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2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 43

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Microbicidal Effects Of Α- And Θ-Defensins Against Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Kenneth P. Tai, Karishma Kamdar, Jason Yamaki, Valerie V. Le, Dat Tran, Patti Tran, Michael E. Selsted, Andre J. Ouelette, Annie Wong-Beringer Dec 2013

Microbicidal Effects Of Α- And Θ-Defensins Against Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Kenneth P. Tai, Karishma Kamdar, Jason Yamaki, Valerie V. Le, Dat Tran, Patti Tran, Michael E. Selsted, Andre J. Ouelette, Annie Wong-Beringer

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens threaten public health. Because many antibiotics target specific bacterial enzymes or reactions, corresponding genes may mutate under selection and lead to antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, antimicrobials that selectively target overall microbial cell integrity may offer alternative approaches to therapeutic design. Naturally occurring mammalian α- and θ-defensins are potent, non-toxic microbicides that may be useful for treating infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogens because certain defensin peptides disrupt bacterial, but not mammalian, cell membranes. To test this concept, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including vancomycin heteroresistant strains, and ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CipR-PA) were tested for sensitivity to …


Modeling Fecal Bacteria In Oregon Coastal Streams Using Spatially Explicit Watershed Characteristics, Paul Bryce Pettus Dec 2013

Modeling Fecal Bacteria In Oregon Coastal Streams Using Spatially Explicit Watershed Characteristics, Paul Bryce Pettus

Dissertations and Theses

Pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms, are causing the majority of water quality impairments in U.S., making up ~87% of this grouping's violations. Predicting and characterizing source, transport processes, and microbial survival rates is extremely challenging, due to the dynamic nature of each of these components. This research built upon current analytical methods that are used as exploratory tools to predict pathogen indicator counts across regional scales. Using a series of non-parametric methodologies, with spatially explicit predictors, 6657 samples from non-estuarine lotic streams were analyzed to make generalized predictions of regional water quality. 532 frequently sampled sites in …


Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Our research group is working toward the development of novel antifungal peptides based on a natural model of peptide histatin-5. Histatin-5 is found in human saliva and known to protect our body against oral infections by Candida species. Candidiasis, or an infection caused by Candida species, is considered one of the most medically important fungal infections worldwide. Blood stream infections caused by Candida species are the fourth leading cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections that is associated with high mortality rates and high costs of treatment. This study investigated the modes of action of histatin-5 with the use of one 16-mer …


Relationships Between Landscape Factors And Crayfish Density And The Interacting Effects Of Grazing And Increased Sedimentation On Algal Biomass, Katheryn Haley Rose Dec 2013

Relationships Between Landscape Factors And Crayfish Density And The Interacting Effects Of Grazing And Increased Sedimentation On Algal Biomass, Katheryn Haley Rose

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years in the United States there has been a rapid expansion in anthropogenic sources of sediment in streams including construction, agriculture, and drilling for natural gas. Potential effects land disturbance associated with activities from natural gas development on aquatic biota in surrounding streams have not yet been well documented. An increase in inorganic sediment in streams can be detrimental to organisms through a variety of mechanisms including alteration of dominant substrate type, higher turbidity resulting in lower visibility, and burial of food resources such as algae and detritus. Increasing sedimentation in stream environments through anthropogenic disturbance is a …


Signal Transduction And Transcriptional Regulation Pathways Essential For Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Erin M. Vasicek Dec 2013

Signal Transduction And Transcriptional Regulation Pathways Essential For Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Erin M. Vasicek

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, found as a commensal organism in the mucosa, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts of humans. This pathogenic fungus causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including the mucosal infection oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) which frequently effects patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The azole antifungals (such as fluconazole) are the most widely used and important ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) for the treatment of Candida infections, including OPC. However, the azoles are fungistatic against C. albicans and therefore have limited efficacy against this organism, especially for immunocompromised patients. In C. albicans, the transcription factor Upc2 …


Development And Characterization Of A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Rvsv) For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma, Erika A. Dillard Dec 2013

Development And Characterization Of A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Rvsv) For The Treatment Of Glioblastoma, Erika A. Dillard

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Background: Over the past 30 years, little has changed in the treatment modalities and prognosis of patients suffering from Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and by far the most devastating adult primary malignant brain tumor. Conventional therapies provide only a marginal increase in survival of GBM patients, post-diagnosis. Therefore, more novel means of treating GBM are needed to increase long-term survival and quality of life for those affected. Replication competent oncolytic viruses (OVs) have recently emerged as a possible option for treatment of high-grade gliomas. Particularly, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), an enveloped, negative strand RNA virus, has shown …


Erg11-Mediated Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Stephanie Ann Flowers Dec 2013

Erg11-Mediated Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Stephanie Ann Flowers

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Although many medically important Candida species are commensal to the gut or colonizers of the skin, these organisms have the propensity to cause disease in the event of a waning immune system. Clinical manifestations of infections with Candida species can range from superficial mucosal infections to deep organ involvement usually resulting from haematogenous spread of infection. Despite significant progress made in the management of patients with fungal infections, the emergence of antifungal resistant clinical isolates creates significant problem in regards to antifungal prophylaxis and empirical treatment strategies. Antifungal resistance is associated with high mortality rates and hefty medical costs. The …


Homeotic Gene Teashirt (Tsh) Has A Neuroprotective Function In Amyloid-Beta 42 Mediated Neurodegeneration., Michael M. Moran, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh Nov 2013

Homeotic Gene Teashirt (Tsh) Has A Neuroprotective Function In Amyloid-Beta 42 Mediated Neurodegeneration., Michael M. Moran, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh

Amit Singh

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of cognition, and eventual death of the affected individual. One of the major causes of AD is the accumulation of Amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) polypeptides formed by the improper cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. These plaques disrupt normal cellular processes through oxidative stress and aberrant signaling resulting in the loss of synaptic activity and death of the neurons. However, the detailed genetic mechanism(s) responsible for this neurodegeneration still remain elusive. Methodology/ Principle Findings: We have generated a transgenic Drosophila eye model …


Taxis Toward Hydrogen Gas By Methanococcus Maripaludis, Kristen A. Brileya, James M. Connolly, Carey Downey, Robin Gerlach, Matthew W. Fields Nov 2013

Taxis Toward Hydrogen Gas By Methanococcus Maripaludis, Kristen A. Brileya, James M. Connolly, Carey Downey, Robin Gerlach, Matthew W. Fields

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Knowledge of taxis (directed swimming) in the Archaea is currently expanding through identification of novel receptors, effectors, and proteins involved in signal transduction to the flagellar motor. Although the ability for biological cells to sense and swim toward hydrogen gas has been hypothesized for many years, this capacity has yet to be observed and demonstrated. Here we show that the average swimming velocity increases in the direction of a source of hydrogen gas for the methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis using a capillary assay with anoxic gas-phase control and time-lapse microscopy. The results indicate that a methanogen couples motility to hydrogen concentration …


A Box Of Paradoxes: The Fascinating World Of Viruses, Boriana Marintcheva Nov 2013

A Box Of Paradoxes: The Fascinating World Of Viruses, Boriana Marintcheva

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass Oct 2013

Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass

Aaron P Blaisdell

Welcome to the first issue of the Journal of Evolution and Health! The Journal of Evolution and Health is the peer-reviewed, open-access journal of the Ancestral Health Society, a community of scientists, healthcare professionals, and laypersons who collaborate to understand health challenges from an evolutionary perspective.


Characterization Of Staphylococcus Aureus Lipase, Vithooshan Vijayakumaran Aug 2013

Characterization Of Staphylococcus Aureus Lipase, Vithooshan Vijayakumaran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

USA300, a strain of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), has become prevalent in the community. Colonization of human skin requires mechanisms that allow this bacterium to overcome the innate immune defenses on the skin, including secretion of antimicrobial lipids. Antimicrobial lipids inhibit S. aureus growth and induce the staphylococcal proteolytic cascade, producing aureolysin (Aur) which processes the lipase glycerol ester hydrolase (Geh). Nearly all S. aureus strains secrete Geh, yet little information exists concerning its function. Using purified Aur and Geh we confirm that aureolysin processes proGeh to Geh. We then confirmed that geh was required for lipase activity …


Novel Inducers Of Gliotoxin Production In Aspergillus Fumigatus, Taylor J. Schoberle Aug 2013

Novel Inducers Of Gliotoxin Production In Aspergillus Fumigatus, Taylor J. Schoberle

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Secondary metabolites are produced by numerous organisms and can either be benign to humans or harmful. Genes involved in the synthesis and transport of these secondary metabolites are frequently found in gene clusters, which are often located in subtelomeric regions of the chromosome. These clusters are often coordinately regulated, being almost exclusively dependent on transcription factors that are located within the clusters themselves. Secondary metabolites are also regulated by a variety of factors, including nutritional factors, environmental factors and developmental processes. Gliotoxin, which is produced by a variety of Aspergillus species, Trichoderma species, and Penicillium species, exhibits immunosuppressive properties and …


Regulating Rsma Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Sean D. Stacey Aug 2013

Regulating Rsma Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Sean D. Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacillus, commonly infects immunocompromised individuals and uses a variety of virulence factors to persist in these hosts. The posttranscriptional regulator, RsmA, plays a role in the expression of many virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. RsmA up regulates virulence factors used in colonizing hosts. However, regulation of rsmA is not well elucidated. Transposon mutagenesis was performed on P. aeruginosa containing a transcriptional rsmA-lacZ fusion to answer this question. Mutants were screened via β-galactosidase assay and transposon insertions identified via arbitrary PCR. A probable MFS transporter, we named mtpX, was one significant transposon mutant identified. …


Studies On Tracheorelaxant And Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Rhizomes Of Polygonatum Verticillatum, Haroon Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Hassan Mehmood, Najeeb-Ur Rehman, Naveed Muhammad, Ikram-Ul Haq, Nadeem Ashraf, Kamal Eldin H El-Tahir, Anwar Gilani Jul 2013

Studies On Tracheorelaxant And Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Rhizomes Of Polygonatum Verticillatum, Haroon Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Hassan Mehmood, Najeeb-Ur Rehman, Naveed Muhammad, Ikram-Ul Haq, Nadeem Ashraf, Kamal Eldin H El-Tahir, Anwar Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: The present study describes the tracheorelaxant and anti-inflammatory effects of Polygonatum verticillatum which may support its medicinal use in hyperactive airway complaints and inflammatory disorders.
Methods: The tracheorelaxant activity of crude extract of the rhizomes of P. verticillatum (PR) was assessed in isolated guinea-pig tracheal tissues immersed in tissue organ bath filled with Tyrode's solution and a continuous supply of carbogen gas (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The contractile and relaxant responses of the tissue were measured using isometric transducers coupled with Power-Lab data acquisition system. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, while the …


Phytochemistry And Pharmacology Of Plants From The Ginger Family, Zingiberaceae, Hans Wohlmuth Jul 2013

Phytochemistry And Pharmacology Of Plants From The Ginger Family, Zingiberaceae, Hans Wohlmuth

Dr Hans Wohlmuth

This thesis reports on a series of investigations into the phytochemistry and pharmacology of plants belonging to the ginger family, Zingiberaceae (incl. Costaceae). The work falls into two main parts. The first part examines the pungent compounds and essential oil in 17 clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale) with a view to identify one or more with unique chemistry and consequent particular therapeutic (or flavouring) prospects. The second part comprises the screening of 41 taxa for inhibition of PGE2 and other biological activities, with the primary aim of identifying species with potential anti-inflammatory activity. This part tested the hypothesis that the …


The Epidemiology Of Human Herpesvirus-8: Transmission Of Infection To Children In Zambian Households, Kay L. Crabtree Jul 2013

The Epidemiology Of Human Herpesvirus-8: Transmission Of Infection To Children In Zambian Households, Kay L. Crabtree

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Human Herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) is the known etiologic agent for several malignant pathologies, including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), the most common tumor in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Saliva is implicated as the culprit of transmission; however there is a paucity of information regarding transmission to young children. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that household behaviors exposing the susceptible child to saliva increase the risk of transmission of HHV-8 to that child.

To test our hypothesis a large prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, enrolling 464 young children and their households, was followed for 48 months. Socio-demographics, health histories, feeding …


Tigecycline Induction Of Phenol-Soluble Modulins By Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer Jul 2013

Tigecycline Induction Of Phenol-Soluble Modulins By Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We examined the effects of tigecycline on three types of exoproteins, α-type phenol-soluble modulins (PSMα1 to PSMα4), α-hemolysin, and protein A, in 13 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates compared to those of clindamycin and linezolid. Paradoxical increases in PSMαs occurred in 77% of the isolates with tigecycline at 1/4 and 1/8 MICs and clindamycin at 1/8 MIC compared to only 23% of the isolates with linezolid at 1/8 MIC. Induction was specific to PSMα1 to PSMα4, as protein A and α-hemolysin production was decreased under the same conditions by all of the antibiotics used.


Human Milk Cortisol Is Associated With Infant Temperament, Katherine R. Grey, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Curt A. Sandman, Laura M. Glynn Jul 2013

Human Milk Cortisol Is Associated With Infant Temperament, Katherine R. Grey, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Curt A. Sandman, Laura M. Glynn

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The implications of the biologically active elements in milk for the mammalian infant are largely unknown. Animal models demonstrate that transmission of glucocorticoids through milk influences behavior and modifies brain development in offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between human milk cortisol levels and temperament of the breastfed infant. Fifty-two mother and infant pairs participated when the infants were three-months old. Milk cortisol levels were assessed and each mother completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament. Analyses revealed a positive association between milk cortisol and the negative affectivity …


Human Adenovirus E1a Binds And Retasks Cellular Hbre1, Blocking Interferon Signalling And Activating Virus Early Gene Transcription, Gregory J. Fonseca Jun 2013

Human Adenovirus E1a Binds And Retasks Cellular Hbre1, Blocking Interferon Signalling And Activating Virus Early Gene Transcription, Gregory J. Fonseca

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Upon infection, human adenovirus (HAdV) must block interferon signaling and activate the expression of its early genes to reprogram the cellular environment to support virus replication. During the initial phase of infection, these processes are orchestrated by the first HAdV gene expressed during infection, early region 1A (E1A). E1A binds and appropriates components of the cellular transcriptional machinery to modulate cellular gene transcription and activate viral early genes transcription. We have identified hBre1/RNF20 as a novel target of E1A. hBre1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which acts with the Ube2b E2 conjugase and accessory factors RNF40 and WAC1 to monoubiquitinate …


Influence Of Media Composition On The Growth Rate Of Chlorella Vulgaris And Scenedesmus Acutus Utilized For Co2 Mitigation, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Xinyi E, Aubrey Shea, Michael D. Montross, Mark Crocker, Rodney Andrews Jun 2013

Influence Of Media Composition On The Growth Rate Of Chlorella Vulgaris And Scenedesmus Acutus Utilized For Co2 Mitigation, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Xinyi E, Aubrey Shea, Michael D. Montross, Mark Crocker, Rodney Andrews

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have increased since the industrial revolution due to increasing combustion of fossil fuels. One possible CO2 mitigation strategy is the use of microalgae for mitigation of CO2. This paper focuses on the influence of media composition on the growth rate of two microalgae strains, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus actus. A KNO3 based medium was found to work better for Chlorella, while a urea based equivalent worked better for Scenedesmus. The urea based media investigated here resulted in growth similar to that found with previously reported KNO3 based media. …


Comparison Of Wild And Cultivated Extracts Of Cordyceps Sinensis Apoptotic Potential, Katelyn Staring Jun 2013

Comparison Of Wild And Cultivated Extracts Of Cordyceps Sinensis Apoptotic Potential, Katelyn Staring

Honors Theses

Cordyceps sinensis is a mushroom which contains the compound cordycepin (3’-deoxyadenosine), an analogue of adenosine. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), cordycepin has multipurpose pharmacological uses including purported anti-tumor effects. In the present study, cordycepin was extracted from the wild mushroom as well as from various commercially available cultivated extracts. Previous research in this lab has demonstrated that cultivated extracts contain less cordycepin than the wild mushroom. However, it is unclear if the decrease in cordycepin correlates with decreased activity. To measure anti-tumor activity, extracts were used to treat human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). In other labs, cordycepin has been …


Emergent Fungal Entomopathogen Does Not Alter Density Dependence In A Viral Competitor, Andrew M. Liebhold, Ruth Plymale, Joseph S. Elkinton, Ann E. Hajek Jun 2013

Emergent Fungal Entomopathogen Does Not Alter Density Dependence In A Viral Competitor, Andrew M. Liebhold, Ruth Plymale, Joseph S. Elkinton, Ann E. Hajek

Articles

Population cycles in forest Lepidoptera often result from recurring density-dependent epizootics of entomopathogens. While these systems are typically dominated by a single pathogen species, insects are often infected by multiple pathogens, yet little is known how pathogens interact to affect host dynamics. The apparent invasion of northeastern North America by the fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga some time prior to 1989 provides a unique opportunity to evaluate such interactions. Prior to the arrival of E. maimaga, the oscillatory dynamics of host gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, populations were apparently driven by epizootics of a nucleopolyhedrovirus. Subsequent to its emergence, E. …


A Literature Review Of The Health Effects Of A Plant Based Diet Versus An Animal Based Diet, James Cote May 2013

A Literature Review Of The Health Effects Of A Plant Based Diet Versus An Animal Based Diet, James Cote

Senior Honors Theses

Health and nutrition can mean a myriad of things to many people in today’s culture. The majority of the time people are unaware of the proper nutrients their body needs and how to get them from food. This thesis will seek to expose the health benefits that are associated with consuming a raw plant-based die, offering a more profound and encompassing view on nutrition. Investigating further into today’s most common diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, obesity, cancer and autoimmune disorders, it will seek to discover and answer why we have so many health issues. This thesis will discuss the …


Maternal Obesity Alters Fetal Development Due To Impaired Placental Function And Has Lasting Effects On Adult Offspring, Kristin Ann Norwood May 2013

Maternal Obesity Alters Fetal Development Due To Impaired Placental Function And Has Lasting Effects On Adult Offspring, Kristin Ann Norwood

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Obesity is an epidemic in many developed nations and maternal obesity can result in developmental alterations in offspring that have long-lasting effects. Two experiments were conducted to determine the impact of maternal obesity on placental development and early embryonic growth and muscle development. Experiment one utilized obese Lethal Yellow (LY) and normal weight C57BL/6 (B6) dams to assess how maternal obesity alters skeletal muscle development in mid-gestational embryos. Embryos from LY dams exhibited decreased embryo and placental weights as well as an increase in the myogenic marker desmin. Furthermore, the adipogenic marker PPARG expression was predominately localized to the neural …


Effects Of Clostridium Difficile On The Human Immune Response, Mike Mcgovern Apr 2013

Effects Of Clostridium Difficile On The Human Immune Response, Mike Mcgovern

Honors Projects in Science and Technology

Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that is rapidly becoming a large issue in the medical community due to its tendency to infect hospital patients and its resistance to antibiotics. By studying the way in which the pathogen interacts with the human immune system, it is possible to better understand how the body naturally fights off the disease. This knowledge can allow medical professionals to develop treatments that can help curtail the infection before serious symptoms occur. Working under a grant program alongside Professors Kirsten Hokeness and Chris Reid, I was able to research the effects that exposure to the C. …


An In-Depth Look At Recent Influenza Seasons And Vaccine Effectiveness, Ariana Ricci Apr 2013

An In-Depth Look At Recent Influenza Seasons And Vaccine Effectiveness, Ariana Ricci

Honors Projects in Science and Technology

This paper aims to present an in-depth exploration of immunology, the influenza virus, vaccination, and vaccination’s effectiveness with respect to influenza. It also delves into the possible causes behind the large increase in early childhood deaths during the 2003-2004 influenza season, which was a turning point in terms of influenza incident reporting. Finally, data analysis on the relationship between childhood flu vaccine coverage and childhood outpatient ILI (influenza-like illness) visits by region is presented as a measurement of vaccine effectiveness and identifier of trends. Although this relationship was not statistically significant (alpha=0.05) regionally, this simply points to alternate factors that …


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Ampr Transcriptional Regulatory Network, Deepak Balasubramanian Mar 2013

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Ampr Transcriptional Regulatory Network, Deepak Balasubramanian

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In Enterobacteriaceae, the transcriptional regulator AmpR, a member of the LysR family, regulates the expression of a chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC. The regulatory repertoire of AmpR is broader in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen responsible for numerous acute and chronic infections including cystic fibrosis. Previous studies showed that in addition to regulating ampC, P. aeruginosa AmpR regulates the sigma factor AlgT/U and production of some quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors. In order to better understand the ampR regulon, the transcriptional profiles generated using DNA microarrays and RNA-Seq of the prototypic P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain with its isogenic ampR deletion …


The Voltage-Sensing Domain Of A Phosphatase Gates The Pore Of A Potassium Channel, Cristina Arrigoni, Indra Schroeder, Giulia Romani, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni Feb 2013

The Voltage-Sensing Domain Of A Phosphatase Gates The Pore Of A Potassium Channel, Cristina Arrigoni, Indra Schroeder, Giulia Romani, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

The modular architecture of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels suggests that they resulted from the fusion of a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a pore module. Here, we show that the VSD of Ciona intestinalis phosphatase (Ci-VSP) fused to the viral channel Kcv creates KvSynth1, a functional voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying K+ channel. KvSynth1 displays the summed features of its individual components: pore properties of Kcv (selectivity and filter gating) and voltage dependence of Ci-VSP (V1/2 = +56 mV; z of approx. 1), including the depolarizationinduced mode shift. The degree of outward rectification of the channel is critically …


Systematic Assessment Of The Contribution Of Superantigens To Nasopharyngeal Colonization In A Mouse Model Of Streptococcal Infection, Katherine J. Kasper Jan 2013

Systematic Assessment Of The Contribution Of Superantigens To Nasopharyngeal Colonization In A Mouse Model Of Streptococcal Infection, Katherine J. Kasper

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Streptococcus pyogenes is adapted for persistence in humans. It typically colonizes the tonsils and skin, and humans are the only known reservoir. S. pyogenes can cause a wide range of mild to serious infections. Most streptococci-related deaths are due to complications of rheumatic fever and invasive infections. S. pyogenes produces virulence factors that contribute to the pathogen’s ability to colonize and cause disease, including streptococcal superantigens (SAgs), also known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (Spes). SAgs function by cross-linking T cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) which may cause a massive inflammatory response, and as such have been found to contribute …