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James Madison University

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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett Dec 2019

The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of preventing the acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia with the use of probiotic supplementation, as compared to a placebo, among hospitalized adult men and women receiving more than 24 hours of mechanical ventilation. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted through PubMed and Scopus using the search terms “ventilator”, “probiotics”, and “prevention”. Records were excluded from the analysis if they were published before 2015, full text was not available, studies other than randomized control trial or cohort studies, and if the study population was less than 18 years old. Results: Of …


Anti-Crispr Vs. Crispr: The Evolutionary Arms Race Between Microorganisms, Rachael M. St. Jacques May 2019

Anti-Crispr Vs. Crispr: The Evolutionary Arms Race Between Microorganisms, Rachael M. St. Jacques

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

CRISPR arrays are a defense mechanism employed by bacteria against viral invaders. Cas proteins do the work in detecting, capturing, and integrating the viral DNA into the CRISPR array (Barrangou et al., 2007). Anti-CRISPR proteins are produced by phages, viruses that infect bacteria, to stop the bacterial host’s CRISPR-Cas complex from interrupting the phage life cycle (Bondy-Denomy, et al., 2015).

SEA-PHAGES is a course-based bacteriophage research network composed of 120 colleges and known at James Madison University as Viral Discovery. JMU uses the unsequenced Streptomyces griseus ATCC10137 as a host for bacteriophage discovery and propagation, and in this study we …


Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams Dec 2018

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles …


The State Of The Translational Chaperone Icd-1 During Apoptosis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Kyle Cicalese May 2018

The State Of The Translational Chaperone Icd-1 During Apoptosis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Kyle Cicalese

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signal transduction cascade that mitigates low levels of misfolded protein stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in an effort to save the affected cell, while prolonged and/or acute ER stress leads to UPR-initiated apoptosis (programmed cell death). One putative step driving apoptosis is the cleavage of chaperones, proteins tasked to help misfolded proteins refold, by caspases, proteases essential to the execution of apoptosis. We are studying the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC), a heterodimeric chaperone complex essential for viability, to determine if its beta subunit is cleaved by caspases during apoptosis to prevent the …


Behavioral Audiometry Testing In Drosophila Melanogaster, Amanda Cascio May 2018

Behavioral Audiometry Testing In Drosophila Melanogaster, Amanda Cascio

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

The genetic make up of Drosophila melanogaster aligns closely enough to humans for them to function as models for the study of hearing loss and disorders (Albert & Göpfert, 2015; Duyk et al., 1997). The purpose of this project was to design a computer automated program capable of quickly assessing the hearing of flies based on their suppression of courtship behaviors in the presence of an audible stimulus. We were unable to document the male courtship song due to low frequency noise present in our sound attenuating booth. We continued the experiment using a spectrum of fly noise unassociated with …


Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, Allie Casto, Adam Hurwitz, Kunny Kou, Gregory Mansour, Allison Mayzel, Rachel Policke, Alexander Schmidt, Rowan Shartel, Olivia Smith, Augustus Snyder, Allison Woolf Apr 2016

Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, Allie Casto, Adam Hurwitz, Kunny Kou, Gregory Mansour, Allison Mayzel, Rachel Policke, Alexander Schmidt, Rowan Shartel, Olivia Smith, Augustus Snyder, Allison Woolf

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have numerous applications in the medical, agricultural, and research fields, especially as an alternative to antibiotics in the age of antibiotic resistance. Phages are able to lyse, or break apart, bacterial cells with fewer side effects, more specificity, and less likelihood of resistance than antibiotics. The acceptance of phages in medicine and agriculture around the world today is not universal, and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been slow to recognize phage therapy as a legitimate treatment. However, the successful use of phages in the past, as well as promising trial results …


Identification Of The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec (Sccmec) Element In Viral Fractions From Environmental Samples, Emily M. Pelto May 2015

Identification Of The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec (Sccmec) Element In Viral Fractions From Environmental Samples, Emily M. Pelto

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Antibiotic resistance attributed to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a growing concern over the last decade in both the healthcare and agricultural environment. This resistance is encoded by the gene mecA that is located on a mosaic, mobile genetic element called the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) element. It is proposed that the transfer of the SCCmec element and resulting spread of resistance occur by transduction, the transfer of genetic material from bacterium to bacterium by a bacteriophage. Specifically, it is hypothesized that the transduction of this resistance is occurring in the agricultural setting. To test …


Comparative Analysis Of Anti-Bd Bacteria From Six Malagasy Frog Species Of Ranomafana National Park, Kelsey Savage May 2015

Comparative Analysis Of Anti-Bd Bacteria From Six Malagasy Frog Species Of Ranomafana National Park, Kelsey Savage

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

As Malagasy amphibians are facing an impending extinction crisis from the lethal skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), it has become imperative to proactively mitigate the threat. Bd sporangia develop in the skin of infected amphibians and cause the skin to thicken, leading to ionic imbalance and eventual heart failure. It has been shown that certain bacterial species are able to inhibit Bd growth on amphibians by producing antifungal metabolites. Community-based probiotics are one approach used to combat chytridomycosis by inoculating an environment with Bd-inhibitory bacteria so that many amphibian species are treated at once. With this method, it is important …