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University of Nevada, Las Vegas

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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Investigating The Growth Of Algae Under Low Atmospheric Pressures For Potential Food And Oxygen Production On Mars, Leena M. Cycil, Elisabeth M. Hausrath, Douglas W. Ming, Christopher T. Adcock, James Raymond, Daniel Remias, Warren P. Ruemmele Nov 2021

Investigating The Growth Of Algae Under Low Atmospheric Pressures For Potential Food And Oxygen Production On Mars, Leena M. Cycil, Elisabeth M. Hausrath, Douglas W. Ming, Christopher T. Adcock, James Raymond, Daniel Remias, Warren P. Ruemmele

Geoscience Faculty Publications

With long-term missions to Mars and beyond that would not allow resupply, a self-sustaining Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) is essential. Algae are promising candidates for BLSS due to their completely edible biomass, fast growth rates and ease of handling. Extremophilic algae such as snow algae and halophilic algae may also be especially suited for a BLSS because of their ability to grow under extreme conditions. However, as indicated from over 50 prior space studies examining algal growth, little is known about the growth of algae at close to Mars-relevant pressures. Here, we explored the potential for five algae species …


Plasticity In The Human Gut Microbiome Defies Evolutionary Constraints, Andres Gomez, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Elizabeth K. Mallott, Klara J. Petrzelkova, Carolyn A. Jost Robinson, Carl J. Yeoman, Franck Carbonero, Barbora Pafco, Jessica M. Rothman, Alexander Ulanov, Klara Vickova, Katherine R. Amato, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Nathaniel J. Dominy, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen E. Nelson, Michael B. Burns, Ran Blekhman, Melissa Remis, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Brenda A. Wilson, H. Rex Gaskins, Paul A. Garber, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh Jul 2019

Plasticity In The Human Gut Microbiome Defies Evolutionary Constraints, Andres Gomez, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Elizabeth K. Mallott, Klara J. Petrzelkova, Carolyn A. Jost Robinson, Carl J. Yeoman, Franck Carbonero, Barbora Pafco, Jessica M. Rothman, Alexander Ulanov, Klara Vickova, Katherine R. Amato, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Nathaniel J. Dominy, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen E. Nelson, Michael B. Burns, Ran Blekhman, Melissa Remis, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Brenda A. Wilson, H. Rex Gaskins, Paul A. Garber, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The gut microbiome of primates, including humans, is reported to closely follow host evolutionary history, with gut microbiome composition being specific to the genetic background of its primate host. However, the comparative models used to date have mainly included a limited set of closely related primates. To further understand the forces that shape the primate gut microbiome, with reference to human populations, we expanded the comparative analysis of variation among gut microbiome compositions and their primate hosts, including 9 different primate species and 4 human groups characterized by a diverse set of subsistence patterns (n = 448 samples). The results …


Author Correction: Fuctional Eubacteria Species Along With Transdomain Gut Inhabitants Favour Dysgenic Diversity In Oxalate Stone Disease, Mangesh V. Suryananshi, Shrikant S. Bhute, Rahul P. Gune, Yogesh S. Shouche May 2019

Author Correction: Fuctional Eubacteria Species Along With Transdomain Gut Inhabitants Favour Dysgenic Diversity In Oxalate Stone Disease, Mangesh V. Suryananshi, Shrikant S. Bhute, Rahul P. Gune, Yogesh S. Shouche

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

This Article contains an error in the order of the Figures. Figures 2, 3 and 4 were published as Figures 4, 2, and 3 respectively. The correct Figures 2, 3 and 4 appear below as Figs 1, 2 and 3respectively. The Figure legends are correct.


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund Oct 2018

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. …


Characterization Of The Omptin Protease, Ompt, In Escherichia Coli, Amanda Yates, Eun-Hae Kim, Helen Wing Aug 2008

Characterization Of The Omptin Protease, Ompt, In Escherichia Coli, Amanda Yates, Eun-Hae Kim, Helen Wing

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Omptins are outer membrane proteases found in gram negative bacteria that cause diseases in humans, such as pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia pestis. Bacterial species that express omptins cause diseases such as highly fatal plague and severe diarrhea and dysentery. The genes that encode these proteases are ompT, icsP, pgtE, and pla, respectively. These proteases are highly related in structure and share approximately 50% sequence identity. In S. flexneri, IcsP has been shown to cleave a key virulence determinant, IcsA (Egile et al., 1997). IcsA recruits host actin and allows for intracellular movement within host cells …


The Effects Of Host Physiological Conditions On The Expression Of Icsp In Shigella Flexneri, Karen Levy, Helen Wing Aug 2008

The Effects Of Host Physiological Conditions On The Expression Of Icsp In Shigella Flexneri, Karen Levy, Helen Wing

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium capable of causing diarrhea and dysentery known as shigellosis. It is estimated there are 167.4 million shigellosis episodes throughout the world each year causing 1.1 million deaths. Shigella invades cells in the lower intestine through an induced phagocytosis. Once in the cytoplasm, bacteria move from one cell to another using actin-based motility. The Shigella outer membrane protease IcsP regulates actin-based motility and cell-to-cell spread by cleaving the actin assembly protein IcsA from the bacterial cell surface. We hypothesize that IcsP may serve additional functions during infection. By examining which environmental signals trigger icsP expression, …


Stachybotrys: Is Nevada At Risk?, Terrylynn C. Foley Oct 1998

Stachybotrys: Is Nevada At Risk?, Terrylynn C. Foley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) is a toxigenic fungus that is known to adversely impact the health of animals. Until recently, there have only been a few documented clinical reports linking Stachybotrys chartarum to human health effects. Scientists are increasingly convinced that Stachybotrys and its metabolites are responsible for several adverse health effects experienced by people all over the world, although conclusive proof has yet to be established. All the physical requirements needed for indoor Stachybotrys sporulation and growth is provided through water leaks (plumbing, roof or ceiling), flood events, nutrient sources (cellulose and nitrogen), pH, and temperature(23° - 28°C). Stachybotrys has …