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2006

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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Molecular Screening Of Azoreductase Gene And Its Activity In Human Intestinal Bacteria, Syndia S. Todd Dec 2006

Molecular Screening Of Azoreductase Gene And Its Activity In Human Intestinal Bacteria, Syndia S. Todd

McCabe Thesis Collection

The intestinal microflora are capable of performing a wide variety of metabolic transformations. "The intestinal bacteria can enhance the function of the entire gastrointestinal tract, protect against pathogenic, maintain the vital chemical balance of the gastrointestinal system, and produce needed vitamins and hormones" (http;//www.upwardquest.com/crit2.html). Some of the products of this metabolism have been associated with carcinogenic processes, such as cancer, tumor formation, gastrointestinal disease, and infections. The ability of human intestinal microbes to interact with metabolites directly or after recirculation may contribute toward different toxicological disorders and disease.

The purpose of this study is to characterize and isolate the azoreductase …


The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram Oct 2006

The Locomotor Kinematics Of Asian And African Elephants: Changes With Speed And Size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H.I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer, Rodger Kram

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

For centuries, elephant locomotion has been a contentious and confusing challenge for locomotion scientists to understand, not only because of technical difficulties but also because elephant locomotion is in some ways atypical of more familiar quadrupedal gaits. We analyzed the locomotor kinematics of over 2400 strides from 14 African and 48 Asian elephant individuals (body mass 116-4632 kg) freely moving over ground at a 17-fold range of speeds, from slow walking at 0.40 m s-1 to the fastest reliably recorded speed for elephants, 6.8 m s-1. These data reveal that African and Asian elephants have some subtle …


Isolation Of A Ubiquitous Obligate Thermoacidophilic Archaeon From Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Yitai Liu, Amy B. Banta, Terry J. Beveridge, Julie D. Kirshtein, Stefan Schouten, Margaret K. Tivey, Karen L. Von Damm, Mary A. Voytek May 2006

Isolation Of A Ubiquitous Obligate Thermoacidophilic Archaeon From Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Yitai Liu, Amy B. Banta, Terry J. Beveridge, Julie D. Kirshtein, Stefan Schouten, Margaret K. Tivey, Karen L. Von Damm, Mary A. Voytek

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are important in global biogeochemical cycles, providing biological oases at the sea floor that are supported by the thermal and chemical flux from the Earth's interior. As hot, acidic and reduced hydrothermal fluids mix with cold, alkaline and oxygenated sea water, minerals precipitate to form porous sulphide–sulphate deposits. These structures provide microhabitats for a diversity of prokaryotes that exploit the geochemical and physical gradients in this dynamic ecosystem. It has been proposed that fluid pH in the actively venting sulphide structures is generally low (pH < 4.5), yet no extreme thermoacidophile has been isolated from vent deposits. Culture-independent surveys based on ribosomal RNA genes from deep-sea hydrothermal deposits have identified a widespread euryarchaeotal lineage, DHVE2 (deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotic 2) Despite the ubiquity and apparent deep-sea endemism of DHVE2, cultivation of this group has been unsuccessful and thus its metabolism remains a mystery. Here we report the isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75 °C. In addition, we demonstrate that this isolate constitutes up to 15% of the archaeal population, providing evidence that thermoacidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea vents.


Ewe And Wether Trials - Tools For Benchmarking Your Sheep Genetics, Lock Butler Apr 2006

Ewe And Wether Trials - Tools For Benchmarking Your Sheep Genetics, Lock Butler

Bulletins 4000 -

Research and sheep productivity trial results demonstrate a huge variability in genetic productivity between flocks. For example a range of up to 2 kg clean fleece weight, 5 microns, 55 percentage points in lambing percentage and 20 kg live weight, can lead to big differences in gross margin between flocks.

There is an opportunity for genetic improvement, depending on your current ram source or sires performance. For example, Western Australian (WA) Wether Trial results suggest half the WA flocks could improve clean fleece weight per head by half a kilogram or more. The trial results suggest that this could occur …


Chlorella Virus Mt325 Encodes Water And Potassium Channels That Interact Synergistically, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Ming Kang, Svetlana Epimashko, James L. Van Etten, Jack Dainty, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni Feb 2006

Chlorella Virus Mt325 Encodes Water And Potassium Channels That Interact Synergistically, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Ming Kang, Svetlana Epimashko, James L. Van Etten, Jack Dainty, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

Fast and selective transport of water through cell membranes is facilitated by water channels. Water channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) family have been found in all three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Here we show that Chlorella virus MT325 has a water channel gene, aqpv1, that forms a functional aquaglyceroporin in oocytes. aqpv1 is transcribed during infection together with MT325 kcv, a gene encoding a previously undescribed type of viral potassium channel. Coexpression of AQPV1 and MT325-Kcv in Xenopus oocytes synergistically increases water transport, suggesting a possible concerted action of the two channels in …


Chlorella Viruses, Takashi Yamada, Hideki Onimatsu, James L. Van Etten Jan 2006

Chlorella Viruses, Takashi Yamada, Hideki Onimatsu, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA— containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple …


Antibiotic Resistant And Coliform Bacteria In The Ohio River; 2002 To 2004, Lisa Marie Smith Jan 2006

Antibiotic Resistant And Coliform Bacteria In The Ohio River; 2002 To 2004, Lisa Marie Smith

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

During 2002 and 2003 samples, collected every five miles along the Ohio River, were analyzed for total cultivable bacteria, ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria, erythromycin resistant bacteria, tetracycline resistant bacteria, and fecal coliforms. During 2004 samples were analyzed for total cultivable bacteria, ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria, sulfamethizole resistant bacteria, tetracycline resistant bacteria, Virginiamycin resistant bacteria, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The objectives of this study were to systematically collect data on fecal coliforms, E. coli, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the Ohio River and its major tributaries; to determine if antibiotic resistance populations are correlated to each other or to coliforms; and …


Rapid Determination Of Reduced And Oxidized Glutathione Levels Using A New Thiol-Masking Reagent And The Enzymatic Recycling Method: Application To The Rat Liver And Bile Samples, Imam H. Shaik, Reza Mehvar Jan 2006

Rapid Determination Of Reduced And Oxidized Glutathione Levels Using A New Thiol-Masking Reagent And The Enzymatic Recycling Method: Application To The Rat Liver And Bile Samples, Imam H. Shaik, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A microtiter plate assay for quantitation of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the rat liver tissue and bile is described. The assay is based on the established enzymatic recycling method and a new thiol-masking reagent, 1-methyl-4-vinyl-pyridinium trifluoromethane sulfonate (M4VP). Samples were first processed by homogenization with (liver) or addition of (bile) sulfosalicylic acid. The total glutathione and GSSG were then determined before and after rapid (>= 2 min) and efficient (100%) masking of the GSH content of the samples with M4VP followed by the enzymatic recycling assay. The percentages of error and coefficient of variation of the …


Attenuation Of Acute Rejection In A Rat Liver Transplantation Model By A Liver-Targeted Dextran Prodrug Of Methylprednisolone, Anjaneya Chimalakonda, Donald L. Montgomery, Jon A. Weidanz, Imam H. Shaik, Justin H. Nguyen, John J. Lemasters, Eiji Kobayashi, Reza Mehvar Jan 2006

Attenuation Of Acute Rejection In A Rat Liver Transplantation Model By A Liver-Targeted Dextran Prodrug Of Methylprednisolone, Anjaneya Chimalakonda, Donald L. Montgomery, Jon A. Weidanz, Imam H. Shaik, Justin H. Nguyen, John J. Lemasters, Eiji Kobayashi, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background. The use of methylprednisolone (MP) and other corticosteroids for the treatment of acute liver allograft rejection is associated with severe toxicities in nontarget tissues. Therefore, selective delivery of NIP to the liver may improve its efficacy and alleviate its side effects. We investigated the effects of a novel liver-targeted dextran prodrug of MP (DMP) in an orthotopic rat liver transplantation (OLT) model.

Methods. The model consisted of a high responder rejection strain combination (Dark Agouti donors and Lewis recipients). Liver recipients were intravenously administered saline or a single subtherapeutic dose of MP (5 mg/kg) as the parent …


Stromal Haze, Myofibroblasts, And Surface Irregularity After Prk, Marcelo V. Netto, Rajiv R. Mohan, Sunilima Sinha, Ajay Sharma, William Dupps, Steven E. Wilson Jan 2006

Stromal Haze, Myofibroblasts, And Surface Irregularity After Prk, Marcelo V. Netto, Rajiv R. Mohan, Sunilima Sinha, Ajay Sharma, William Dupps, Steven E. Wilson

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of stromal surface irregularity after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and myofibroblast generation along with the development of corneal haze.

Variable levels of stromal surface irregularity were generated in rabbit corneas by positioning a fine mesh screen in the path of excimer laser during ablation for a variable percentage of the terminal pulses of the treatment for myopia that does not otherwise generate significant opacity. Ninety-six rabbits were divided into eight groups[.]

Slit lamp analysis and haze grading were performed in all groups. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 hr …


Effect Of Prophylactic And Therapeutic Mitomycin C On Corneal Apoptosis, Cellular Proliferation, Haze, And Long-Term Keratocyte Density In Rabbits, Marcelo V. Netto, Rajiv R. Mohan, Sunilima Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Pankaj C. Gupta, Steven E. Wilson Jan 2006

Effect Of Prophylactic And Therapeutic Mitomycin C On Corneal Apoptosis, Cellular Proliferation, Haze, And Long-Term Keratocyte Density In Rabbits, Marcelo V. Netto, Rajiv R. Mohan, Sunilima Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Pankaj C. Gupta, Steven E. Wilson

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE—To determine the mechanism through which topical mitomycin C prevents and treats corneal haze after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and to examine the effects of dosage and duration of exposure.

METHODS—In 224 New Zealand rabbits, −9.0 diopter PRK with mitomycin C or balanced salt solution was performed. Haze level was graded at the slit-lamp. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 hours, 24 hours, 4 weeks, or 6 months after surgery and immunohistochemistry was performed with TUNEL assay, Ki67 and α-SMA.

RESULTS—TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells marginally increased in all mitomycin C groups whereas Ki67-positive mitotic cells decreased significantly following mitomycin C application. A greater …


2,6-Hexadecadiynoic Acid And 2,6-Nonadecadiynoic Acid - Novel Synthesized Acetylenic Fatty Acids As Potent Antifungal Agents, Nestor Carballeira, David Sanabria, Clarisa Cruz, Keykavous Parang, Baojie Wan, Scott Franzblau Jan 2006

2,6-Hexadecadiynoic Acid And 2,6-Nonadecadiynoic Acid - Novel Synthesized Acetylenic Fatty Acids As Potent Antifungal Agents, Nestor Carballeira, David Sanabria, Clarisa Cruz, Keykavous Parang, Baojie Wan, Scott Franzblau

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The hitherto unknown 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid, 2,6-nonadecadiynoic acid, and 2,9-hexadecadiynoic acid were synthesized in two steps and in 11–18% overall yields starting from either 1,5-hexadiyne or 1,8-nonadiyne. Among all the compounds 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid displayed the best overall antifungal activity against both the fluconazole resistant Candida albicans strains ATCC 14053 and ATCC 60193 (MIC = 11 μM) and against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (MIC < 5.7 μM). The 2,9-hexadecadiynoic acid did not display any significant cytotoxicity against the fluconazole resistant C. albicans strains, but it showed fungitoxicity against C. neoformans ATCC 66031 with a MIC value of <5.8 μM. Other fatty acids, such as 2-hexadecynoic acid, 5-hexadecynoic acid, 9-hexadecynoic acid, and 6-nonadecynoic acid were also synthesized and their antifungal activities compared. The 2-hexadecynoic acid, a known antifungal fatty acid, exhibited the best antifungal activity (MIC = 9.4 μM) against the fluconazole resistant C. albicans ATCC 14053 strain, but it showed a MIC value of only 100 μM against C. albicans ATCC 60193. The fatty acids 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid and 2-hexadecynoic acid also displayed a MIC of 140–145 μM towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Middlebrook 7H12 medium. In conclusion, 2,6-hexadecadiynoic acid exhibited the best fungitoxicity profile compared to other analogues. This diynoic fatty acid has the potential to be further evaluated for use in topical antifungal formulations.