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2008

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Investigation Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein: Uncoating And Assembly, Chad E. Mire Dec 2008

Investigation Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein: Uncoating And Assembly, Chad E. Mire

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) is a simple, enveloped, nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus and is the prototype rhabdovirus to study viral entry, transcription, replication, and assembly. The matrix protein (M) of VSV is a central component of the viral replication cycle. While being the smallest of the viral proteins it is multifunctional and is involved in uncoating, cytopathic effects (CPE), and assembly of the virus. M protein interactions involved in the uncoating and assembly of VSV have been examined in this dissertation.

Uncoating of VSV involves dissociation of M from the ribonucleoprotein core (RNPs) of the virus. Current models of VSV …


Manipulation Of The Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein In An Effort To Develop Directly And Indirectly Targeted Retroviral Vectors For Use In Human Gene Therapy, Geneva M. Vasser Dec 2008

Manipulation Of The Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein In An Effort To Develop Directly And Indirectly Targeted Retroviral Vectors For Use In Human Gene Therapy, Geneva M. Vasser

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Highly effective, targeted therapies against cancer would revolutionize the way people recover from this devastating illness. Gone would be the lingering side effects of the current non-specific treatments and in their place would be faster recovery times, better quality of life both during and after treatment, and less ambiguity about whether or not treatment was effective. This concept will elude modern medicine until treatments can be tailored to the patient's individual and unique disease. This concept of a transient, targeted, and tailored vehicle aimed at cancer cells lends itself to the use of replication deficient retroviral gene therapy vectors with …


Studies Of Entry, Reverse Transcription, And Regulation Of Splicing In Retroviruses, Timothy A. Sullivan Dec 2008

Studies Of Entry, Reverse Transcription, And Regulation Of Splicing In Retroviruses, Timothy A. Sullivan

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The study of retroviruses and their lifecycle has contributed immensely to our knowledge of the world of biology and medicine. The central dogma of the basic flow of genetic information was shattered when the discovery that retroviruses copy their RNA genome into DNA was made. The same enzyme that performs this step, reverse transcriptase (RT), also revolutionized molecular biology when it was used as a tool to generate full length cDNA clones of expressed genes. The impact of retroviruses on the medical field has been extremely exciting as the ideas of using retroviral vectors to deliver genes providing long term …


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-Candida Albicans Interactions: Localization And Fungal Toxicity Of A Phenazine Derivative, Jane Gibson, Arpanah Sood, Deborah A. Hogan Nov 2008

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-Candida Albicans Interactions: Localization And Fungal Toxicity Of A Phenazine Derivative, Jane Gibson, Arpanah Sood, Deborah A. Hogan

Dartmouth Scholarship

Phenazines are redox-active small molecules that play significant roles in the interactions between pseudomonads and diverse eukaryotes, including fungi. When Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were cocultured on solid medium, a red pigmentation developed that was dependent on P. aeruginosa phenazine biosynthetic genes. Through a genetic screen in combination with biochemical experiments, it was found that a P. aeruginosa-produced precursor to pyocyanin, proposed to be 5-methyl-phenazinium-1-carboxylate (5MPCA), was necessary for the formation of the red pigmentation. The 5MPCA-derived pigment was found to accumulate exclusively within fungal cells, where it retained the ability to be reversibly oxidized and reduced, and its …


Helical Peptides Derived From Lactoferrin Bind Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein E2, Reem Beleid, Donna Douglas, Norman Kneteman, Kamaljit Kaur Oct 2008

Helical Peptides Derived From Lactoferrin Bind Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein E2, Reem Beleid, Donna Douglas, Norman Kneteman, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma infecting more than 170 million people. Hepatitis C virus envelope 2 glycoprotein (E2) binds several cell‐surface molecules that act as receptor candidates mediating hepatitis C virus entry into hepatocytes. Peptides derived from human lactoferrin have been shown to bind hepatitis C virus‐E2 protein thereby preventing hepatitis C virus entry in cultured hepatocytes. In this study, starting from a 33‐residue human lactoferrin‐derived peptide, a number of biotin‐linked α‐peptides were synthesized and investigated for their E2 protein binding activity. E2 protein from hepatitis C virus genotype 1b …


Characterization Of The Omptin Protease, Ompt, In Escherichia Coli, Amanda Yates, Eun-Hae Kim, Helen Wing Aug 2008

Characterization Of The Omptin Protease, Ompt, In Escherichia Coli, Amanda Yates, Eun-Hae Kim, Helen Wing

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Omptins are outer membrane proteases found in gram negative bacteria that cause diseases in humans, such as pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia pestis. Bacterial species that express omptins cause diseases such as highly fatal plague and severe diarrhea and dysentery. The genes that encode these proteases are ompT, icsP, pgtE, and pla, respectively. These proteases are highly related in structure and share approximately 50% sequence identity. In S. flexneri, IcsP has been shown to cleave a key virulence determinant, IcsA (Egile et al., 1997). IcsA recruits host actin and allows for intracellular movement within host cells …


The Effects Of Host Physiological Conditions On The Expression Of Icsp In Shigella Flexneri, Karen Levy, Helen Wing Aug 2008

The Effects Of Host Physiological Conditions On The Expression Of Icsp In Shigella Flexneri, Karen Levy, Helen Wing

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium capable of causing diarrhea and dysentery known as shigellosis. It is estimated there are 167.4 million shigellosis episodes throughout the world each year causing 1.1 million deaths. Shigella invades cells in the lower intestine through an induced phagocytosis. Once in the cytoplasm, bacteria move from one cell to another using actin-based motility. The Shigella outer membrane protease IcsP regulates actin-based motility and cell-to-cell spread by cleaving the actin assembly protein IcsA from the bacterial cell surface. We hypothesize that IcsP may serve additional functions during infection. By examining which environmental signals trigger icsP expression, …


Transmembrane Domain Length Of Viral K+ Channels Is A Signal For Mitochondria Targeting, Jorg Balss, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Mario Mehmel, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Nicolas Delaroque, Frank C. Chatelain, Daniel L. Minor Jr., James L. Van Etten, Joachim Rassow, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jun 2008

Transmembrane Domain Length Of Viral K+ Channels Is A Signal For Mitochondria Targeting, Jorg Balss, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Mario Mehmel, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Nicolas Delaroque, Frank C. Chatelain, Daniel L. Minor Jr., James L. Van Etten, Joachim Rassow, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

James Van Etten Publications

K+ channels operate in the plasma membrane and in membranes of organelles including mitochondria. The mechanisms and topogenic information for their differential synthesis and targeting is unknown. This article describes 2 similar viral K+ channels that are differentially sorted; one protein (Kesv) is imported by the Tom complex into the mitochondria, the other (Kcv) to the plasma membrane. By creating chimeras we discovered that mitochondrial sorting of Kesv depends on a hierarchical combination of N- and C-terminal signals. Crucial is the length of the second transmembrane domain; extending its C terminus by >2 hydrophobic amino acids redirects Kesv …


Dna Sequence Analysis Of A Bioluminescent Marine Bacterium, Benjamin Ryder Jun 2008

Dna Sequence Analysis Of A Bioluminescent Marine Bacterium, Benjamin Ryder

Master's Theses, Dissertations, Graduate Research and Major Papers Overview

Studies the sequencing of the DNA fragment containing the gene phaC (PHA synthase) and undertakes the search for open reading frames and putative gene matches in a bioluminescent marine bacterium.


Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance In Candida Albicans, Teresa T. Liu May 2008

Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance In Candida Albicans, Teresa T. Liu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans is a pathogenic fungi found in the mucosa, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts of humans. Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by C. albicans, occurs most frequently in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OPC is usually treated with azole antifungals, a class of antifungals that target ergosterol biosynthesis, at low doses over long periods of time. This course of treatment allows for the development of azole resistance.

Two major mechanisms of azole resistance exist in C. albicans, the up-regulation of genes encoding efflux pumps and the up-regulation of ERG11, a gene encoding the azole drug …


Biochemical And Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Differential Interaction Of Superantigens With Host Immunogenetic Factors In Streptococcal Sepsis, Mohammed Nooh May 2008

Biochemical And Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Differential Interaction Of Superantigens With Host Immunogenetic Factors In Streptococcal Sepsis, Mohammed Nooh

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Group A streptococci (GAS) are serious human pathogens that can cause a wide array of diseases ranging from pharyngitis to streptococcal toxic shock (STSS), which is caused by excessive cytokines responses triggered by streptococcal superantigens (Strep SAgs). SAgs interact simultaneously with HLA class II molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC) and with the T cell receptor beta chain variable elements (TCR V) and cause excessive stimulation of both cell types and massive release of inflammatory mediators.

The Strep SAgs include the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (Spes), which play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of severe invasive streptococcal diseases, including Strep …


Tetanus And Rabies Eradication In Pakistan; A Mission Not Impossible, Mohammad Wasay, Ismail A. Khatri, Naseem Salahuddin Apr 2008

Tetanus And Rabies Eradication In Pakistan; A Mission Not Impossible, Mohammad Wasay, Ismail A. Khatri, Naseem Salahuddin

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


Micro-Etched Platforms For Thermal Inactivation Of Bacillus Anthracis And Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores, Leslie S. Hawkins Mar 2008

Micro-Etched Platforms For Thermal Inactivation Of Bacillus Anthracis And Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores, Leslie S. Hawkins

Theses and Dissertations

This research developed and applied microlithography techniques to etch microscope slide platforms in order to measure thermal inactivation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis spores, two closely related Bacillus species. B.t. is widely used as a surrogate for B.a. in response studies and in some field studies. This work addressed the previously identified problem of measuring both spore growth and spore thermal kill threshold using the traditional method of spreading a diluted spore solution on a plate. The micro-etched platforms forced spore separation thereby preventing neighbor growth from obscuring germination and initial vegetative growth measurements using a microscope. The technique …


Differential Role Of Nadp+ And Nadph In The Activity And Structure Of Gdp-D-Mannose 4,6-Dehydratase From Two Chlorella Viruses, Floriana Fruscione, Laura Sturla, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Paola Valbuzzi, Antonio De Flora, Eleonopra Di Zanni, Michela Tonetti Jan 2008

Differential Role Of Nadp+ And Nadph In The Activity And Structure Of Gdp-D-Mannose 4,6-Dehydratase From Two Chlorella Viruses, Floriana Fruscione, Laura Sturla, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Paola Valbuzzi, Antonio De Flora, Eleonopra Di Zanni, Michela Tonetti

James Van Etten Publications

GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of 6-deoxyhexoses in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1) encodes a functional GMD, which is unique among characterized GMDs because it also has a strong stereospecific NADPH-dependent reductase activity leading to GDP-D-rhamnose formation (Tonetti, M., Zanardi, D., Gurnon, J., Fruscione, F., Armirotti, A., Damonte, G., Sturla, L., De Flora, A., and Van Etten, J.L. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 21559–21565). In the present study we characterized a recombinant GMD encoded by another chlorella virus, Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1 (ATCV-1), demonstrating that it has the expected dehydratase …


Sera Of Iga Nephropathy Patients Contain A Heterogeneous Population Of Relatively Cationic Alpha-Heavy Chains, Onn Haji Hashim Jan 2008

Sera Of Iga Nephropathy Patients Contain A Heterogeneous Population Of Relatively Cationic Alpha-Heavy Chains, Onn Haji Hashim

Onn Haji Hashim

Sera of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients and normal subjects were analysed by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Densitometric analysis of the 2-D gels of IgAN patients and normal subjects revealed that their protein maps were comparable. There was no shift of pI values in the major alpha-heavy chain spots. However, the volume of the alpha-heavy chain bands were differently distributed. Distribution was significantly lower at the anionic region in IgAN patients (mean anionic:cationic ratio of 1.184 +/- 0.311) as compared to normal healthy controls (mean anionic:cationic ratio of 2.139 +/- 0.538). Our data are in support of the previously reported findings …


Algae In Agricultural Fields From St. Francis County, Arkansas, T. Smith Jan 2008

Algae In Agricultural Fields From St. Francis County, Arkansas, T. Smith

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

On August 9th, 2007, two agriculture fields (rice and sorghum fields) were sampled for freshwater algae in St. Francis County. The purpose of this study was to document the algal species in the rice and sorghum fields and compare the similarities of species composition. There were a total of 53 species identified. Overall, diatoms and cyanobacteria were equally dominant with both represented by 21 species (39.6% of the total) and 11 green algal species (20.8%) were present. The sorghum field was dominated by Chlorogloeopsis fritschii and Chroococcus limneticus, while Anabeana cylindrica was abundant in the rice field.


Dr. Maximillian Schmidt's 1884 Review Of The Growth Rates Of Asian Elephants, Robert H.I. Dale, Fred Yaniga Jan 2008

Dr. Maximillian Schmidt's 1884 Review Of The Growth Rates Of Asian Elephants, Robert H.I. Dale, Fred Yaniga

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Rarely is there a scientific article of such creativity, insight and importance that it is fascinating even 125 years after it was written. The following article by Max Schmidt, translated in English for the first time, as far as we know, is one of these. As in the original article, an illustration precedes the text.

Dr. Schmidt addressed a topic of considerable interest in recent times (for example, Sukumar, 2003, Appendix 2): The growth curves of elephants. He combined data on multiple elephants from several sources to generate a table of shoulder heights from birth to the age of 34 …


Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale Jan 2008

Calf Development: Most Births At Night, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

For many years, field researchers studying both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants have indicated that they have observed relatively few births in situ, suggesting that most elephant dams give birth at night. For example, according to Cynthia Moss, "Possibly the majority of births occur at night and perhaps those that do take place in the daytime happen in secluded places" (1988, p. 151). Others, for example, Clive Spinage, have referred to "the old beliefs that the cows retreated to 'calving grounds' or that birth took place at night." (Spinage, 1994, p. 90). Although …


Synthesis And In Vitro Characterization Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers: Effects Of Linker Length On Hydrolytic And Enzymatic Release Of Methylprednisolone And Its Peptidyl Intermediates, Suman Penugonda, Anil Kumar, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar Jan 2008

Synthesis And In Vitro Characterization Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers: Effects Of Linker Length On Hydrolytic And Enzymatic Release Of Methylprednisolone And Its Peptidyl Intermediates, Suman Penugonda, Anil Kumar, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

To control the rate of release of methylprednisolone (MP) in lysosomes, new dextran-MP conjugates with peptide linkers were synthesized and characterized. Methylprednisolone succinate (MPS) was attached to dextran 25 kDa using linkers with 1-5 Gly residues. The release characteristics of the conjugates in pH 4.0 and 7.4 buffers, blood, liver lysosomes, and various lysosomal proteinases were determined using a size-exclusion and/or a newly developed reversed-phase HPLC method capable of simultaneous quantitation of MP, MPS, and all five possible MPS-peptidyl intermediates. We synthesized conjugates with >= 90% purity and 6.9-9.5% (w/w) degree of MP substitution. The conjugates were stable at pH …


Resistance Training And Bone Mineral Density During Growth, M. Z. Smith, B. M. Goettsch, R. D. Van Ramshorst, J. A. O'Brien, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2008

Resistance Training And Bone Mineral Density During Growth, M. Z. Smith, B. M. Goettsch, R. D. Van Ramshorst, J. A. O'Brien, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

This study examined the efficacy of two different resistance training programs in enhancing bone modeling and bone mineral density (BMD) in maturating rats. One exercise mode involved lifting a lighter weight with more repetitions (LI), while the other regimen involved lifting a heavier weight with fewer repetitions (HI) where the total volume of work between exercise programs was equivalent by design. Twenty-three male rats were randomly divided into control (Con, n = 8), LI (n = 7), and HI (n = 8) groups. The LI and HI groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their …


Interrupted Vs. Uninterrupted Training On Bmd During Growth, B. M. Goettsch, M. Z. Smith, J. A. O'Brien, G. V. Gomez, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2008

Interrupted Vs. Uninterrupted Training On Bmd During Growth, B. M. Goettsch, M. Z. Smith, J. A. O'Brien, G. V. Gomez, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

This study compared a resistance training program where the exercise was uninterrupted (UT, i.e., continuous repetitions) against a resistance training program where the exercise was interrupted (IT, i.e., 3 exercise sessions during a training day) for enhancing bone modeling and bone mineral density (BMD) in maturating animals. The total volume of work performed between the two resistance training programs was equivalent by design. 24 young male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 8), UT (n = 8) and IT (n=8) resistance trained groups. The UT and IT groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights …