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Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm May 2020

Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) infect eukaryotic, freshwater, unicellular green algae. A unique feature of these viruses is an abundance of DNA methyltransferases, with isolates dedicating up to 4.5% of their protein coding potential to these genes. This diversity highlights just one of the long-standing values of the chlorovirus model system; where group-wide epigenomic characterization might begin to elucidate the function(s) of DNA methylation in large dsDNA viruses. We characterized DNA modifications in the prototype chlorovirus, PBCV-1, using single-molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing (aka PacBio). Results were compared to total available sites predicted in silico based on DNA sequence alone. SMRT-software detected …


The N-Glycan Structures Of The Antigenic Variants Of Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Protein Help To Identify The Virus-Encoded Glycosyltransferases, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Luca Unione, Irina Agarkova, Domenico Garozzo, Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Sicheng Lin, Todd L. Lowary, Antonio Molinaro, Eric Noel, Maria Elena Laugieri, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro Jan 2019

The N-Glycan Structures Of The Antigenic Variants Of Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Protein Help To Identify The Virus-Encoded Glycosyltransferases, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Luca Unione, Irina Agarkova, Domenico Garozzo, Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Sicheng Lin, Todd L. Lowary, Antonio Molinaro, Eric Noel, Maria Elena Laugieri, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro

James Van Etten Publications

The chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is a large dsDNA virus that infects the microalga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. Unlike most other viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the machinery required to glycosylate its major capsid protein (MCP). The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the PBCV-1 MCP consist of nonasaccharides, and similar glycans are not found elsewhere in the three domains of life. Here, we identified the roles of three virus-encoded glycosyltransferases (GTs) that have four distinct GT activities in glycan synthesis. Two of the three GTs were previously annotated as GTs but the third …


Chloroviruses Lure Hosts Through Long-Distance Chemical Signaling, David Dunigan, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Irina Agarkova, John Delong, James L. Van Etten Jan 2019

Chloroviruses Lure Hosts Through Long-Distance Chemical Signaling, David Dunigan, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Irina Agarkova, John Delong, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses exist in aquatic systems around the planet where they infect certain eukaryotic green algae that are mutualistic endosymbionts in a variety of protists and metazoans. Natural chlorovirus populations are seasonally dynamic but the precise temporal changes in these populations and the mechanisms that underlie them have, heretofore, been unclear. We recently reported the novel concept that predator/prey-mediated virus activation regulates chlorovirus population dynamics, and in the current manuscript demonstrate virus packaged chemotactic modulation of prey behavior.

Viruses have not previously been reported to act as chemotactic/chemo-attractive agents. Rather, viruses as extracellular entities are generally viewed as non-metabolically active spore-like …


Genes For Membrane Transport Proteins: Not So Rare In Viruses, Timo Greiner, Anna Moroni, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2018

Genes For Membrane Transport Proteins: Not So Rare In Viruses, Timo Greiner, Anna Moroni, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel

James Van Etten Publications

Some viruses have genes encoding proteins with membrane transport functions. It is unknown if these types of proteins are rare or are common in viruses. In particular, the evolutionary origin of some of the viral genes is obscure, where other viral proteins have homologs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. We searched virus genomes in databases looking for transmembrane proteins with possible transport function. This effort led to the detection of 18 different types of putative membrane transport proteins indicating that they are not a rarity in viral genomes. The most abundant proteins are K+ channels. Their predicted structures vary between …


Size-Dependent Catalysis Of Chlorovirus Population Growth By A Messy Feeding Predator, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Shelby Lyon, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan Jan 2018

Size-Dependent Catalysis Of Chlorovirus Population Growth By A Messy Feeding Predator, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Shelby Lyon, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan

James Van Etten Publications

Many chloroviruses replicate in endosymbiotic zoochlorellae that are protected from infection by their symbiotic host. To reach the high virus concentrations that often occur in natural systems, a mechanism is needed to release zoochlorellae from their hosts. We demonstrate that the ciliate predator Didinium nasutum foraging on zoochlorellae-bearing Paramecium bursaria can release live zoochlorellae from the ruptured prey cell that can then be infected by chloroviruses. The catalysis process is very effective, yielding roughly 95% of the theoretical infectious virus yield as determined by sonication of P. bursaria. Chlorovirus activation is more effective with smaller Didinia, as larger …


Biophysical Approaches To Solve The Structures Of The Complex Glycan Shield Of Chloroviruses, Cristina De Castro, Garry Duncan, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Luisa Sturiale, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten Jan 2018

Biophysical Approaches To Solve The Structures Of The Complex Glycan Shield Of Chloroviruses, Cristina De Castro, Garry Duncan, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Luisa Sturiale, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

The capsid of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) contains a heavily glycosylated major capsid protein, Vp54. The capsid protein contains four glycans, each N-linked to Asn. The glycan structures are unusual in many aspects: (1) they are attached by a β-glucose linkage, which is rare in nature; (2) they are highly branched and consist of 8–10 neutral monosaccharides; (3) all four glycoforms contain a dimethylated rhamnose as the capping residue of the main chain, a hyper-branched fucose residue and two rhamnose residues ''with opposite absolute configurations; (4) the four glycoforms differ by the nonstoichiometric presence of two monosaccharides, l-arabinose and …


Multiple Origins Of Endosymbionts In Chlorellaceae With No Reductive Effects On The Plastid Or Mitochondrial Genomes, Weishu Fan, Wenhu Guo, James L. Van Etten, Jeffrey P. Mower Aug 2017

Multiple Origins Of Endosymbionts In Chlorellaceae With No Reductive Effects On The Plastid Or Mitochondrial Genomes, Weishu Fan, Wenhu Guo, James L. Van Etten, Jeffrey P. Mower

James Van Etten Publications

Ancient endosymbiotic relationships have led to extreme genomic reduction in many bacterial and eukaryotic algal endosymbionts. Endosymbionts in more recent and/or facultative relationships can also experience genomic reduction to a lesser extent, but little is known about the effects of the endosymbiotic transition on the organellar genomes of eukaryotes. To understand how the endosymbiotic lifestyle has affected the organellar genomes of photosynthetic green algae, we generated the complete plastid genome (plastome) and mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from three green algal endosymbionts (Chlorella heliozoae, Chlorella variabilis and Micractinium conductrix). The mitogenomes and plastomes of the three newly sequenced endosymbionts …


Identification Of Intrahelical Bifurcated H‑Bonds As A New Type Of Gate In K+ Channels, Oliver Rauh, Martin Urban, Leonhard M. Henkes, Tobias Winterstein, Timo Greiner, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Stefan M. Kast, Gerhard Thiel, Indra Schroeder May 2017

Identification Of Intrahelical Bifurcated H‑Bonds As A New Type Of Gate In K+ Channels, Oliver Rauh, Martin Urban, Leonhard M. Henkes, Tobias Winterstein, Timo Greiner, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Stefan M. Kast, Gerhard Thiel, Indra Schroeder

James Van Etten Publications

Gating of ion channels is based on structural transitions between open and closed states. To uncover the chemical basis of individual gates, we performed a comparative experimental and computational analysis between two K+ channels, KcvS and KcvNTS. These small viral encoded K+ channel proteins, with a monomer size of only 82 amino acids, resemble the pore module of all complex K+ channels in terms of structure and function. Even though both proteins share about 90% amino acid sequence identity, they exhibit different open probabilities with ca. 90% in KcvNTS and 40% in KcvS. …


Structure Of The N-Glycans From The Chlorovirus Ne-Jv-1, Immacolata Speciale, Irina Agarkova, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro Jan 2017

Structure Of The N-Glycans From The Chlorovirus Ne-Jv-1, Immacolata Speciale, Irina Agarkova, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro

James Van Etten Publications

Results from recent studies are breaking the paradigm that all viruses depend on their host machinery to glycosylate their proteins. Chloroviruses encode several genes involved in glycan biosynthesis and some of their capsid proteins are decorated with N-linked oligosaccharides with unique features. Here we describe the elucidation of the N-glycan structure of an unusual chlorovirus, NE-JV-1, that belongs to the Pbi group. The host for NE-JV-1 is the zoochlorella Micractinium conductrix. Spectroscopic analyses established that this N-glycan consists of a core region that is conserved in all of the chloroviruses. The one difference is that the residue 3OMe-l-rhamnose is …


Structural Studies Demonstrating A Bacteriophage-Like Replication Cycle Of The Eukaryote-Infecting Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1, Elad Milrot, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, Tamar Unger, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky Jan 2017

Structural Studies Demonstrating A Bacteriophage-Like Replication Cycle Of The Eukaryote-Infecting Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1, Elad Milrot, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, Tamar Unger, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky

James Van Etten Publications

A fundamental stage in viral infection is the internalization of viral genomes in host cells. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms and factors responsible for the genome internalization process remain poorly understood. Here we report our observations, derived from diverse imaging methods on genome internalization of the large dsDNA Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1). Our studies reveal that early infection stages of this eukaryotic- infecting virus occurs by a bacteriophage-like pathway, whereby PBCV-1 generates a hole in the host cell wall and ejects its dsDNA genome in a linear, base-pair-by-base-pair process, through a membrane tunnel generated by the fusion of the …


Conversion Of An Instantaneous Activating K+ Channel Into A Slow Activating Inward Rectifier, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Stefan M. Kast, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2017

Conversion Of An Instantaneous Activating K+ Channel Into A Slow Activating Inward Rectifier, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Stefan M. Kast, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

James Van Etten Publications

The miniature channel, Kcv, is a structural equivalent of the pore of all K+ channels. Here, we follow up on a previous observation that a largely voltage-insensitive channel can be converted into a slow activating inward rectifier after extending the outer transmembrane domain by one Ala. This gain of rectification can be rationalized by dynamic salt bridges at the cytosolic entrance to the channel; opening is favored by voltage-sensitive formation of salt bridges and counteracted by their disruption. Such latent voltage sensitivity in the pore could be relevant for the understanding of voltage gating in complex Kv channels.


Structure Of The Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Glycoprotein Determined By Combining Crystallographic And Carbohydrate Molecular Modeling Approaches, Cristina De Castro, Thomas Klose, Immacolata Speciale, Rosa Lanzetta, Antonio Molinaro, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann Jan 2017

Structure Of The Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Glycoprotein Determined By Combining Crystallographic And Carbohydrate Molecular Modeling Approaches, Cristina De Castro, Thomas Klose, Immacolata Speciale, Rosa Lanzetta, Antonio Molinaro, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann

James Van Etten Publications

The glycans of the major capsid protein (Vp54) of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) were recently described and found to be unusual. This prompted a reexamination of the previously reported Vp54 X-ray structure. A detailed description of the complete glycoprotein was achieved by combining crystallographic data with molecular modeling. The crystallographic data identified most of the monosaccharides located close to the protein backbone, but failed to detect those further from the glycosylation sites. Molecular modeling complemented this model by adding the missing monosaccharides and examined the conformational preference of the whole molecule, alone or within the crystallographic environment. Thus, combining …


Climate Change And The Integrity Of Science, Peter H. Gleick, James L. Van Etten, Members Of The U.S. National Academy Of Sciences Nov 2016

Climate Change And The Integrity Of Science, Peter H. Gleick, James L. Van Etten, Members Of The U.S. National Academy Of Sciences

James Van Etten Publications

We are deeply disturbed by the recent escalation of political assaults on scientists in general and on climate scientists in particular. All citizens should understand some basic scientific facts. There is always some uncertainty associated with scientific conclusions; science never absolutely proves anything. When someone says that society should wait until scientists are absolutely certain before taking any action, it is the same as saying society should never take action. For a problem as potentially catastrophic as climate change, taking no action poses a dangerous risk for our planet.

Scientific conclusions derive from an understanding of basic laws supported by …


Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James L. Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D. Nov 2016

Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James L. Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D.

James Van Etten Publications

Virus population growth depends on contacts between viruses and their hosts. It is often unclear how sufficient contacts are made between viruses and their specific hosts to generate spikes in viral abundance. Here, we show that copepods, acting as predators, can bring aquatic viruses and their algal hosts into contact. Specifically, predation of the protist Paramecium bursaria by copepods resulted in a >100-fold increase in the number of chloroviruses in 1 d. Copepod predation can be seen as an ecological “catalyst” by increasing contacts between chloroviruses and their hosts, zoochlorellae (endosymbiotic algae that live within paramecia), thereby facilitating viral population …


Three-Year Survey Of Abundance, Prevalence And Genetic Diversity Of Chlorovirus Populations In A Small Urban Lake, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Anya Seng, Brenna Rasmussen, Garrett Weber, Claire Mueller, David Dunigan, James L. Van Etten Apr 2016

Three-Year Survey Of Abundance, Prevalence And Genetic Diversity Of Chlorovirus Populations In A Small Urban Lake, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Anya Seng, Brenna Rasmussen, Garrett Weber, Claire Mueller, David Dunigan, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Inland water environments cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and still unknown microorganisms. In this report, we examined water samples for the abundance, prevalence, and genetic diversity of a group of infectious viruses (chloroviruses) that infect symbiotic chlorella-like green algae. Samples were collected on a weekly basis for a period of 24 to 36 months from a recreational freshwater lake in Lincoln, Nebraska, and assayed for infectious viruses by plaque assay. The numbers of infectious virus particles were both host- and site-dependent. The consistent fluctuations in numbers of viruses suggest their impact as …


Virus–Host Interactions: Insights From The Replication Cycle Of The Large Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus, Elad Milrot, Yael Mutsafi, Yael Fridmann-Sirkis, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky Jan 2016

Virus–Host Interactions: Insights From The Replication Cycle Of The Large Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus, Elad Milrot, Yael Mutsafi, Yael Fridmann-Sirkis, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky

James Van Etten Publications

The increasing interest in cytoplasmic factories generated by eukaryotic-infecting viruses stems from the realization that these highly ordered assemblies may contribute fundamental novel insights to the functional significance of order in cellular biology. Here, we report the formation process and structural features of the cytoplasmic factories of the large dsDNA virus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). By combining diverse imaging techniques, including scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography and focused ion beam technologies, we show that the architecture and mode of formation of PBCV-1 factories are significantly different from those generated by their evolutionary relatives Vaccinia and Mimivirus. Specifically, PBCV-1 …


Chloroviruses N-Linked Glycans Share A New Type Of Conserved Core Architecture Unprecedented In Any Form Of Life / [Published As] N-Linked Glycans Of Chloroviruses Sharing A Core Architecture Without Precedent, Cristina De Castro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry Duncan, David Dunigan, Irina Agarkova, Rosa Lanzetta, Luisa Sturiale, Angelo Palmigiano, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten Jan 2016

Chloroviruses N-Linked Glycans Share A New Type Of Conserved Core Architecture Unprecedented In Any Form Of Life / [Published As] N-Linked Glycans Of Chloroviruses Sharing A Core Architecture Without Precedent, Cristina De Castro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry Duncan, David Dunigan, Irina Agarkova, Rosa Lanzetta, Luisa Sturiale, Angelo Palmigiano, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

N-glycosylation is a fundamental modification of proteins that exists in the three domains of life and in some viruses, including the chloroviruses, for which a new type of core N-glycan is described. This N-glycan core structure common to all chloroviruses is a pentasaccharide with a β-glucose linked to an asparagine residue that is not located in the typical sequon N-X-T/S. The glucose is linked to a terminal xylose unit and a hyperbranched fucose, in turn substituted with a terminal galactose and a second xylose residue. The third position of the fucose unit is always linked to a rhamnose, which is …


Engineering Of A Light-Gated Potassium Channel, Christian Cosentino, Laura Alberio, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Marco Aquila, Eduardo Romano, Solei Cermenati, Paolo Zuccolini, Jan Petersen, Monica Beltrame, James L. Van Etten, John M. Christie, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni Apr 2015

Engineering Of A Light-Gated Potassium Channel, Christian Cosentino, Laura Alberio, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Marco Aquila, Eduardo Romano, Solei Cermenati, Paolo Zuccolini, Jan Petersen, Monica Beltrame, James L. Van Etten, John M. Christie, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

The present palette of opsin-based optogenetic tools lacks a light-gated potassium (K+) channel desirable for silencing of excitable cells. Here, we describe the construction of a blue-light–induced K+ channel 1 (BLINK1) engineered by fusing the plant LOV2-Ja photosensory module to the small viral K+ channel Kcv. BLINK1 exhibits biophysical features of Kcv, including K+ selectivity and high single-channel conductance, but reversibly photoactivates in blue light. Opening of BLINK1 channels hyperpolarizes the cell to the K+ equilibrium potential. Ectopic expression of BLINK1 reversibly inhibits the escape response in light-exposed zebrafish larvae. BLINK1 therefore provides a single-component optogenetic tool that can establish …


Reply To Kjartansdóttir Et Al.: Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Findings Not Explained By Contamination, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James Gurnon, Irina Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten Mar 2015

Reply To Kjartansdóttir Et Al.: Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Findings Not Explained By Contamination, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James Gurnon, Irina Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

We agree with Kjartansdóttir et al. (1) that extreme caution must be used when interpreting high-throughput sequencing results in new hosts. The situation demands thorough investigation and validation beyond the identification of a few sequencing reads. However, we believe it is unlikely that random laboratory contamination explains the results reported in Yolken et al. (2) for the following reasons. ...

Therefore, the conclusions in our report are based not only on “a few sequence reads” (1), but on confirmatory assays, as well as a highly controlled animal model of oral exposure and subsequent measurement of immune response and behavior. We …


Large Dsdna Chloroviruses Encode Diverse Membrane Transport Proteins, Gerhard Thiel, Timo Greiner, David Dunigan, Anna Moroni Jan 2015

Large Dsdna Chloroviruses Encode Diverse Membrane Transport Proteins, Gerhard Thiel, Timo Greiner, David Dunigan, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

Many large DNA viruses that infect certain isolates of chlorella-like green algae (chloroviruses) are unusual because they often encode a diverse set of membrane transport proteins, including functional K+ channels and aquaglyceroporins as well as K+ transporters and calcium transporting ATPases. Some chloroviruses also encode putative ligand-gated-like channel proteins. No one protein is present in all of the chloroviruses that have been sequenced, but the K+ channel is the most common as only two chloroviruses have been isolated that lack this complete protein. This review describes the properties of these membrane-transporting proteins and suggests possible physiological functions and evolutionary histories …


Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Is Part Of The Human Oropharyngeal Virome And Is Associated With Changes In Cognitive Functions In Humans And Mice, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David D. Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James R. Gurnon, Irina V. Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten Nov 2014

Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Is Part Of The Human Oropharyngeal Virome And Is Associated With Changes In Cognitive Functions In Humans And Mice, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David D. Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James R. Gurnon, Irina V. Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) are large DNA viruses known to infect certain eukaryotic green algae and have not been previously shown to infect humans or to be part of the human virome. We unexpectedly found sequences homologous to the chlorovirus Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1 (ATCV-1) in a metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from human oropharyngeal samples. These samples were obtained by throat swabs of adults without a psychiatric disorder or serious physical illness who were participating in a study that included measures of cognitive functioning. The presence of ATCV-1 DNA was confirmed by quantitative PCR with ATCV-1 DNA being …


Chlorovirus Skp1-Binding Ankyrin Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric A. Noel, Ming Kang, Jiri Adamec, James L. Van Etten, George A. Oyler Sep 2014

Chlorovirus Skp1-Binding Ankyrin Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric A. Noel, Ming Kang, Jiri Adamec, James L. Van Etten, George A. Oyler

James Van Etten Publications

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is targeted by many viruses that have evolved strategies to redirect host ubiquitination machinery. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are proposed to share an ancestral lineage with a broader group of related viruses, nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). Chloroviruses encode an Skp1 homolog and ankyrin repeat (ANK) proteins. Several chlorovirus-encoded ANK repeats contain C-terminal domains characteristic of cellular F-boxes or related NCLDV chordopox PRANC (pox protein repeats of ankyrin at C-terminal) domains. These observations suggested that this unique combination of Skp1 and ANK repeat proteins might form complexes analogous to the cellular Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex. …


Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Encodes An Active Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase, Ming Kang, Garry A. Duncan, Charles Kuszynski, George Oyler, Jiayin Zheng, Donald F. Becker, James L. Van Etten Aug 2014

Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Encodes An Active Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase, Ming Kang, Garry A. Duncan, Charles Kuszynski, George Oyler, Jiayin Zheng, Donald F. Becker, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloproteins that protect organisms from toxic reactive oxygen species by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Chlorovirus PBCV-1 encodes a 187-amino-acid protein that resembles a Cu-Zn SOD with all of the conserved amino acid residues for binding copper and zinc (named cvSOD). cvSOD has an internal Met that results in a 165-amino-acid protein (named tcvSOD). Both cvSOD and tcvSOD recombinant proteins inhibited nitroblue tetrazolium reduction of superoxide anion generated in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system in solution. tcvSOD was chosen for further characterization because it was easier to produce. Recombinant tcvSOD …


Expression Of Chlorovirus Mt325 Aquaglyceroporin (Aqpv1) In Tobacco And Its Role In Mitigating Drought Stress, Saadia Bihmidine, Mingxia Cao, Ming Kang, Tala Awada, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan, Thomas E. Clemente Jul 2014

Expression Of Chlorovirus Mt325 Aquaglyceroporin (Aqpv1) In Tobacco And Its Role In Mitigating Drought Stress, Saadia Bihmidine, Mingxia Cao, Ming Kang, Tala Awada, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan, Thomas E. Clemente

James Van Etten Publications

Main conclusions A Chlorovirus aquaglyceroporin expressed in tobacco is localized to the plastid and plasma membranes. Transgenic events display improved response to water deficit. Necrosis in adult stage plants is observed.

Aquaglyceroporins are a subclass of the water channel aquaporin proteins (AQPs) that transport glycerol along with other small molecules transcellular in addition to water. In the studies communicated herein, we analyzed the expression of the aquaglyceroporin gene designated, aqpv1, from Chlorovirus MT325, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), along with phenotypic changes induced by aqpv1 expression in planta. Interestingly, aqpv1 expression under control of either a constitutive or …


Viruses Infecting Marine Picoplancton Encode Functional Potassium Ion Channels, Fenja Siotto, Corinna Martin, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2014

Viruses Infecting Marine Picoplancton Encode Functional Potassium Ion Channels, Fenja Siotto, Corinna Martin, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

James Van Etten Publications

Phycodnaviruses are dsDNA viruses, which infect algae. Their large genomes encode many gene products, like small K+ channels, with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Screening for K+ channels revealed their abundance in viruses from fresh-water habitats. Recent sequencing of viruses from marine algae or from salt water in Antarctica revealed sequences with the predicted characteristics of K+ channels but with some unexpected features. Two genes encode either 78 or 79 amino acid proteins, which are the smallest known K+ channels. Also of interest is an unusual sequence in the canonical α-helixes in K+ channels. Structural prediction algorithms indicate that the …


Viruses As Nanoparticles: Structure Versus Collective Dynamics, S. Sirotkin, A. Mermet, M. Bergoin, V. Ward, James L. Van Etten Jan 2014

Viruses As Nanoparticles: Structure Versus Collective Dynamics, S. Sirotkin, A. Mermet, M. Bergoin, V. Ward, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

In order to test the application of the “nanoparticle” concept to viruses in terms of low-frequency dynamics, large viruses (140–190 nm) were compared to similar-sized polymer colloids using ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering and very-low-frequency Raman or Brillouin scattering. While both viruses and polymer colloids show comparable highly defined morphologies, with comparable abilities of forming self-assembled structures, their respective abilities to confine detectable acoustic vibrations, as expected for such monodisperse systems, differed. Possible reasons for these different behaviors are discussed.


The Voltage-Sensing Domain Of A Phosphatase Gates The Pore Of A Potassium Channel, Cristina Arrigoni, Indra Schroeder, Giulia Romani, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni Feb 2013

The Voltage-Sensing Domain Of A Phosphatase Gates The Pore Of A Potassium Channel, Cristina Arrigoni, Indra Schroeder, Giulia Romani, James L. Van Etten, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

The modular architecture of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels suggests that they resulted from the fusion of a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a pore module. Here, we show that the VSD of Ciona intestinalis phosphatase (Ci-VSP) fused to the viral channel Kcv creates KvSynth1, a functional voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying K+ channel. KvSynth1 displays the summed features of its individual components: pore properties of Kcv (selectivity and filter gating) and voltage dependence of Ci-VSP (V1/2 = +56 mV; z of approx. 1), including the depolarizationinduced mode shift. The degree of outward rectification of the channel is critically …


Potassium Ion Channels: Could They Have Evolved From Viruses?1[W], Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni, Guillaume Blanc, James L. Van Etten Jan 2013

Potassium Ion Channels: Could They Have Evolved From Viruses?1[W], Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni, Guillaume Blanc, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Cells communicate among themselves by electrical activity. Sophisticated membrane-embedded proteins, called ion channels, catalyze rapid, selective, and regulated ion fluxes across membranes (Hille, 2001). The resulting membrane currents are responsible for neuronal activity and the systemic propagation of electrical signals in animals. The activity of some channels is important for muscle movement in animals or growth in plants; other channels sense the concentration of physiological signals and modulate key processes in all kinds of eukaryotic cells. Among the many diverse ion channels in higher organisms, K+ channels are among the most important. One feature of K+ channels is that they …


A Virus-Encoded Potassium Ion Channel Is A Structural Protein In The Chlorovirus Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Virion, Giulia Romani, Adrianna Piotrowski, Stefan Hillmer, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Anna Morani, Gerhard Thiel, Brigitte Hertel Jan 2013

A Virus-Encoded Potassium Ion Channel Is A Structural Protein In The Chlorovirus Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Virion, Giulia Romani, Adrianna Piotrowski, Stefan Hillmer, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Anna Morani, Gerhard Thiel, Brigitte Hertel

James Van Etten Publications

Most chloroviruses encode small K+ channels, which are functional in electrophysiological assays. The experimental finding that initial steps in viral infection exhibit the same sensitivity to channel inhibitors as the viral K+ channels has led to the hypothesis that the channels are structural proteins located in the internal membrane of the virus particles. This hypothesis was questioned recently because proteomic studies failed to detect the channel protein in virions of the prototype chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). Here, we used a mAb raised against the functional K+ channel from chlorovirus MA-1D to search for the viral K+ channel …


A Virus-Encoded Potassium Ion Channel Is A Structural Protein In The Chlorovirus Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Virion, Giulia Romani, Adrianna Piotrowski, Stefan Hillmer, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel, Brigitte Hertel Jan 2013

A Virus-Encoded Potassium Ion Channel Is A Structural Protein In The Chlorovirus Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Virion, Giulia Romani, Adrianna Piotrowski, Stefan Hillmer, James Gurnon, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel, Brigitte Hertel

James Van Etten Publications

Most chloroviruses encode small K+ channels, which are functional in electrophysiological assays. The experimental finding that initial steps in viral infection exhibit the same sensitivity to channel inhibitors as the viral K+ channels has led to the hypothesis that the channels are structural proteins located in the internal membrane of the virus particles. This hypothesis was questioned recently because proteomic studies failed to detect the channel protein in virions of the prototype chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). Here, we used a mAb raised against the functional K+ channel from chlorovirus MA-1D to search for the viral K+ channel …