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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

A Comparative Study Of Embedded And Anesthetized Zebrafish In Vivo On Myocardiac Calcium Oscillation And Heart Muscle Contraction, Brian S. Muntean, Christine M. Horvat, James H. Behler, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, Andromeda M. Nauli, Frederick E. Williams, Surya M. Nauli Dec 2010

A Comparative Study Of Embedded And Anesthetized Zebrafish In Vivo On Myocardiac Calcium Oscillation And Heart Muscle Contraction, Brian S. Muntean, Christine M. Horvat, James H. Behler, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, Andromeda M. Nauli, Frederick E. Williams, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used as a model for studying vertebrate development in the cardiovascular system. In order to monitor heart contraction and cytosolic calcium oscillations, fish were either embedded in methylcellulose or anesthetized with tricaine. Using high-resolution differential interference contrast and calcium imaging microscopy, we here show that dopamine and verapamil alter calcium signaling and muscle contraction in anesthetized zebrafish, but not in embedded zebrafish. In anesthetized fish, dopamine increases the amplitude of cytosolic calcium oscillation with a subsequent increase in heart contraction, whereas verapamil decreases the frequency of calcium oscillation and heart rate. Interestingly, verapamil also …


Interactions Of Francisella Tularensis With Components Of The Host Fibrinolytic System, Shawn Russell Clinton Dec 2010

Interactions Of Francisella Tularensis With Components Of The Host Fibrinolytic System, Shawn Russell Clinton

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Francisella tularensis (FT) is a Gram-negative coccobacillus and causative agent of a life-threatening disease commonly referred to as tularemia. Due to the highly infectious nature of the organism, its previous development as a biowarfare agent and its potential use in acts of bioterrorism, this bacterium is listed as a Category A select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Efforts to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of FT within the host environment are vital for the development of safe and effective vaccines, as well as treatments, against tularemia. Though considered an intracellular pathogen, FT research of late has …


Development Of Pyrf-Based Genetic System For Targeted Gene Deletion In Clostridium Thermocellum And Creation Of A Pta Mutant, Shital A. Tripathi, Daniel G. Olson, D. Aaron Argyros, Bethany B. Miller, Trisha F. Barrett, Daniel M. Murphy, Jesse D. Mccool, Anne K. Warner, Vineet B. Rajgarhia, Lee R. Lynd, David A. Hogsett, Nicky C. Caiazza Aug 2010

Development Of Pyrf-Based Genetic System For Targeted Gene Deletion In Clostridium Thermocellum And Creation Of A Pta Mutant, Shital A. Tripathi, Daniel G. Olson, D. Aaron Argyros, Bethany B. Miller, Trisha F. Barrett, Daniel M. Murphy, Jesse D. Mccool, Anne K. Warner, Vineet B. Rajgarhia, Lee R. Lynd, David A. Hogsett, Nicky C. Caiazza

Dartmouth Scholarship

We report development of a genetic system for making targeted gene knockouts in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose. A toxic uracil analog, 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), was used to select for deletion of the pyrF gene. The ΔpyrF strain is a uracil auxotroph that could be restored to a prototroph via ectopic expression of pyrF from a plasmid, providing a positive genetic selection. Furthermore, 5-FOA was used to select against plasmid-expressed pyrF, creating a negative selection for plasmid loss. This technology was used to delete a gene involved in organic acid production, namely pta, which encodes …


Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black Aug 2010

Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius affecting dogs is analogous to S. aureus on humans, acting as both normal flora and opportunistic pathogen. Methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius is recent, with the first documented occurrence of an isolate bearing the methicillin resistance gene, mecA, in 1999. This gene encodes penicillin binding protein 2a, which renders all beta-lactam drugs ineffective and functions as a “gateway” antibiotic resistance determinant. In the presence of ineffective antibiotics, opportunities for mutational events and acquisition of mobile genetic elements increase as microbial densities increase, often leading to multi-drug resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections have become increasingly common. For …


Animal-Human Relationships In Child Protective Services: Getting A Baseline, Lisa Anne Zilney, Christina Risley-Curtiss, Rebecca Hornung Jul 2010

Animal-Human Relationships In Child Protective Services: Getting A Baseline, Lisa Anne Zilney, Christina Risley-Curtiss, Rebecca Hornung

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The inclusion of certain aspects of animal-human relationships (AHR), such as animal abuse and animal-assisted interventions, can enhance child welfare practice and there are resources available to promote such inclusion. However, there is little knowledge of whether this is being accomplished. This study sought to fill this gap by conducting a national survey of state public child welfare agencies to examine AHR in child protective services practice, their assessment tools, and cross-reporting policies.


Identification Of An L-Rhamnose Synthetic Pathway In Two Nucleocytoplasmic Large Dna Viruses, Madhu Parakkottil Chothi, Garry A. Duncan, Andrea Armirotti, Chantal Abergel, James R. Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Cinzia Bernardi, Gianluca Damonte, Michela Tonetti Jun 2010

Identification Of An L-Rhamnose Synthetic Pathway In Two Nucleocytoplasmic Large Dna Viruses, Madhu Parakkottil Chothi, Garry A. Duncan, Andrea Armirotti, Chantal Abergel, James R. Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Cinzia Bernardi, Gianluca Damonte, Michela Tonetti

James Van Etten Publications

Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are characterized by large genomes that often encode proteins not commonly found in viruses. Two species in this group are Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1 (ATCV-1) (family Phycodnaviridae, genus Chlorovirus) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (family Mimiviridae), commonly known as mimivirus. ATCV-1 and other chlorovirus members encode enzymes involved in the synthesis and glycosylation of their structural proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized three enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the sugar L-rhamnose: two UDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratases (UGDs) encoded by ATCV-1 and mimivirus and a bifunctional UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose epimerase/reductase (UGER) from mimivirus. Phylogenetic …


A Functional Calcium-Transporting Atpase Encoded By Chlorella Viruses, Maria Cristina Bonza, Holger Martin, Ming Kang, Gentry L. Lewis, Timo Greiner, Sonia Giacometti, James L. Van Etten, Maria Ida De Michelis, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni Jun 2010

A Functional Calcium-Transporting Atpase Encoded By Chlorella Viruses, Maria Cristina Bonza, Holger Martin, Ming Kang, Gentry L. Lewis, Timo Greiner, Sonia Giacometti, James L. Van Etten, Maria Ida De Michelis, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca2+ pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca2+ pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca2+ pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of …


Conservation Value Of Residential Open Space: Designation And Management Language Of Florida’S Land Development Regulations, Dara M. Wald May 2010

Conservation Value Of Residential Open Space: Designation And Management Language Of Florida’S Land Development Regulations, Dara M. Wald

Dara Wald

The conservation value of open space depends upon the quantity and quality of the area protected, as well as how it is designed and managed. This study reports the results of a content analysis of Florida county Land Development Regulations. Codes were reviewed to determine the amount of open space required, how open space is protected during construction, the delegation of responsibilities, and the designation of funds for management. Definitions of open space varied dramatically across the state. Most county codes provided inadequate descriptions of management recommendations, which could lead to a decline in the conservation value of the protected …


Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle May 2010

Transcriptional Regulation Of Azole Antifungal Resistance And Tolerance In Candida Glabrata, Kelly E. Caudle

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Azole antifungal resistance has emerged as a significant problem in the management of infections caused by fungi including Candida species. In recent years, Candida glabrata has become the second most common cause of mucosal and invasive fungal infections in humans second to Candida albicans. Not only are systemic C. glabrata infections characterized by high mortality rates, treatment failures to the azole class of antifungals, the most widely used antifungal for treatment of Candida infections, have been reported. Contributing to this problem, C. glabrata exhibits intrinsic reduced susceptibility to the azole antifungals, and the development of high-level azole resistance …


Metagenomes From High-Temperature Chemotrophic Systems Reveal Geochemical Controls On Microbial Community Structure And Function, William P. Inskeep, Douglas B. Rusch, Zackary J. Jay, Markus J. Herrgard, Mark A. Kozubal, Toby H. Richardson, Richard E. Macur, Natsuko Hamamura, Ryan Dem. Jennings, Bruce W. Fouke, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Frank Roberto, Mark Young, Ariel Schwartz, Eric S. Boyd, Jonathan H. Badger, Eric J. Mathur, Alice C. Ortmann, Mary Bateson, Gill Geesey Mar 2010

Metagenomes From High-Temperature Chemotrophic Systems Reveal Geochemical Controls On Microbial Community Structure And Function, William P. Inskeep, Douglas B. Rusch, Zackary J. Jay, Markus J. Herrgard, Mark A. Kozubal, Toby H. Richardson, Richard E. Macur, Natsuko Hamamura, Ryan Dem. Jennings, Bruce W. Fouke, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Frank Roberto, Mark Young, Ariel Schwartz, Eric S. Boyd, Jonathan H. Badger, Eric J. Mathur, Alice C. Ortmann, Mary Bateson, Gill Geesey

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Yellowstone caldera contains the most numerous and diverse geothermal systems on Earth, yielding an extensive array of unique high-temperature environments that host a variety of deeply-rooted and understudied Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. The combination of extreme temperature and chemical conditions encountered in geothermal environments often results in considerably less microbial diversity than other terrestrial habitats and offers a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities and for establishing linkages between putative metabolisms and element cycling. Metagenome sequence (14-15,000 Sanger reads per site) was obtained for five hightemperature (>65°C) chemotrophic microbial communities sampled from …


Variability In Azygospore Production Among Entomophaga Maimaiga Isolates, Ann E. Hajek, Ruth C. Plymale Mar 2010

Variability In Azygospore Production Among Entomophaga Maimaiga Isolates, Ann E. Hajek, Ruth C. Plymale

Articles

This study describes in vitro and in vivo azygospore production by nine isolates of Entomophaga maimaiga, a fungal pathogen of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The three E. maimaiga isolates that consistently produced azygospores in vitro were also strong producers of azygospores in vivo. However, two additional isolates that were strong azygospore producers in vivo did not produce azygospores in vitro. Isolates that produced azygospores in vitro produced both conidia and azygospores more frequently in vivo than isolates not producing azygospores in vitro. In vitro azygospore production varied over time as well as by isolate. After >2 years of cold …


A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur Mar 2010

A Survey Of The Management And Development Of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Calves: Birth To Three Months Of Age, Nicole L. Kowalski, Robert H.I. Dale, Christa L. H. Mazur

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. All of the calves were born at night, between 7PM and 7AM. The calves showed a systematic progression in behavioral and physical development, attaining developmental milestones at least a quickly as calves in situ. This study emphasized birth-related events, changes in the ways that calves used their trunks, first instances of behaviors, and interactions of the calves with other, usually adult, elephants. …


Initial Findings On Visual Acuity Thresholds In An African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana), Melissa R. Shyan-Norwalt, Jeff Peterson, Barbara Milankow King, Timothy E. Staggs, Robert H.I. Dale Feb 2010

Initial Findings On Visual Acuity Thresholds In An African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana), Melissa R. Shyan-Norwalt, Jeff Peterson, Barbara Milankow King, Timothy E. Staggs, Robert H.I. Dale

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

There are only a few published examinations of elephant visual acuity. All involved Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and found visual acuity to be between 8′ and 11′ of arc for a stimulus near the tip of the trunk, equivalent to a 0.50 cm gap, at a distance of about 2 m from the eyes. We predicted that African elephants (Loxodonta africana) would have similarly high visual acuity, necessary to facilitate eye-trunk coordination for feeding, drinking and social interactions. When tested on a discrimination task using Landolt-C stimuli, one African elephant cow demonstrated a visual acuity of …


Microarray Analysis Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Transcription, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, Garry A. Duncan, James D. Eudy, Dong Wang, Xiao Li, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, James L. Van Etten Jan 2010

Microarray Analysis Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Transcription, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, Garry A. Duncan, James D. Eudy, Dong Wang, Xiao Li, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), a member of the family Phycodnaviridae, is a large doublestranded DNA, plaque-forming virus that infects the unicellular green alga Chlorella sp. strain NC64A. The 330-kb PBCV-1 genome is predicted to encode 365 proteins and 11 tRNAs. To monitor global transcription during PBCV-1 replication, a microarray containing 50-mer probes to the PBCV-1 365 protein-encoding genes (CDSs) was constructed. Competitive hybridization experiments were conducted by using cDNAs from poly(A)- containing RNAs obtained from cells at seven time points after virus infection. The results led to the following conclusions: (i) the PBCV-1 replication cycle is temporally …


Crystal Structure Of A Virus-Encoded Putative Glycosyltransferase, Yi Xiang, Ulrich Baxa, Ying Zhang, Alasdair C. Steven, Gentry L. Lewis, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann Jan 2010

Crystal Structure Of A Virus-Encoded Putative Glycosyltransferase, Yi Xiang, Ulrich Baxa, Ying Zhang, Alasdair C. Steven, Gentry L. Lewis, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann

James Van Etten Publications

The chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae), unlike most viruses, encode some, if not most, of the enzymes involved in the glycosylation of their structural proteins. Annotation of the gene product B736L from chlorovirus NY-2A suggests that it is a glycosyltransferase. The structure of the recombinantly expressed B736L protein was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.3-Å resolution, and the protein was shown to have two nucleotide-binding folds like other glycosyltransferase type B enzymes. This is the second structure of a chlorovirus-encoded glycosyltransferase and the first structure of a chlorovirus type B enzyme to be determined. B736L is a retaining enzyme and belongs …


Goplana Dioscoreae-Alatae Nom. Nov And Other Uredinales On Dioscoreaceae: Nomenclature And Taxonomy, Jose R. Hernandez, Erica T. Cline Jan 2010

Goplana Dioscoreae-Alatae Nom. Nov And Other Uredinales On Dioscoreaceae: Nomenclature And Taxonomy, Jose R. Hernandez, Erica T. Cline

SIAS Faculty Publications

Among the sixteen species of rust fungi described on Dioscoreaceae, three require replacement names. This paper re-describes and proposes Goplana dioscoreae-alatae as a replacement name for Goplana dioscoreae Cummins, nom. illegit. We also propose Uredo dioscoreae-doryphorae as a replacement name for Uredo spinulosa Y. Ono, nom. illegit.; and Aecidium tumbayensis as a replacement name for Aecidium dioscoreae J.C. Lindq., nom. illegit. We discuss nomenclatural controversies surrounding these taxa.


Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns Of Hospital-Acquired And Community-Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Iyad Kaddora Jan 2010

Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns Of Hospital-Acquired And Community-Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Iyad Kaddora

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogens. An intensive effort to control resistant staphylococci, especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is vital as it is the most common cause of hospitalacquired infections. During the one year study period, a total of 35 MRSA isolates were collected. Fifteen isolates were identified as hospital-acquired (HA) infections, and 20 isolates were determined to be community acquired (CA). All 15 (100%) HA-MRSA strains were resistant to clindamycin and to erythromycin. Thirteen isolates (87%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and 12 (80%) were resistant to moxifloxacin. Of the 20 CA-MRSA isolates, …


About Turkeys, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2010

About Turkeys, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

John James Audubon, a well-known bird expert and nature enthusiast, described wild turkeys as birds of great beauty. The history and origin of wild turkeys is uncertain, yet many share Audubon’s sentiment that the wild turkey is “one of the most interesting of the birds indigenous to the United States of America.” Today, wild turkeys can be found throughout the nation. Following the selection of the bald eagle as the American symbol, Benjamin Franklin remarked that the turkey was more “respectable”, and a “true original native”.


About Chickens, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2010

About Chickens, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

The chicken is the world’s most numerous domesticated bird, with over 52 billion farmed worldwide in 2008, rivaling the dog as the most ubiquitous domestic animal globally. These birds have fascinated scholars and researchers since the dawn of Western civilization, and recent studies are beginning to reveal the depths of their complexity and cognitive ability. According to Andrew F. Fraser, professor of veterinary surgery at Memorial University of Newfoundland, and Donald M. Broom, professor of animal welfare at University of Cambridge: “Those who have studied the behaviour of the domestic fowl in detail…, especially those who have looked at feral …


About Fish, Humane Society Institute For Science And Policy Jan 2010

About Fish, Humane Society Institute For Science And Policy

Aquaculture Collection

Although a number of fish species have been studied in their freshwater life stages, further research on the behavior and habitat requirements of ocean-going fish is required. While fishes have historically been regarded as more “primitive” than other vertebrate groups, Rodriguez et al concluded that several memory and learning systems of bony fishes are noticeably similar to those of reptiles, birds, and mammals. When animals as small and under appreciated as fish display complex mating systems, parental care, and demonstrate the ability to traverse significant distances using olfactory and celestial cues, it is clear that previously established definitions of intelligence …


Female Humpback Whale (Megaptera Novaeangliae) Reproductive Class And Male-Female Interactions During The Breeding Season, Meagan E. Jones Jan 2010

Female Humpback Whale (Megaptera Novaeangliae) Reproductive Class And Male-Female Interactions During The Breeding Season, Meagan E. Jones

Antioch University Full-Text Dissertations & Theses

This study examined whether female reproductive class (i.e., presence or absence of a calf) in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) affects female behavior and male-female interactions on the Hawaiian breeding grounds. From 2003-2008, 295 female-calf groups (with or without a male escort) and 256 female no-calf groups (with a male) were observed. Forty-one female no-calf groups were confirmed male-female pairs by genetic sexing or photo-identification. Focal follows of 36 male-female pairs and 50 female-calf groups (29 escorted and 21 unescorted female-calf groups) were analyzed for time budget and movement estimates. Relative fluke size (fluke photogrammetry, n=30) and sighting histories …


Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan Jan 2010

Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. In this study we investigated (i) the existence of the RAS components angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in the rabbit cornea using in vitro and ex vivo models and (ii) the effect of enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, to inhibit angiogenesis in rabbit cornea in vivo.

Methods: New Zealand White rabbits were used. Cultured corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells were used for RNA isolation and cDNA preparation using standard molecular biology techniques. PCR was performed to …


The Transition Zone: Impact Of Riverbanks On Emergent Dragonfly Nymphs. Implications For Riverbank Restoration And Management, Kirsten Hope Martin Jan 2010

The Transition Zone: Impact Of Riverbanks On Emergent Dragonfly Nymphs. Implications For Riverbank Restoration And Management, Kirsten Hope Martin

Antioch University Full-Text Dissertations & Theses

The use of riprap in the restoration and stabilization of riverine landscapes is an issue of concern for many ecologists. While current methods of bank stabilization, especially those involving the placement of rocks (riprap) along the waterline, are effective in controlling erosion their presence changes habitat components (slope, substrate composition, near-shore river velocity) at the river-land interface. The additional impacts of river current, water temperature, soil composition, slope, and water level fluctuation, may further imperil emerging nymphs. The purpose of this research is to document the effects of riprap, location (upriver or downriver of hydroelectric intake/outtake facilities), water level fluctuation, …


Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar Jan 2010

Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The plasma and tissue disposition of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP-1) or five (DMP-5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. Single 5-mg/kg doses (MP equivalent) of each prodrug or MP were administered intravenously, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Prodrug and drug concentrations were quantitated using HPLC, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Whereas conjugation of MP with dextran in both prodrugs substantially decreased the clearance of the drug by ∼200-fold, the accumulations of the drug in the liver, spleen, and kidneys were significantly increased by conjugation. However, the extent of accumulation …


Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan Jan 2010

Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To determine if hybrid adeno-associated virus serotype 2/5 (AAV5) vector can effectively deliver foreign genes into the equine cornea without causing adverse side effects. The aims of this study were to: (i) evaluate efficacy of AAV5 to deliver therapeutic genes into equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene and (ii) establish the safety of AAV5 vector for equine corneal gene therapy.

Animal Material—Primary ECF cultures were harvested from healthy donor equine corneas. Cultures were maintained at 370C in humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2.

Procedure—AAV5 vector expressing EGFP under control of hybrid cytomegalovirus (CMV) + chicken …


Efficacy And Safety Of Mitomycin C As An Agent To Treat Corneal Scarring In Horses Using An In Vitro Model, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan Jan 2010

Efficacy And Safety Of Mitomycin C As An Agent To Treat Corneal Scarring In Horses Using An In Vitro Model, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—Mitomycin C (MMC) is used clinically to treat corneal scarring in human patients. We investigated the safety and efficacy of MMC to treat corneal scarring in horses by examining its effects at the early and late stages of disease using an in-vitro model.

Procedure—An in-vitro model of equine corneal fibroblast (ECF) developed was used. The equine corneal fibroblast or myofibroblast cultures were produced by growing primary ECF in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) under serum-free conditions. The MMC dose for the equine cornea was defined with dose-dependent trypan blue exclusion and MTT [(3-4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays …


Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon Jan 2010

Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: This study tested whether controlled drying of the cornea increases vector absorption in mouse and rabbit corneas in vivo and human cornea ex vivo, and studied the effects of corneal drying on gene transfer, structure and inflammatory reaction in the mouse cornea in vivo.

Methods: Female C57 black mice and New Zealand White rabbits were used for in vivo studies. Donor human corneas were used for ex vivo experiments. A hair dryer was used for drying the corneas after removing corneal epithelium by gentle scraping. The corneas received no, once, twice, thrice, or five times warm air for …


Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan Jan 2010

Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This study evaluated the cellular tropism and relative transduction efficiency of three AAV serotypes, AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9, for corneal gene delivery using mouse cornea in vivo and donor human cornea ex vivo. The AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9 serotypes having AAV2 plasmid encoding for alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene were generated by transfecting HEK293 cell line with pHelper, pARAP4 and pRep/Cap plasmids. Viral vectors (109 vg/μl) were topically applied onto mouse cornea in vivo and human cornea ex vivo after removing the epithelium. Human corneas were processed for transgene delivery at day 5 after viral vector application. Mouse corneas were harvested …


Equal Bmd After Daily Or Triweekly Exercise In Growing Rats, B. D. Kayser, J. K. Godfrey, R. M. Cunningham, R. A. Pierce, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2010

Equal Bmd After Daily Or Triweekly Exercise In Growing Rats, B. D. Kayser, J. K. Godfrey, R. M. Cunningham, R. A. Pierce, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of continuous resistance training (3 days/wk) compared to interrupted resistance training where 20-24 h separated an exercise bout (i.e. 6 days/wk) for enhancing bone mineral density (BMD) in growing male rats. The total volume of work performed per week between the two resistance training programs was equivalent by design. Young male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 9), 3 days/wk resistance trained group (RT3, n = 9), and 6 days/wk resistance trained group (RT6, n = 9). The RT3 and RT6 groups were conditioned to climb a …


Different Training Volumes Yield Equivalent Increases In Bmd, R. A. Pierce, L. C. Lee, C. P. Ahles, S. M. Shdo, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida Jan 2010

Different Training Volumes Yield Equivalent Increases In Bmd, R. A. Pierce, L. C. Lee, C. P. Ahles, S. M. Shdo, S. V. Jaque, Ken D. Sumida

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise threshold existed in stimulating an elevation in bone mineral density (BMD), via resistance training, during the growth period in male rats. 27 male rats were randomly divided into Control (Con, n = 9), 3 ladder climb resistance trained group (3LC, n = 9), and 6 ladder climb resistance trained group (6LC, n = 9). The 3LC and 6LC groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their tail 3 days/wk for a total of 6 wks, but the 6LC group performed significantly more work than …