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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Prevalence And Types Of Drugs Used Among Hepatitis A Patients During Outbreaks Associated With Person-To-Person Transmission, Kentucky, Michigan, And West Virginia, 2016–2019, Megan G. Hofmeister, Alice Asher, Christopher M. Jones, Ryan J. Augustine, Cole Burkholder, Jim Collins, Monique A. Foster, Shannon Mcbee, Erica D. Thomasson, Doug Thoroughman, Mark K. Weng, Philip R. Spradling Feb 2022

Prevalence And Types Of Drugs Used Among Hepatitis A Patients During Outbreaks Associated With Person-To-Person Transmission, Kentucky, Michigan, And West Virginia, 2016–2019, Megan G. Hofmeister, Alice Asher, Christopher M. Jones, Ryan J. Augustine, Cole Burkholder, Jim Collins, Monique A. Foster, Shannon Mcbee, Erica D. Thomasson, Doug Thoroughman, Mark K. Weng, Philip R. Spradling

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: People who use drugs are at increased risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Since 1996, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended hepatitis A vaccination for people who use drugs. Since 2016, the U.S. has experienced widespread hepatitis A outbreaks associated with person-to-person transmission.

Purpose: To describe the prevalence of drug use, route of use, and drugs used among hepatitis A outbreak-associated patients.

Methods: State outbreak and medical records were reviewed to describe the prevalence, type, and route of drug use among a random sample of 812 adult outbreak-associated hepatitis A patients from Kentucky, Michigan, and West Virginia …


Increasing Staff Compliance With Routine Hcv Screening And Improving Linkage To Care Among Patients Testing Hepatitis C Positive In The Emergency Department, Carson G. Swartz Jan 2022

Increasing Staff Compliance With Routine Hcv Screening And Improving Linkage To Care Among Patients Testing Hepatitis C Positive In The Emergency Department, Carson G. Swartz

DNP Projects

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that can cause severe liver disease, cancer, and death and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Several academic medical centers including University of Kentucky Healthcare have implemented routine HCV screening for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) and have discovered a large viral burden amongst patients who are often symptomatic.

Purpose: The purpose of this doctoral project is to increase staff compliance, confidence, and education regarding the HCV screening process in an urban, Level I emergency department, as well as to evaluate whether an …


Novel Mammalian Models For Understanding And Treating Spinal Cord Injury, Michael B. Orr Jan 2021

Novel Mammalian Models For Understanding And Treating Spinal Cord Injury, Michael B. Orr

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating and often leaves the injured individual with persistent dysfunction. The injury persists because humans have poor wound repair and there are no pharmacologic treatments to induce wound repair after SCI. The continued efforts to discover therapeutic targets and develop treatments heavily relies on animal models. The purpose of this project is to develop and study novel mammalian models of SCI to provide insights for the development and effective implementation of SCI therapies.

Lab mice (Mus musculus) are a powerful tool for recapitulating the progression and persistent damage evident in human SCI, but …


Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena Jan 2021

Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Mammalian system consists of stress-sensing molecules that regulates their cellular response against damage, injury and oncogenic stress. During vertebrate regeneration, cells responding to injury re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate to form new tissue. Cell cycle re-entry or arrest is at least partly regulated by cellular senescence which negatively impacts the proliferative pool of cells during regeneration. What remains unclear is whether cells in regenerating systems possess an increased propensity to proliferate and are refractory to signals that induce senescence. My thesis work has focused on how fibroblasts from the ear pinna differentially regulate healing in highly regenerative mammals (e.g., …


Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton Apr 2020

Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted on March 23, 2010 significantly impacted access to healthcare for people living with HIV (PLWH). Expansion of care was accomplished in three areas: eliminating exclusions for pre-existing conditions, elimination of lifetime caps on healthcare expenditures, and expansion of Medicaid eligibility.

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of state implementation of the ACA Medicaid expansion on referral to HIV care at a Ryan White federally funded clinic in Kentucky (University of Kentucky Bluegrass Care Clinic [UK BCC]).

Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newly enrolled patients at the UK BCC between March 2010 and …


Novel Small Molecule Antifungals For Invasive Fungal Infections, Emily Dennis Jan 2020

Novel Small Molecule Antifungals For Invasive Fungal Infections, Emily Dennis

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Human fungal pathogens cause a range of diseases from benign skin conditions (i.e., ringworm) to thrush, mucosal membrane infections, and life-threatening systemic infections including bloodstream infections (i.e., aspergillosis and candidiasis) and Cryptococcal meningitis. These systemic infections occur most often in immunocompromised individuals and have high mortality rates. Current antifungal agents used in the clinic belong to three main classes: the polyenes (e.g., amphotericin B (AmB)), the echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin (CFG)), and the azoles (e.g., fluconazole (FLC)). In addition, the antimetabolite pyrimidine analogue flucytosine is used in combination with AmB. The …


Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Vitro Susceptibility And Mechanisms Of Resistance, Chanah Gallagher Jan 2020

Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Vitro Susceptibility And Mechanisms Of Resistance, Chanah Gallagher

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes severe healthcare-associated infections. Forty-eight extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-P. aeruginosa isolates were selected from 287 isolates collected for evaluation based on clinical susceptibility data. In vitro activity of commonly utilized antimicrobials (i.e. antipseudomonal beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins) plus ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftazidime-avibactam, and aztreonam-avibactam against XDR-P. aeruginosa were determined. The mechanism of resistance profile was determined through phenotypic expression analysis. Overall, polymyxin B and colistin were 100% susceptible. Apart from the polymyxins, ceftolozane-tazobactam had the highest susceptibility (94%) followed by ceftazidime-avibactam (90%) and amikacin (83%). Ceftolozane-tazobactam activity was not significantly different from ceftazidime-avibactam (p=0.6831). Only 40% of isolates …


The Effects Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Synaptic Transmission At The Neuromuscular Junction, Robin L. Cooper, Micaiah Mcnabb, Jeremy Nadolski Mar 2019

The Effects Of Bacterial Endotoxin Lps On Synaptic Transmission At The Neuromuscular Junction, Robin L. Cooper, Micaiah Mcnabb, Jeremy Nadolski

Biology Faculty Publications

The direct action of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) endotoxin was shown to enhance synaptic transmission and hyperpolarize the membrane potential at low doses, but block glutamatergic receptors and decrease observable spontaneous events at a high dosage. The dosage effects are LPS type specific. The hyperpolarization is not due to voltage-gated potassium channels or to activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The effects are induced directly by LPS, independent of an immune response.


Spore Forming Actinobacterial Diversity Of Cholistan Desert Pakistan: Polyphasic Taxonomy, Antimicrobial Potential And Chemical Profiling, Adeela Fatima, Usman Aftab, Khaled A. Shaaban, Jon S. Thorson, Imran Sajid Feb 2019

Spore Forming Actinobacterial Diversity Of Cholistan Desert Pakistan: Polyphasic Taxonomy, Antimicrobial Potential And Chemical Profiling, Adeela Fatima, Usman Aftab, Khaled A. Shaaban, Jon S. Thorson, Imran Sajid

Center for Pharmaceutical Research and Innovation Faculty Publications

Background: Actinobacteria are famous for the production of unique secondary metabolites that help in controlling the continuously emerging drug resistance all over the globe. This study aimed at the investigation of an extreme environment the Cholistan desert, located in southern Punjab, Pakistan, for actinobacterial diversity and their activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The Cholistan desert is a sub-tropical and arid ecosystem with harsh environment, limited rainfall and low humidity. The 20 soil and sand samples were collected from different locations in the desert and the actinobacterial strains were selectively isolated. The isolated strains were identified using a polyphasic …


Pyocyanin, A Virulence Factor Produced By Sepsis-Causing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Promotes Adipose Wasting And Cachexia, Nika Larian Jan 2019

Pyocyanin, A Virulence Factor Produced By Sepsis-Causing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Promotes Adipose Wasting And Cachexia, Nika Larian

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Sepsis is a leading cause of death among critically ill patients that results in metabolic alterations including hypercatabolism, lipoatrophy, and muscle wasting, contributing to the development of cachexia. Septic cachexia is associated with loss of body weight, fat mass, and lean mass and dysregulated immune function. There are currently no efficacious treatment strategies for septic cachexia, and nutritional interventions have limited success in preventing hypercatabolic wasting. Pyocyanin is a virulence factor produced by sepsis-causing Pseudomonas aeruginosa that has been shown to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), increase inflammation, and produce reactive oxygen species. Thus, pyocyanin represents a novel mechanistic …


Repeat Elements Organise 3d Genome Structure And Mediate Transcription In The Filamentous Fungus Epichloë Festucae, David J. Winter, Austen R. D. Ganley, Carolyn A. Young, Ivan Liachko, Christopher L. Schardl, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Daniel Berry, Arvina Ram, Barry Scott, Murray P. Cox Oct 2018

Repeat Elements Organise 3d Genome Structure And Mediate Transcription In The Filamentous Fungus Epichloë Festucae, David J. Winter, Austen R. D. Ganley, Carolyn A. Young, Ivan Liachko, Christopher L. Schardl, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Daniel Berry, Arvina Ram, Barry Scott, Murray P. Cox

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Structural features of genomes, including the three-dimensional arrangement of DNA in the nucleus, are increasingly seen as key contributors to the regulation of gene expression. However, studies on how genome structure and nuclear organisation influence transcription have so far been limited to a handful of model species. This narrow focus limits our ability to draw general conclusions about the ways in which three-dimensional structures are encoded, and to integrate information from three-dimensional data to address a broader gamut of biological questions. Here, we generate a complete and gapless genome sequence for the filamentous fungus, Epichloë festucae. We use Hi-C …


Iac Gene Expression In The Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Degrading Soil Bacterium Enterobacter Soli Lf7, Isaac V. Greenhut, Beryl L. Slezak, Johan H. J. Leveau Oct 2018

Iac Gene Expression In The Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Degrading Soil Bacterium Enterobacter Soli Lf7, Isaac V. Greenhut, Beryl L. Slezak, Johan H. J. Leveau

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

We show for soil bacterium Enterobacter soli LF7 that the possession of an indole-3-acetic acid catabolic (iac) gene cluster is causatively linked to the ability to utilize the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as a carbon and energy source. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling by mRNA sequencing revealed that these iac genes, chromosomally arranged as iacHABICDEFG and coding for the transformation of IAA to catechol, were the most highly induced (>29-fold) among the relatively few (iac cluster were genes for a major facilitator superfamily protein (mfs) and enzymes of the β-ketoadipate pathway (pcaIJD-catBCA), which channels …


Capsid Structure Of Dsrna Fungal Viruses, Daniel Luque, Carlos P. Mata, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón Sep 2018

Capsid Structure Of Dsrna Fungal Viruses, Daniel Luque, Carlos P. Mata, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Most fungal, double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses lack an extracellular life cycle stage and are transmitted by cytoplasmic interchange. dsRNA mycovirus capsids are based on a 120-subunit T = 1 capsid, with a dimer as the asymmetric unit. These capsids, which remain structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, nevertheless, are dynamic particles involved in the organization of the viral genome and the viral polymerase necessary for RNA synthesis. The atomic structure of the T = 1 capsids of four mycoviruses was resolved: the L-A virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScV-L-A), Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV), Penicillium stoloniferum virus F (PsV-F), and Rosellinia necatrix …


Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo Jun 2018

Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Virus particles protect genomes from hostile environments within and outside the host, eventually delivering these genomes to target tissues to initiate infection. Complex processes requiring significant energy and time are necessary to assemble these virus particles, but only a small portion of released virus will successfully infect new target cells (Fig 1A). While the science of virology has developed based on the isolation and purification of viral particles, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cell-to-cell transmission of viruses and/or viral components is also highly relevant [1,2].

Direct cell-to-cell spread of infections has several advantages. The first is efficiency: genomic …


Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson Jun 2018

Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism …


Deletion Of Endo-Β-1,4-Xylanase Vmxyl1 Impacts The Virulence Of Valsa Mali In Apple Tree, Chunlei Yu, Ting Li, Xiangpeng Shi, Muhammad Saleem, Baohua Li, Wenxing Liang, Caixia Wang May 2018

Deletion Of Endo-Β-1,4-Xylanase Vmxyl1 Impacts The Virulence Of Valsa Mali In Apple Tree, Chunlei Yu, Ting Li, Xiangpeng Shi, Muhammad Saleem, Baohua Li, Wenxing Liang, Caixia Wang

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Valsa mali, a parasitic fungus, is a destructive pathogen of apple tree that causes heavy economic losses in China. The pathogen secretes various cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) that degrade plant cell-wall components, and thus facilitate its entry into host cells. Therefore, functional analysis of the genes encoding CWDEs is necessary to understand virulence of V. mali toward apple tree. Here, we identified and cloned an endo-β-1,4-xylanase gene, VmXyl1 in V. mali. The full-length cDNA of VmXyl1 is 1626 bp containing 5′- and 3′-non-coding regions, as well an open reading frame of 1320 bp that encodes a protein with …


Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hypoviridae, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, Kook-Hyung Kim, Michael Pearson, Shin-Yi L. Marzano, Hajime Yaegashi, Jiatao Xie, Lihua Guo, Hideki Kondo, Igor Koloniuk, Bradley I. Hillman, Ictv Report Consortium May 2018

Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hypoviridae, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, Kook-Hyung Kim, Michael Pearson, Shin-Yi L. Marzano, Hajime Yaegashi, Jiatao Xie, Lihua Guo, Hideki Kondo, Igor Koloniuk, Bradley I. Hillman, Ictv Report Consortium

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The Hypoviridae, comprising one genus, Hypovirus, is a family of capsidless viruses with positive-sense, ssRNA genomes of 9.1–12.7 kb that possess either a single large ORF or two ORFs. The ORFs appear to be translated from genomic RNA by non-canonical mechanisms, i.e. internal ribosome entry site-mediated and stop/restart translation. Hypoviruses have been detected in ascomycetous or basidiomycetous filamentous fungi, and are considered to be replicated in host Golgi-derived, lipid vesicles that contain their dsRNA as a replicative form. Some hypoviruses induce hypovirulence to host fungi, while others do not. This is a summary of the current ICTV report …


Ketogenic Diet Enhances Neurovascular Function With Altered Gut Microbiome In Young Healthy Mice, David Ma, Amy C. Wang, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J. Green, Jared D. Hoffman, George Chlipala, M. Paul Murphy, Brent S. Sokola, Björn Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin Apr 2018

Ketogenic Diet Enhances Neurovascular Function With Altered Gut Microbiome In Young Healthy Mice, David Ma, Amy C. Wang, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J. Green, Jared D. Hoffman, George Chlipala, M. Paul Murphy, Brent S. Sokola, Björn Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Neurovascular integrity, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, plays a major role in determining cognitive capability. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular integrity could be regulated by the gut microbiome. The purpose of the study was to identify if ketogenic diet (KD) intervention would alter gut microbiome and enhance neurovascular functions, and thus reduce risk for neurodegeneration in young healthy mice (12–14 weeks old). Here we show that with 16 weeks of KD, mice had significant increases in CBF and P-glycoprotein transports on BBB to facilitate clearance of amyloid-beta, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These neurovascular …


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N mutant displayed …


Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch Apr 2018

Transmembrane Domains Of Highly Pathogenic Viral Fusion Proteins Exhibit Trimeric Association In Vitro, Stacy R. Webb, Stacy E. Smith, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process. However, the structural and molecular details …


In Vivo Structures Of The Helicobacter Pylori Cag Type Iv Secretion System, Yi-Wei Chang, Carrie L. Shaffer, Lee A. Rettberg, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J. Jensen Apr 2018

In Vivo Structures Of The Helicobacter Pylori Cag Type Iv Secretion System, Yi-Wei Chang, Carrie L. Shaffer, Lee A. Rettberg, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J. Jensen

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is a versatile nanomachine that translocates diverse effector molecules between microbes and into eukaryotic cells. Here, using electron cryotomography, we reveal the molecular architecture of the Helicobacter pylori cag T4SS. Although most components are unique to H. pylori, the cag T4SS exhibits remarkable architectural similarity to other T4SSs. Our images revealed that, when H. pylori encounters host cells, the bacterium elaborates membranous tubes perforated by lateral ports. Sub-tomogram averaging of the cag T4SS machinery revealed periplasmic densities associated with the outer membrane, a central stalk, and peripheral wing-like densities. Additionally, we resolved pilus-like …


Genetic And Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Symbiotic Specificity In Legume-Rhizobium Interactions, Qi Wang, Jinge Liu, Hongyan Zhu Mar 2018

Genetic And Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Symbiotic Specificity In Legume-Rhizobium Interactions, Qi Wang, Jinge Liu, Hongyan Zhu

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Legumes are able to form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. The result of this symbiosis is to form nodules on the plant root, within which the bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant. Establishment of a successful symbiosis requires the two symbiotic partners to be compatible with each other throughout the process of symbiotic development. However, incompatibility frequently occurs, such that a bacterial strain is unable to nodulate a particular host plant or forms nodules that are incapable of fixing nitrogen. Genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate symbiotic specificity …


Recombinant Promoter (Muascsv8cp) Driven Totiviral Killer Protein 4 (Kp4) Imparts Resistance Against Fungal Pathogens In Transgenic Tobacco, Debasish Deb, Ankita Shrestha, Indu B. Maiti, Nrisingha Dey Mar 2018

Recombinant Promoter (Muascsv8cp) Driven Totiviral Killer Protein 4 (Kp4) Imparts Resistance Against Fungal Pathogens In Transgenic Tobacco, Debasish Deb, Ankita Shrestha, Indu B. Maiti, Nrisingha Dey

Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center Faculty Publications

Development of disease-resistant plant varieties achieved by engineering anti-microbial transgenes under the control of strong promoters can suffice the inhibition of pathogen growth and simultaneously ensure enhanced crop production. For evaluating the prospect of such strong promoters, we comprehensively characterized the full-length transcript promoter of Cassava Vein Mosaic Virus (CsVMV; -565 to +166) and identified CsVMV8 (-215 to +166) as the highest expressing fragment in both transient and transgenic assays. Further, we designed a new chimeric promoter ‘MUASCsV8CP’ through inter-molecular hybridization among the upstream activation sequence (UAS) of Mirabilis Mosaic Virus (MMV; -297 to -38) and CsVMV8, as the core …


Comparative Analysis Of Microbial Sensing Molecules In Mucosal Tissues With Aging, Octavio A. Gonzalez, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Michael John Novak, A. J. Stromberg, L. Orraca, J. Gonzalez-Martinez, A. Burgos, Jeffrey L. Ebersole Mar 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Microbial Sensing Molecules In Mucosal Tissues With Aging, Octavio A. Gonzalez, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Michael John Novak, A. J. Stromberg, L. Orraca, J. Gonzalez-Martinez, A. Burgos, Jeffrey L. Ebersole

Center for Oral Health Research Faculty Publications

Host-bacterial interactions at mucosal surfaces require recognition of the bacteria by host cells enabling targeted responses to maintain tissue homeostasis. It is now well recognized that an array of host-derived pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), both cell-bound and soluble, are critical to innate immune engagement of microbes via microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP). This report describes the use of a nonhuman primate model to evaluate changes in the expression of these sensing molecules related to aging in healthy gingival tissues. Macaca mulatta aged 3-24 years were evaluated clinically and gingival tissues obtained, RNA isolated and microarray analysis conducted for gene expression of …


Central Nervous System Histoplasmosis: Multicenter Retrospective Study On Clinical Features, Diagnostic Approach And Outcome Of Treatment, Joseph Wheat, Thein Myint, Ying Guo, Phebe Kemmer, Chadi A. Hage, Colin Terry, Marwan M. Azar, James Riddell, Peter Ender, Sharon Chen, Kareem Shehab, Kerry Cleveland, Eden Esguerra, James Johnson, Patty Wright, Vanja Douglas, Pascalis Vergidis, Winnie Ooi, John Baddley, David Bamberger, Raed N. Khairy, Holenarasipur R. Vikram, Elizabeth Jenny-Avital, Geetha Sivasubramanian, Karen Bowlware, Barbara Pahud, Juan Sarria, Townson Tsai, Maha Assi, Satish Mocherla Mar 2018

Central Nervous System Histoplasmosis: Multicenter Retrospective Study On Clinical Features, Diagnostic Approach And Outcome Of Treatment, Joseph Wheat, Thein Myint, Ying Guo, Phebe Kemmer, Chadi A. Hage, Colin Terry, Marwan M. Azar, James Riddell, Peter Ender, Sharon Chen, Kareem Shehab, Kerry Cleveland, Eden Esguerra, James Johnson, Patty Wright, Vanja Douglas, Pascalis Vergidis, Winnie Ooi, John Baddley, David Bamberger, Raed N. Khairy, Holenarasipur R. Vikram, Elizabeth Jenny-Avital, Geetha Sivasubramanian, Karen Bowlware, Barbara Pahud, Juan Sarria, Townson Tsai, Maha Assi, Satish Mocherla

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in 5 to 10% of individuals with disseminated histoplasmosis. Most experience has been derived from small single center case series, or case report literature reviews. Therefore, a larger study of central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is needed in order to guide the approach to diagnosis, and treatment.

A convenience sample of 77 patients with histoplasmosis infection of the CNS was evaluated. Data was collected that focused on recognition of infection, diagnostic techniques, and outcomes of treatment.

Twenty nine percent of patients were not immunosuppressed. Histoplasma antigen, or anti-Histoplasma antibodies were detected in the …


Phaeophleospora Vochysiae Savi & Glienke Sp. Nov. Isolated From Vochysia Divergens Found In The Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Francielly M. W. Gos, Larissa V. Ponomareva, Jon S. Thorson, Chirlei Glienke, Jürgen Rohr Feb 2018

Phaeophleospora Vochysiae Savi & Glienke Sp. Nov. Isolated From Vochysia Divergens Found In The Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Francielly M. W. Gos, Larissa V. Ponomareva, Jon S. Thorson, Chirlei Glienke, Jürgen Rohr

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp. nov. The chemical assessment of this species reveals three major compounds with high biological activity, cercoscosporin (1), isocercosporin (2) and the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone (3). …


Phylogenetic Analysis And Characterization Of A Sporadic Isolate Of Equine Influenza A H3n8 From An Unvaccinated Horse In 2015, Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Sunayana S. Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M. Hause, Milton Thomas, David E. B. Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E. Reedy, Thomas Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S. Kaushik, Feng Li Jan 2018

Phylogenetic Analysis And Characterization Of A Sporadic Isolate Of Equine Influenza A H3n8 From An Unvaccinated Horse In 2015, Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Sunayana S. Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M. Hause, Milton Thomas, David E. B. Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E. Reedy, Thomas Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S. Kaushik, Feng Li

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Further, the whole genome sequencing of the virus confirmed that it was the H3N8 subtype and was designated as A/equine/Montana/9564-1/2015 (H3N8). A BLASTn search revealed …


Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Chrysoviridae, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón, Robert H. A. Coutts, Bradley I. Hillman, Daohong Jiang, Dae-Hyun Kim, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Ictv Report Consortium Jan 2018

Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Chrysoviridae, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón, Robert H. A. Coutts, Bradley I. Hillman, Daohong Jiang, Dae-Hyun Kim, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Ictv Report Consortium

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The Chrysoviridae is a family of small, isometric, non-enveloped viruses (40 nm in diameter) with segmented dsRNA genomes (typically four segments). The genome segments are individually encapsidated and together comprise 11.5–12.8 kbp. The single genus Chrysovirus includes nine species. Chrysoviruses lack an extracellular phase to their life cycle; they are transmitted via intracellular routes within an individual during hyphal growth, in asexual or sexual spores, or between individuals via hyphal anastomosis. There are no known natural vectors for chrysoviruses. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Chrysoviridae, which …


Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Partitiviridae, Eeva J. Vainio, Sotaro Chiba, Said A. Ghabrial, Edgar Maiss, Marilyn Roossinck, Sead Sabanadzovic, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Jiatao Xie, Max Nibert, Ictv Report Consortium Jan 2018

Ictv Virus Taxonomy Profile: Partitiviridae, Eeva J. Vainio, Sotaro Chiba, Said A. Ghabrial, Edgar Maiss, Marilyn Roossinck, Sead Sabanadzovic, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Jiatao Xie, Max Nibert, Ictv Report Consortium

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The Partitiviridae is a family of small, isometric, non-enveloped viruses with bisegmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genomes of 3–4.8 kbp. The two genome segments are individually encapsidated. The family has five genera, with characteristic hosts for members of each genus: either plants or fungi for genera Alphapartitivirus and Betapartitivirus, fungi for genus Gammapartitivirus, plants for genus Deltapartitivirus and protozoa for genus Cryspovirus. Partitiviruses are transmitted intracellularly via seeds (plants), oocysts (protozoa) or hyphal anastomosis, cell division and sporogenesis (fungi); there are no known natural vectors. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) …


The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts Jan 2018

The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

As a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) encounters many barriers to invasion and dissemination in the host that may change the nature of host response. Lm has been most commonly studied using intravenous (i.v.) inoculation, however, a method that delivers a bolus of bacteria directly to the bloodstream. Thus, little is known about what systemic and local mediators are triggered during the natural course of infection and how these may impact susceptibility. Our laboratory used foodborne transmission of Lm in mice to assess whether the method of transmission and the specific organ microenvironment could affect infection-induced secretion of …