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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Covid19 Disease Map, A Computational Knowledge Repository Of Virus–Host Interaction Mechanisms, Marek Ostaszewski, Tomáš Helikar, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, A Host Of Co-Authors, Covid-19 Disease Map Community Jan 2021

Covid19 Disease Map, A Computational Knowledge Repository Of Virus–Host Interaction Mechanisms, Marek Ostaszewski, Tomáš Helikar, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, A Host Of Co-Authors, Covid-19 Disease Map Community

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, …


Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma Nov 2020

Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is recognized as one of the most important pathogens in hospital and community healthcare settings. The clinical outcome of infection of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to fulminant pseudomembranous colitis and death. In recent studies, it has been suggested that a high proportion of nosocomial CDI cases are transmitted from asymptomatic carriers which might be acting as infection reservoirs. Understanding what causes the different responses to infection could lead to the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Although several explanations have been proposed to explain variations in susceptibility, understanding of the exact mechanisms …


Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm May 2020

Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) infect eukaryotic, freshwater, unicellular green algae. A unique feature of these viruses is an abundance of DNA methyltransferases, with isolates dedicating up to 4.5% of their protein coding potential to these genes. This diversity highlights just one of the long-standing values of the chlorovirus model system; where group-wide epigenomic characterization might begin to elucidate the function(s) of DNA methylation in large dsDNA viruses. We characterized DNA modifications in the prototype chlorovirus, PBCV-1, using single-molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing (aka PacBio). Results were compared to total available sites predicted in silico based on DNA sequence alone. SMRT-software detected …


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling Apr 2020

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho …


On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson Mar 2020

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is …


The N-Glycan Structures Of The Antigenic Variants Of Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Protein Help To Identify The Virus-Encoded Glycosyltransferases, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Luca Unione, Irina Agarkova, Domenico Garozzo, Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Sicheng Lin, Todd L. Lowary, Antonio Molinaro, Eric Noel, Maria Elena Laugieri, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro Jan 2019

The N-Glycan Structures Of The Antigenic Variants Of Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Protein Help To Identify The Virus-Encoded Glycosyltransferases, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Luca Unione, Irina Agarkova, Domenico Garozzo, Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Sicheng Lin, Todd L. Lowary, Antonio Molinaro, Eric Noel, Maria Elena Laugieri, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro

James Van Etten Publications

The chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is a large dsDNA virus that infects the microalga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. Unlike most other viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the machinery required to glycosylate its major capsid protein (MCP). The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the PBCV-1 MCP consist of nonasaccharides, and similar glycans are not found elsewhere in the three domains of life. Here, we identified the roles of three virus-encoded glycosyltransferases (GTs) that have four distinct GT activities in glycan synthesis. Two of the three GTs were previously annotated as GTs but the third …


Chloroviruses Lure Hosts Through Long-Distance Chemical Signaling, David Dunigan, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Irina Agarkova, John Delong, James L. Van Etten Jan 2019

Chloroviruses Lure Hosts Through Long-Distance Chemical Signaling, David Dunigan, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Irina Agarkova, John Delong, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses exist in aquatic systems around the planet where they infect certain eukaryotic green algae that are mutualistic endosymbionts in a variety of protists and metazoans. Natural chlorovirus populations are seasonally dynamic but the precise temporal changes in these populations and the mechanisms that underlie them have, heretofore, been unclear. We recently reported the novel concept that predator/prey-mediated virus activation regulates chlorovirus population dynamics, and in the current manuscript demonstrate virus packaged chemotactic modulation of prey behavior.

Viruses have not previously been reported to act as chemotactic/chemo-attractive agents. Rather, viruses as extracellular entities are generally viewed as non-metabolically active spore-like …


Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif Jul 2018

Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infections contribute to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which is a multi-factorial disorder involving co-infections of viruses and bacteria including mycoplasma. BRDC causes great economic losses to the United States feedlot industry. BVDV infection induces immunosuppression in infected animals. BVDV Npro binds and degrades the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) and effectively blocks type I interferon (type I IFN) expression in host cells. BRSV nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2, block activation of IRF-3. In calves, concurrent infection with BVDV and BRSV resulted in more severe clinical signs …


Genes For Membrane Transport Proteins: Not So Rare In Viruses, Timo Greiner, Anna Moroni, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2018

Genes For Membrane Transport Proteins: Not So Rare In Viruses, Timo Greiner, Anna Moroni, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel

James Van Etten Publications

Some viruses have genes encoding proteins with membrane transport functions. It is unknown if these types of proteins are rare or are common in viruses. In particular, the evolutionary origin of some of the viral genes is obscure, where other viral proteins have homologs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. We searched virus genomes in databases looking for transmembrane proteins with possible transport function. This effort led to the detection of 18 different types of putative membrane transport proteins indicating that they are not a rarity in viral genomes. The most abundant proteins are K+ channels. Their predicted structures vary between …


Size-Dependent Catalysis Of Chlorovirus Population Growth By A Messy Feeding Predator, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Shelby Lyon, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan Jan 2018

Size-Dependent Catalysis Of Chlorovirus Population Growth By A Messy Feeding Predator, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Shelby Lyon, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan

James Van Etten Publications

Many chloroviruses replicate in endosymbiotic zoochlorellae that are protected from infection by their symbiotic host. To reach the high virus concentrations that often occur in natural systems, a mechanism is needed to release zoochlorellae from their hosts. We demonstrate that the ciliate predator Didinium nasutum foraging on zoochlorellae-bearing Paramecium bursaria can release live zoochlorellae from the ruptured prey cell that can then be infected by chloroviruses. The catalysis process is very effective, yielding roughly 95% of the theoretical infectious virus yield as determined by sonication of P. bursaria. Chlorovirus activation is more effective with smaller Didinia, as larger …


Biophysical Approaches To Solve The Structures Of The Complex Glycan Shield Of Chloroviruses, Cristina De Castro, Garry Duncan, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Luisa Sturiale, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten Jan 2018

Biophysical Approaches To Solve The Structures Of The Complex Glycan Shield Of Chloroviruses, Cristina De Castro, Garry Duncan, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Luisa Sturiale, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

The capsid of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) contains a heavily glycosylated major capsid protein, Vp54. The capsid protein contains four glycans, each N-linked to Asn. The glycan structures are unusual in many aspects: (1) they are attached by a β-glucose linkage, which is rare in nature; (2) they are highly branched and consist of 8–10 neutral monosaccharides; (3) all four glycoforms contain a dimethylated rhamnose as the capping residue of the main chain, a hyper-branched fucose residue and two rhamnose residues ''with opposite absolute configurations; (4) the four glycoforms differ by the nonstoichiometric presence of two monosaccharides, l-arabinose and …


Multiple Origins Of Endosymbionts In Chlorellaceae With No Reductive Effects On The Plastid Or Mitochondrial Genomes, Weishu Fan, Wenhu Guo, James L. Van Etten, Jeffrey P. Mower Aug 2017

Multiple Origins Of Endosymbionts In Chlorellaceae With No Reductive Effects On The Plastid Or Mitochondrial Genomes, Weishu Fan, Wenhu Guo, James L. Van Etten, Jeffrey P. Mower

James Van Etten Publications

Ancient endosymbiotic relationships have led to extreme genomic reduction in many bacterial and eukaryotic algal endosymbionts. Endosymbionts in more recent and/or facultative relationships can also experience genomic reduction to a lesser extent, but little is known about the effects of the endosymbiotic transition on the organellar genomes of eukaryotes. To understand how the endosymbiotic lifestyle has affected the organellar genomes of photosynthetic green algae, we generated the complete plastid genome (plastome) and mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from three green algal endosymbionts (Chlorella heliozoae, Chlorella variabilis and Micractinium conductrix). The mitogenomes and plastomes of the three newly sequenced endosymbionts …


Induction And Suppression Of Antiviral Rna Silencing By Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta Jul 2017

Induction And Suppression Of Antiviral Rna Silencing By Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an emerging pathogen with wide host range and one of the most important viruses of plants. Information regarding processing of negative single stranded RNA viruses such as TSWV in the RNA silencing pathway remains limited. In nature TSWV is only transmitted by thrips as vectors and since infection occurs in both thrips and plants, an experimental system to transmit using thrips and the detection of TSWV were established. In order to understand the processing of TSWV in the RNA silencing pathway, Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant was used in the genetic analysis against …


Identification Of Intrahelical Bifurcated H‑Bonds As A New Type Of Gate In K+ Channels, Oliver Rauh, Martin Urban, Leonhard M. Henkes, Tobias Winterstein, Timo Greiner, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Stefan M. Kast, Gerhard Thiel, Indra Schroeder May 2017

Identification Of Intrahelical Bifurcated H‑Bonds As A New Type Of Gate In K+ Channels, Oliver Rauh, Martin Urban, Leonhard M. Henkes, Tobias Winterstein, Timo Greiner, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Stefan M. Kast, Gerhard Thiel, Indra Schroeder

James Van Etten Publications

Gating of ion channels is based on structural transitions between open and closed states. To uncover the chemical basis of individual gates, we performed a comparative experimental and computational analysis between two K+ channels, KcvS and KcvNTS. These small viral encoded K+ channel proteins, with a monomer size of only 82 amino acids, resemble the pore module of all complex K+ channels in terms of structure and function. Even though both proteins share about 90% amino acid sequence identity, they exhibit different open probabilities with ca. 90% in KcvNTS and 40% in KcvS. …


Structure Of The N-Glycans From The Chlorovirus Ne-Jv-1, Immacolata Speciale, Irina Agarkova, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro Jan 2017

Structure Of The N-Glycans From The Chlorovirus Ne-Jv-1, Immacolata Speciale, Irina Agarkova, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro

James Van Etten Publications

Results from recent studies are breaking the paradigm that all viruses depend on their host machinery to glycosylate their proteins. Chloroviruses encode several genes involved in glycan biosynthesis and some of their capsid proteins are decorated with N-linked oligosaccharides with unique features. Here we describe the elucidation of the N-glycan structure of an unusual chlorovirus, NE-JV-1, that belongs to the Pbi group. The host for NE-JV-1 is the zoochlorella Micractinium conductrix. Spectroscopic analyses established that this N-glycan consists of a core region that is conserved in all of the chloroviruses. The one difference is that the residue 3OMe-l-rhamnose is …


Structural Studies Demonstrating A Bacteriophage-Like Replication Cycle Of The Eukaryote-Infecting Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1, Elad Milrot, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, Tamar Unger, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky Jan 2017

Structural Studies Demonstrating A Bacteriophage-Like Replication Cycle Of The Eukaryote-Infecting Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1, Elad Milrot, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, Tamar Unger, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky

James Van Etten Publications

A fundamental stage in viral infection is the internalization of viral genomes in host cells. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms and factors responsible for the genome internalization process remain poorly understood. Here we report our observations, derived from diverse imaging methods on genome internalization of the large dsDNA Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1). Our studies reveal that early infection stages of this eukaryotic- infecting virus occurs by a bacteriophage-like pathway, whereby PBCV-1 generates a hole in the host cell wall and ejects its dsDNA genome in a linear, base-pair-by-base-pair process, through a membrane tunnel generated by the fusion of the …


Conversion Of An Instantaneous Activating K+ Channel Into A Slow Activating Inward Rectifier, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Stefan M. Kast, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2017

Conversion Of An Instantaneous Activating K+ Channel Into A Slow Activating Inward Rectifier, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Stefan M. Kast, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

James Van Etten Publications

The miniature channel, Kcv, is a structural equivalent of the pore of all K+ channels. Here, we follow up on a previous observation that a largely voltage-insensitive channel can be converted into a slow activating inward rectifier after extending the outer transmembrane domain by one Ala. This gain of rectification can be rationalized by dynamic salt bridges at the cytosolic entrance to the channel; opening is favored by voltage-sensitive formation of salt bridges and counteracted by their disruption. Such latent voltage sensitivity in the pore could be relevant for the understanding of voltage gating in complex Kv channels.


Structure Of The Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Glycoprotein Determined By Combining Crystallographic And Carbohydrate Molecular Modeling Approaches, Cristina De Castro, Thomas Klose, Immacolata Speciale, Rosa Lanzetta, Antonio Molinaro, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann Jan 2017

Structure Of The Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Glycoprotein Determined By Combining Crystallographic And Carbohydrate Molecular Modeling Approaches, Cristina De Castro, Thomas Klose, Immacolata Speciale, Rosa Lanzetta, Antonio Molinaro, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann

James Van Etten Publications

The glycans of the major capsid protein (Vp54) of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) were recently described and found to be unusual. This prompted a reexamination of the previously reported Vp54 X-ray structure. A detailed description of the complete glycoprotein was achieved by combining crystallographic data with molecular modeling. The crystallographic data identified most of the monosaccharides located close to the protein backbone, but failed to detect those further from the glycosylation sites. Molecular modeling complemented this model by adding the missing monosaccharides and examined the conformational preference of the whole molecule, alone or within the crystallographic environment. Thus, combining …


Climate Change And The Integrity Of Science, Peter H. Gleick, James L. Van Etten, Members Of The U.S. National Academy Of Sciences Nov 2016

Climate Change And The Integrity Of Science, Peter H. Gleick, James L. Van Etten, Members Of The U.S. National Academy Of Sciences

James Van Etten Publications

We are deeply disturbed by the recent escalation of political assaults on scientists in general and on climate scientists in particular. All citizens should understand some basic scientific facts. There is always some uncertainty associated with scientific conclusions; science never absolutely proves anything. When someone says that society should wait until scientists are absolutely certain before taking any action, it is the same as saying society should never take action. For a problem as potentially catastrophic as climate change, taking no action poses a dangerous risk for our planet.

Scientific conclusions derive from an understanding of basic laws supported by …


Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James L. Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D. Nov 2016

Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James L. Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D.

James Van Etten Publications

Virus population growth depends on contacts between viruses and their hosts. It is often unclear how sufficient contacts are made between viruses and their specific hosts to generate spikes in viral abundance. Here, we show that copepods, acting as predators, can bring aquatic viruses and their algal hosts into contact. Specifically, predation of the protist Paramecium bursaria by copepods resulted in a >100-fold increase in the number of chloroviruses in 1 d. Copepod predation can be seen as an ecological “catalyst” by increasing contacts between chloroviruses and their hosts, zoochlorellae (endosymbiotic algae that live within paramecia), thereby facilitating viral population …


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta Apr 2016

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes …


Three-Year Survey Of Abundance, Prevalence And Genetic Diversity Of Chlorovirus Populations In A Small Urban Lake, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Anya Seng, Brenna Rasmussen, Garrett Weber, Claire Mueller, David Dunigan, James L. Van Etten Apr 2016

Three-Year Survey Of Abundance, Prevalence And Genetic Diversity Of Chlorovirus Populations In A Small Urban Lake, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Anya Seng, Brenna Rasmussen, Garrett Weber, Claire Mueller, David Dunigan, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Inland water environments cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and still unknown microorganisms. In this report, we examined water samples for the abundance, prevalence, and genetic diversity of a group of infectious viruses (chloroviruses) that infect symbiotic chlorella-like green algae. Samples were collected on a weekly basis for a period of 24 to 36 months from a recreational freshwater lake in Lincoln, Nebraska, and assayed for infectious viruses by plaque assay. The numbers of infectious virus particles were both host- and site-dependent. The consistent fluctuations in numbers of viruses suggest their impact as …


Virus–Host Interactions: Insights From The Replication Cycle Of The Large Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus, Elad Milrot, Yael Mutsafi, Yael Fridmann-Sirkis, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky Jan 2016

Virus–Host Interactions: Insights From The Replication Cycle Of The Large Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus, Elad Milrot, Yael Mutsafi, Yael Fridmann-Sirkis, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky

James Van Etten Publications

The increasing interest in cytoplasmic factories generated by eukaryotic-infecting viruses stems from the realization that these highly ordered assemblies may contribute fundamental novel insights to the functional significance of order in cellular biology. Here, we report the formation process and structural features of the cytoplasmic factories of the large dsDNA virus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). By combining diverse imaging techniques, including scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography and focused ion beam technologies, we show that the architecture and mode of formation of PBCV-1 factories are significantly different from those generated by their evolutionary relatives Vaccinia and Mimivirus. Specifically, PBCV-1 …


Chloroviruses N-Linked Glycans Share A New Type Of Conserved Core Architecture Unprecedented In Any Form Of Life / [Published As] N-Linked Glycans Of Chloroviruses Sharing A Core Architecture Without Precedent, Cristina De Castro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry Duncan, David Dunigan, Irina Agarkova, Rosa Lanzetta, Luisa Sturiale, Angelo Palmigiano, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten Jan 2016

Chloroviruses N-Linked Glycans Share A New Type Of Conserved Core Architecture Unprecedented In Any Form Of Life / [Published As] N-Linked Glycans Of Chloroviruses Sharing A Core Architecture Without Precedent, Cristina De Castro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry Duncan, David Dunigan, Irina Agarkova, Rosa Lanzetta, Luisa Sturiale, Angelo Palmigiano, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

N-glycosylation is a fundamental modification of proteins that exists in the three domains of life and in some viruses, including the chloroviruses, for which a new type of core N-glycan is described. This N-glycan core structure common to all chloroviruses is a pentasaccharide with a β-glucose linked to an asparagine residue that is not located in the typical sequon N-X-T/S. The glucose is linked to a terminal xylose unit and a hyperbranched fucose, in turn substituted with a terminal galactose and a second xylose residue. The third position of the fucose unit is always linked to a rhamnose, which is …


The Differentiation And Protective Function Of Cytolytic Cd4 T Cells In Influenza Infection, Deborah M. Brown, Anna T. Lampe, Aspen M. Workman Jan 2016

The Differentiation And Protective Function Of Cytolytic Cd4 T Cells In Influenza Infection, Deborah M. Brown, Anna T. Lampe, Aspen M. Workman

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigen in the context of class II MHC can differentiate into various subsets that are characterized by their helper functions. However, increasing evidence indicates that CD4 cells with direct cytolytic activity (CD4 CTL) play a role in chronic as well as acute infections, such as influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In the last couple of decades, techniques to measure the frequency and activity of these cytolytic cells has demonstrated their abundance in infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus, mouse pox, murine gamma herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, and influenza among others. We now appreciate …


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe Dec 2015

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they achieve …


Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera Nov 2015

Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera

Zea E-Books Collection

Este libro es el producto del trabajo colegiado que han desarrollado los profesores, investigadores, y estudiantes que conforman la Red Temática de Calidad Ambiental y Desarrollo Sustentable, a través del macroproyecto “Evaluación del impacto ambiental por actividades antropogénicas: Alternativas de mitigación”. El cual fue apoyado con recursos financieros por parte del Programa para el Desarrollo Profesional Docente (PRODEP), de la Secretaria de Educación Pública (SEP) en México. Las instituciones de educación superior y cuerpos participantes en la red temática son la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Uso, Manejo y Conservación de la Biodiversidad UAEHCA- 10; Ciencias Ambientales UAEH-CA-59); Universidad …


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr May 2015

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome …


Engineering Of A Light-Gated Potassium Channel, Christian Cosentino, Laura Alberio, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Marco Aquila, Eduardo Romano, Solei Cermenati, Paolo Zuccolini, Jan Petersen, Monica Beltrame, James L. Van Etten, John M. Christie, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni Apr 2015

Engineering Of A Light-Gated Potassium Channel, Christian Cosentino, Laura Alberio, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Marco Aquila, Eduardo Romano, Solei Cermenati, Paolo Zuccolini, Jan Petersen, Monica Beltrame, James L. Van Etten, John M. Christie, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

The present palette of opsin-based optogenetic tools lacks a light-gated potassium (K+) channel desirable for silencing of excitable cells. Here, we describe the construction of a blue-light–induced K+ channel 1 (BLINK1) engineered by fusing the plant LOV2-Ja photosensory module to the small viral K+ channel Kcv. BLINK1 exhibits biophysical features of Kcv, including K+ selectivity and high single-channel conductance, but reversibly photoactivates in blue light. Opening of BLINK1 channels hyperpolarizes the cell to the K+ equilibrium potential. Ectopic expression of BLINK1 reversibly inhibits the escape response in light-exposed zebrafish larvae. BLINK1 therefore provides a single-component optogenetic tool that can establish …


Reply To Kjartansdóttir Et Al.: Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Findings Not Explained By Contamination, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James Gurnon, Irina Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten Mar 2015

Reply To Kjartansdóttir Et Al.: Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Findings Not Explained By Contamination, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James Gurnon, Irina Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

We agree with Kjartansdóttir et al. (1) that extreme caution must be used when interpreting high-throughput sequencing results in new hosts. The situation demands thorough investigation and validation beyond the identification of a few sequencing reads. However, we believe it is unlikely that random laboratory contamination explains the results reported in Yolken et al. (2) for the following reasons. ...

Therefore, the conclusions in our report are based not only on “a few sequence reads” (1), but on confirmatory assays, as well as a highly controlled animal model of oral exposure and subsequent measurement of immune response and behavior. We …