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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde May 2022

Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship efforts have traditionally focused on inpatient settings. Antibiotic prescribing at discharge is often an overlooked area of focus for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Discharge prescribing optimization is necessary to combat antibiotic overuse.

Methods: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study at a four–adult community hospital system. Four hundred adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia and discharged with antibiotics were included. The primary outcome was overall (inpatient and discharge) antibiotic length of therapy. The secondary outcome was percentage of patients discharged on a fluoroquinolone who had not received one in the hospital. Descriptive statistics were utilized.

Results: The …


Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold May 2022

Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: A Case Report, Tammy E. Phillips, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho Apr 2022

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: A Case Report, Tammy E. Phillips, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Organizing pneumonia can be idiopathic or caused by multiple etiologies, including viral or bacterial pneumonia, drugs, and autoimmune disorders. It can rarely lead to cyst formation and pneumothorax with the exact mechanism remaining unclear. This case presents a previously healthy 50-year-old male who contracted COVID-19 with subsequent development of organizing pneumonia and pneumothorax. Patients presenting with hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 should be screened for organizing pneumonia upon discharge. This case also illustrates the importance of following such patients radiologically to monitor interstitial lung disease and consider pneumothorax for patients re-presenting with acute symptoms.


Association Of Lung Cancer With Pneumonia And Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection, Johnny Zakhour Md, Daniel Muller, Alex Glynn, Jose Bordon Oct 2021

Association Of Lung Cancer With Pneumonia And Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection, Johnny Zakhour Md, Daniel Muller, Alex Glynn, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: The degree of association and type of causal versus non-causal relationship between pneumonia and lung cancer (LC) are evolving discussions. We reviewed English publications on the degree of association between pneumonia and subsequent LC.

Methods: We searched the PubMed database using key words for pneumonia, LC, and chlamydia infection. We selected peer-reviewed studies of patients with pneumonia and LC. Case reports and other literature reviews were excluded from this review.

Results: Five studies examined the incidence and/or risk of LC for a total of 415,750 patients, and four studies examined cases with Chlamydia pneumoniae chronic infection at the time …


No Difference In Clinical Outcomes For African American And White Patients Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia In Louisville, Kentucky, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Thomas Chandler, Stephen S. Hanson, Dawn Balcom, Subathra Marimuthu, Sathya Krishnasamy, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Amr Aboelnasr, Mahder A. Tella, William A. Mattingly, Ashley M. Wilde, Daisy Sangroula, Demetra Antimisiaris, Donghoon Chung, Guillermo Cabral, Gabino R Fernandez-Botran, Jiapeng Huang, Martin Gnoni, Ozan Akca, Paul Schulz, Phillip F. Bressoud, Priya Krishnan, Sally Suliman, William P. Mckinney, Bryan Moffett, Leslie A Wolf, Mark Burns, Alex Glynn, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold Aug 2021

No Difference In Clinical Outcomes For African American And White Patients Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia In Louisville, Kentucky, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Thomas Chandler, Stephen S. Hanson, Dawn Balcom, Subathra Marimuthu, Sathya Krishnasamy, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Amr Aboelnasr, Mahder A. Tella, William A. Mattingly, Ashley M. Wilde, Daisy Sangroula, Demetra Antimisiaris, Donghoon Chung, Guillermo Cabral, Gabino R Fernandez-Botran, Jiapeng Huang, Martin Gnoni, Ozan Akca, Paul Schulz, Phillip F. Bressoud, Priya Krishnan, Sally Suliman, William P. Mckinney, Bryan Moffett, Leslie A Wolf, Mark Burns, Alex Glynn, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Current literature indicates that African American individuals are at increased risk of becoming infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and suffer higher SARS-CoV-2-related mortality rates. However, there is a lack of consensus as to how the clinical outcomes of African American patients differ from those of other groups. The objective of this study was to define the clinical outcomes of African American and White hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Louisville, Kentucky.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP at eight hospitals in Louisville, Kentucky. Severity of CAP at time of hospitalization …


Covid-19 Presenting With Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Intisar Ahmed, Hunaina Shahab, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Muhammad Sohaib Jan 2021

Covid-19 Presenting With Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Intisar Ahmed, Hunaina Shahab, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Muhammad Sohaib

Section of Cardiology

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease mainly affects respiratory system. Its common clinical findings include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Characteristic radiological features of the disease include peripherally distributed, bilateral ground-glass opacities, predominantly involving the lower lung zones. In this report, we present a case of COVID-19 disease presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax. A 26-year male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department with fever, dry cough, shortness of breath and right-sided chest pain. Radiographic imaging of the patient revealed pneumothorax on the right and peripherally distributed non-homogenous opacification. …


Invasive Pulmonary Infection By Syncephalastrum Species: Two Case Reports And Review Of Literature, Memoona Irshad, Nosheen Nasir, Urooj Haider Hashmi, Joveria Farooqi, Syed Faisal Mahmood Jul 2020

Invasive Pulmonary Infection By Syncephalastrum Species: Two Case Reports And Review Of Literature, Memoona Irshad, Nosheen Nasir, Urooj Haider Hashmi, Joveria Farooqi, Syed Faisal Mahmood

Section of Internal Medicine

Background: Syncephalastrum species belong to the class Zygomycetes and order Mucorale. These are found in the environment and tropical soil, usually presenting as colonizers and rarely cause human infection. Syncephalastrum racemosum is a species of the genus Syncephalastrum and is the most commonly identified pathogen. Most cases are reported in immunocompromised individuals, such as patients on long term steroids, poorly controlled diabetes, or patients with malignancy.
Case presentation: We are describing two cases of rare fungal infection by Syncephalastrum species causing invasive pulmonary manifestation. Both patients had compromised immune status and presented with worsening dyspnea to the emergency room. Both …


The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett Dec 2019

The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of preventing the acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia with the use of probiotic supplementation, as compared to a placebo, among hospitalized adult men and women receiving more than 24 hours of mechanical ventilation. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted through PubMed and Scopus using the search terms “ventilator”, “probiotics”, and “prevention”. Records were excluded from the analysis if they were published before 2015, full text was not available, studies other than randomized control trial or cohort studies, and if the study population was less than 18 years old. Results: Of …


Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams Dec 2018

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles …


Hospital-Based Surveillance Of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease And Pneumonia In South Bangalore, India., R Nisarga, R Premalatha, Shivananda, Kl Ravikumar, U Shivappa, A Gopi, Sb Chikkadasarahalli, R Batuwanthudawe, Paul E. Kilgore, Sa Kim, I Balter, S Jouve, J Ye, M Moscariello Mar 2015

Hospital-Based Surveillance Of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease And Pneumonia In South Bangalore, India., R Nisarga, R Premalatha, Shivananda, Kl Ravikumar, U Shivappa, A Gopi, Sb Chikkadasarahalli, R Batuwanthudawe, Paul E. Kilgore, Sa Kim, I Balter, S Jouve, J Ye, M Moscariello

Paul E. Kilgore

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia, distribution of pneumococcal serotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility in children aged 28 days to <60 months. DESIGN: Hospital-based surveillance. SETTING: South Bangalore, India. PARTICIPANTS: 9950 children aged 28 days to <60 months with clinical suspicion of invasive pneumococcal disease or pneumonia. RESULTS: The estimated at-risk population included 224,966 children <5 years of age. Forty cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were identified. Estimated invasive pneumococcal disease incidence was 17.8/100,000 with incidence being highest among children aged 6 months to <12 months (49.9/100,000). Clinical pneumonia syndrome was the most frequent diagnosis (12.5/100,000). Pneumococcal serotypes included: 6A (n=6, 16.7%); 14 (n=5, 13.9%); 5 (n=4, 11.1%); 6B (n=4, 11.1%); 1, 18C, and 19A (n=3 each, 8.3%); 9V (n=2, 5.6%); and 3, 4, 10C, 18A, 18F, and 19F (n=1 each, 2.8%). Serotypes 6A, 14, 6B, 1, 18C, 19A, 9V, 4, 10C, and 18A showed antibiotic resistance. Clinical pneumonia incidence was 2109/100,000, with incidence being highest among children aged 28 days to <6 months (5033/100,000). Chest radiograph-confirmed pneumonia incidence was 1114/100,000, with incidence being highest among children aged 28 days to <6 months (2413/100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia were found to be common causes of morbidity in young children living in South Bangalore, India.


Inhibition Of Adhesion And Invasion Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa To Lung Epithelial Cells: A Model Of Cystic Fibrosis Infection, Ayman Noreddin, Ghada Sawy, Walid Elkhatib, Ehab Noreddin, Atef Shibl Mar 2012

Inhibition Of Adhesion And Invasion Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa To Lung Epithelial Cells: A Model Of Cystic Fibrosis Infection, Ayman Noreddin, Ghada Sawy, Walid Elkhatib, Ehab Noreddin, Atef Shibl

Pharmacy Faculty Books and Book Chapters

"Over their life time, CF patients experience multiple infections by various pneumoniacausing bacteria [6]. With more patients surviving to adulthood, chronic infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are coming to the forefront as a leading cause of death [7]. Problems presented by infected CF lung are multi-dimensional; the electrolyte balance and pH of the fluids are abnormal. The mucus is thick and of an alternative composition compared to normal lung and may contribute to colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa [2, 3, 5]. As such, research is multi-pronged and includes gene therapy to correct the defective protein, amelioration of inflammatory response and thinning of …