into control (Con, n = 8), LI (n = 7), and HI (n = 8) groups. The LI and HI groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their …


Interrupted Vs. Uninterrupted Training On Bmd During Growth, B. M. Goettsch, M. Z. Smith, J. A. O'Brien, G. V. Gomez, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2008

Interrupted Vs. Uninterrupted Training On Bmd During Growth, B. M. Goettsch, M. Z. Smith, J. A. O'Brien, G. V. Gomez, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

This study compared a resistance training program where the exercise was uninterrupted (UT, i.e., continuous repetitions) against a resistance training program where the exercise was interrupted (IT, i.e., 3 exercise sessions during a training day) for enhancing bone modeling and bone mineral density (BMD) in maturating animals. The total volume of work performed between the two resistance training programs was equivalent by design. 24 young male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 8), UT (n = 8) and IT (n=8) resistance trained groups. The UT and IT groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights …