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Characterizing The Cutaneous Microbiome Of Eurycea Lucifuga As A Potential Defense Against Chytridiomycosis, Madeline Key 2022 Liberty University

Characterizing The Cutaneous Microbiome Of Eurycea Lucifuga As A Potential Defense Against Chytridiomycosis, Madeline Key

Senior Honors Theses

Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease that is significantly reducing global amphibian populations. The disease is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungus that lethally modifies amphibian skin. Recent research has suggested that the cutaneous microbiome of individual amphibians may play a role in susceptibility to the pathogen. In this study, twelve cave salamanders (Eurycea lucifuga) were collected. Cutaneous bacteria from each salamander were isolated and identified using Sanger Sequencing. Additionally, a Bd-challenge assay was performed to determine each isolate’s antifungal activity. Results indicated many microbial isolates possessed inhibitory capabilities against Bd, which may …


Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz 2022 Universidad de Chile

Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction

The response of enterobacteria to oxidative stress is usually considered to be regulated by transcription factors such as OxyR and SoxR. Nevertheless, several reports have shown that under oxidative stress the levels, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAs may be altered suggesting a role of codon bias in regulation of gene expression under this condition.

Methods

In order to characterize the effects of oxidative stress on translation elongation we constructed a library of 61 plasmids, each coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) translationally fused to a different set of four identical codons.

Results

Using these reporters, we observed that …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


Sea-Phages Research Opportunity, Sarah Ballarin 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Sea-Phages Research Opportunity, Sarah Ballarin

Trick to the Treat of Internships and Research

Research opportunity targeted for freshmen and sophomores through the SEA-PHAGES program. The goal of the research is to discover new bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to help combat antibiotic resistance. Phage therapy is a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Phages have also been widely used in the food industry to prevent microbial growth on certain foods and are currently being explored as a method for bioremediation of oil spills and wastewater treatment.

Last year, my research team discovered two new bacteriophages: Genamy16 and NovaSharks that were able to infect the bacteria Gordonia rubripertincta. These phages can possibly be used for …


Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo DO 2022 Drexel University College of Medicine

Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo Do

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


An Unexpected Case Of Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis Presenting Amidst Corticosteroid Therapy For An Acute Copd Exacerbation: A Case Report, Aqeel Khanani, Kayvan Mirhadi 2022 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine

An Unexpected Case Of Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis Presenting Amidst Corticosteroid Therapy For An Acute Copd Exacerbation: A Case Report, Aqeel Khanani, Kayvan Mirhadi

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is prevalent worldwide, with a recent report by the World Health Organization estimating that 3.7 billion individuals under the age of 50 have been infected by the virus. After the initial infection, HSV-1 enters a latent phase with the potential for intermittent reactivation, often secondary to episodes of infection, stress, or immunosuppression. Per current literature review, esophageal involvement in the form of herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) is more commonly associated with immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients and HIV-positive individuals. The patient discussed in this report is a 79-year-old female with a past medical history …


Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski McQuade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. McMurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang 2022 Emory University, United States of America

Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Children in low-resource settings carry enteric pathogens asymptomatically and are frequently treated with antibiotics, resulting in opportunities for pathogens to be exposed to antibiotics when not the target of treatment (i.e., bystander exposure). We quantified the frequency of bystander antibiotic exposures for enteric pathogens and estimated associations with resistance among children in eight low-resource settings. We analyzed 15,697 antibiotic courses from 1,715 children aged 0 to 2 y from the MAL-ED birth cohort. We calculated the incidence of bystander exposures and attributed exposures to respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. We associated bystander exposure with phenotypic susceptibility of E. coli isolates in …


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Behavioural Support And Nicotine Replacement Therapy For Smokeless Tobacco Cessation: Protocol For A Pilot Randomised-Controlled Multi-Country Trial, Faraz Siddiqui, Linda Bauld, Ray Croucher, Cath Jackson, Ian Kellar, Mona Kanaan, Subhash Pokhrel, Rumana Huque, Romaina Iqbal, Javaid Ahmed Khan 2022 University of York, United Kingdom

Behavioural Support And Nicotine Replacement Therapy For Smokeless Tobacco Cessation: Protocol For A Pilot Randomised-Controlled Multi-Country Trial, Faraz Siddiqui, Linda Bauld, Ray Croucher, Cath Jackson, Ian Kellar, Mona Kanaan, Subhash Pokhrel, Rumana Huque, Romaina Iqbal, Javaid Ahmed Khan

Community Health Sciences

Background: Smokeless tobacco (ST) is consumed globally by more than 350 million people, with approximately 85% of all users based in South and Southeast Asia. In this region, ST products are cheap and easily accessible. Evidence-based interventions to people quit ST use are lacking. This study aims to test the feasibility of conducting a future definitive trial of ST cessation, using a culturally adapted behavioural intervention, and/or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in three South Asian countries.
Methods: We will conduct a factorial design, randomised-controlled pilot trial in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Daily ST users will be recruited from primary health …


Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi 2022 Aga Khan University

Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: CMV and EBV co-infections can affect the HIV disease progression by modulating the immune system. The disease dynamics can differ in HIV-positive adults and children. In Pakistan, HIV is rapidly expanding, especially in children; however, the prevalence of CMV and EBV co-infection and the effect on immune modulation in HIV-positive children are not known. This study aimed to bridge this gap by estimating the rate of active CMV and EBV co-infection in HIV-positive children, followed by the analysis of differential expression of cytokines in HIV mono- and HIV/CMV/EBV co-infected children.
Methods: DNA samples from 319 HIV-positive children, previously recruited …


Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak 2022 Western University

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these …


Impact Of Biosecurity Measures, Social Pressure And Bullying On Attitudes, Perceptions, And Job Satisfaction Levels Among Healthcare Workers During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho-Leon, Geovanny Efraín Alvarado-Villa, Derly Madeleiny Andrade-Molina, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Cadena, Arjola Agolli, Zeynep Yukselen, Miguel Felix, Juan Carlos Gallardo Bastidas 2022 Aga Khan University

Impact Of Biosecurity Measures, Social Pressure And Bullying On Attitudes, Perceptions, And Job Satisfaction Levels Among Healthcare Workers During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho-Leon, Geovanny Efraín Alvarado-Villa, Derly Madeleiny Andrade-Molina, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Cadena, Arjola Agolli, Zeynep Yukselen, Miguel Felix, Juan Carlos Gallardo Bastidas

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: The extent and nature of social pressure and bullying towards healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 remains unclear. The following study identifies the effect of social pressure and bullying directed towards HCWs when using biosecurity measures during the COVID-19 pandemic; further, the impact on perceptions, attitudes and job satisfaction level is also explored.
Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional survey-based study among 684 Ecuadorian HCWs. The survey consisted of 38 questions related to the frequency, attitudes, and perceptions of biosecurity measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess the validity of the questionnaire. Associations between variables …


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in …


"Don't Look Up" Your Science-Herd Immunity Or Herd Mentality?, Botond Z Igyártó 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

"Don't Look Up" Your Science-Herd Immunity Or Herd Mentality?, Botond Z Igyártó

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

This analysis piece will attempt to examine some of the critical pandemic-related measures implemented in the United States from an immunological perspective and pinpoint caveats that should have been considered before their implementation. I also discuss alternative measures grounded in scientific data that were not thoroughly explored and likely could have helped fight the pandemic.


What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Genetic Diversity Of Cladosporium Species Isolated From Air Of Cairo, Egypt Using Microsatellite Primed Pcr (Mp-Pcr) And Universally Primed Pcr (Up-Pcr) Techniques, Mohammed Salah Abdulrahman, Hamido M. Hefny, Moselhy S. Mansy, Amal A. I. Mekawey 2022 TEACHING ASSISTANT OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

Genetic Diversity Of Cladosporium Species Isolated From Air Of Cairo, Egypt Using Microsatellite Primed Pcr (Mp-Pcr) And Universally Primed Pcr (Up-Pcr) Techniques, Mohammed Salah Abdulrahman, Hamido M. Hefny, Moselhy S. Mansy, Amal A. I. Mekawey

Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy Cairo University

The samples were then identified by macroscopic and microscopical methods, Molecular fingerprinting, of Cladosporium strains populations depending on MP-PCR using Primers (AGG) 5 , (CAG) 5 , (GACA) 4 , and (AG) 8 C. In addition, we have applied the UP-PCR technique using L21 and Fok1 Genotyping patterns extracted by MP-PCR showed good discrimination with amplification of (AGG) 5 , (AG) 8 C and (CAG) 5 over (GACA) 4. In addition, L21 primer revealed variability over FOK1 primer. current work indicate that MP-PCR and UP-PCR fingerprinting method are appropriate for characterization of large groups of Cladosporium due to its simplicity


Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai 2022 Aga Khan University

Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Precise enteric fever disease burden data are needed to inform prevention and control measures, including the use of newly available typhoid vaccines. We established the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) to inform these strategies.
Methods: From September, 2016, to September, 2019, we conducted prospective clinical surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and Paratyphi (S Paratyphi) A, B, and C at health facilities in predetermined catchment areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok, Nepal; and Karachi, Pakistan. Patients eligible for inclusion were outpatients with 3 or more consecutive days of fever in the last 7 …


Bio-Insecticide’S Extract Of Scented Root (Polygala Paniculata) In Controlling The Mosquito Aedes Aegypti (L.), Denai Wahyuni, Nila Puspita Sari, Jasril Jasril, Jufrizal Syahri 2022 Public Health Study Program, Faculty of Heatlh, Universitas Hang Tuah Pekanbaru, Riau 28281, Indonesia

Bio-Insecticide’S Extract Of Scented Root (Polygala Paniculata) In Controlling The Mosquito Aedes Aegypti (L.), Denai Wahyuni, Nila Puspita Sari, Jasril Jasril, Jufrizal Syahri

Makara Journal of Science

Controlling Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with chemical insecticides causes resistance on humans, environmental residues, and contaminates food and water. Polygala paniculata is a potential alternative to insecticides in controlling Ae. aegypti. This study aimed to determine the effect of the Insecticide Score of P. paniculata extracts on the mortality of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes based on KT50. A total of 20 mosquitoes for each concentration were used to examine the effectiveness of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% concentration of P. paniculata extracts compared to a positive and a negative control with four replications. The results showed that P. paniculata extracts …


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