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2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs Dec 2017

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The human pathogen L. monocytogenes and the animal pathogen L. ivanovii, together with four other species isolated from symptom-free animals, form the "Listeria sensu stricto" clade. The members of the second clade, "Listeria sensu lato", are believed to be solely environmental bacteria without the ability to colonize mammalian hosts. To identify novel determinants that contribute to infection by L. monocytogenes, the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis, we performed a genome comparison of the two clades and found 151 candidate genes that are conserved in the Listeria sensu stricto species. Two factors were …


Evaluation Of A Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Pcr For Rapid And Sensitive On-Site Detection Of Zika Virus, Mariano Carossino, Yanqiu Li, Pei-Yu A. Lee, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Pin-Hsing Chou, Dennis Williams, Ashley Skillman, R. Frank Cook, Grayson Brown, Hsiao-Fen G. Chang, Hwa-Tang T. Wang, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya Dec 2017

Evaluation Of A Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Pcr For Rapid And Sensitive On-Site Detection Of Zika Virus, Mariano Carossino, Yanqiu Li, Pei-Yu A. Lee, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Pin-Hsing Chou, Dennis Williams, Ashley Skillman, R. Frank Cook, Grayson Brown, Hsiao-Fen G. Chang, Hwa-Tang T. Wang, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and its precipitous expansion throughout the Americas has highlighted the urgent need for a rapid and reliable on-site diagnostic assay suitable for viral detection. Such point-of-need (PON), low-cost diagnostics are essential for ZIKV control in vulnerable areas with limited resources.

Methods: We developed and evaluated a ZIKV-specific field-deployable RT-iiPCR reagent set targeting the E gene for rapid detection of ZIKV in ZIKV-spiked human and mosquito specimens, and compared its performance to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) RT-qPCR assays targeting the E …


Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh Dec 2017

Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh

Capstones

This capstone is a data-driven investigation into New York City's rat problem. By using publicly available government data to map rat activity in NYC, I identified several socio-economic variables that correlate with rat populations at the community district, borough, and city-scale. I used these findings (mainly that rat problems are linked to lower incomes) as the basis of an investigation, which includes interviews with residents, experts, and city officials. Prof. Bobby Corrigan, urban rodentologist and formerly with the NYC Department of Health criticizes the city's efforts for the first time on the record.

https://thomasseiyawalsh.wixsite.com/ratstone


Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich Dec 2017

Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Eukaryotic cells take cues from their environment and interpret them to enact a response. External stresses can produce a decision between adjusting to behaviors which promote surviving the stress, or enacting a cell death program. The decision to undergo programmed cell death (PCD) is controlled by a complex interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial signals. The mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion. However, a dramatic shift in mitochondrial morphology toward fission occurs early in the PCD process. We have identified the transcription factor cyclin C as the biochemical trigger for stress‐induced mitochondrial hyper‐fragmentation in yeast (Cooper …


The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Dec 2017

The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

In response to stress, the yeast1 and mammalian2 cyclin C translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with the GTPase Drp1/Dnm1 to drive mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. Therefore, the decision to release cyclin C represents a key life or death decision. In unstressed cells, the cyclin C‐Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription by associating with the Mediator of RNA polymerase II. We previously reported that the Mediator component Med13 anchors cyclin C in the nucleus3. Loss of Med13 function leads to constitutive cytoplasmic localization of cyclin C, resulting in fragmented mitochondria, hypersensitivity to stress and …


Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper Dec 2017

Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

All eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, have to decide whether to mount a survival or cell death response. The conserved cyclin C and its kinase partner Cdk8 play a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In S. cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction1, which thereafter releases cyclin Ci nto the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic cyclin C associates with mitochondria where it induces hyper-fragmentation and programmed cell death2. This suggests a model in …


Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Dec 2017

Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Living organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and internal stressors tha tare detrimental to their cellular physiology and viability. One such condition, oxidativestress, is caused by abnormal amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that can lead to damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Although the mechanisms to neutralize ROS have been widely studied, the understanding of ROS‐mediated signaling for these mechanisms is rather incomplete and sparse. We have uncovered a previously undescribed phenomenon of yeast ribosomes to respond to elevated levels of ROS through a specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 25S rRNA in the c‐loop of …


Carbohydrates And Fungal Toxin Exposure Influence The Vaginal Microbiota, Metabolome, And Reproductive Health Of Women, Stephanie L. Collins Dec 2017

Carbohydrates And Fungal Toxin Exposure Influence The Vaginal Microbiota, Metabolome, And Reproductive Health Of Women, Stephanie L. Collins

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The reproductive health of women is influenced by microorganisms and their metabolites, namely those representing the vaginal microbiota and those producing toxins that are ingested. To manipulate the vaginal microbiota toward a health-associated, Lactobacillusdominant state, an approach adopting prebiotic lactulose was taken. Using batch culture, lactulose supported Lactobacillus maintenance and positively altered metabolites, while not disrupting indigenous L. crispatus epithelial adherence. The vagina also harbours abundant glycogen, but initial assumptions that lactobacilli utilize it were incorrect. I have now shown that glycogen selectively stimulates organisms associated with dysbiosis and L. iners in a self-limiting manner. Other compounds such as environmental …


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo Dec 2017

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Acquisition Of Functions On The Outer Capsid Surface During Evolution Of Double-Stranded Rna Fungal Viruses, Carlos P. Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M. Rodríguez, José M. González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José L. Carrascosa, Benes L. Trus, José R. Castón Dec 2017

Acquisition Of Functions On The Outer Capsid Surface During Evolution Of Double-Stranded Rna Fungal Viruses, Carlos P. Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M. Rodríguez, José M. González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José L. Carrascosa, Benes L. Trus, José R. Castón

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double-stranded (ds)RNA virus. RnQV1, the type species of the family Quadriviridae, has a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments. Whereas most dsRNA virus capsids are based on dimers of a single protein, the ~450-Å-diameter, T = 1 RnQV1 capsid is built of P2 and P4 protein heterodimers, each with more than 1000 residues. Despite a lack of sequence similarity between …


Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay Dimarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse Mcatee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard Dec 2017

Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay Dimarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse Mcatee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty and Staff Publications

Commercial scale production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feed stocks has been hampered by the resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic conversion, primarily owing to lignin. This study investigated whether DypB, the lignin-degrading peroxidase from Rodococcus jostii, depolymerizes lignin and reduces recalcitrance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). The protein was targeted to the cytosol or the ER using ER-targeting and retention signal peptides. For each construct, five independent transgenic lines were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Our findings reveal that expression of DypB in the cytosol and ER does not affect plant development. ER-targeting increased protein accumulation, and …


One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov Dec 2017

One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Current methods for isolating RNA from budding yeast require lengthy and laborious steps such as freezing and heating with phenol, homogenization with glass beads, or enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. Here, extraction with a solution of formamide and EDTA was adapted to isolate RNA from whole yeast cells through a rapid and easily scalable procedure that does not require mechanical cell lysis, phenol, or enzymes. RNA extracted with formamide-EDTA can be directly loaded on gels for electrophoretic analysis without alcohol precipitation. A simplified protocol for downstream DNase treatment and reverse transcription reaction is also included. The formamide-EDTA extraction of …


Fungi Of Forests: Examining The Diversity Of Root-Associated Fungi And Their Responses To Acid Deposition, Donald Jay Nelsen Dec 2017

Fungi Of Forests: Examining The Diversity Of Root-Associated Fungi And Their Responses To Acid Deposition, Donald Jay Nelsen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global importance of forests is difficult to overestimate, given their role in oxygen production, ecological roles in nutrient cycling and supporting numerous living species, and economic value for industry and as recreational zones. Fitness of the forest-forming trees strongly depends on microbial communities associated with tree roots. In particular, fungi impact tree fitness: mycorrhizal species provide water and nutrients for the trees in exchange for C, endophytic fungi play key roles in host defense against pathogenic organisms, and saprotrophic fungi decompose dead organic matter and facilitate nutrient cycling. In addition, pathogenic fungal species strongly affect forest fitness. Despite their importance, …


Improving Hpv Vaccination Series Initiation Rates And Compliance Among Indigent Women In South Texas, Ages 19-26, Through Provider Recommendation And Additional Clinic Funding: A Quality Improvement Project, Lacey Cudd Dec 2017

Improving Hpv Vaccination Series Initiation Rates And Compliance Among Indigent Women In South Texas, Ages 19-26, Through Provider Recommendation And Additional Clinic Funding: A Quality Improvement Project, Lacey Cudd

Doctor of Nursing Practice

The purpose of this quality improvement project was to increase human papillomavirus vaccination series initiation rates among indigent women, ages 19-26, at a clinic in South Texas. The human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted infection that has been associated with multiple types of cancers. Each year, approximately 6.2 million cases of the human papillomavirus infection are diagnosed; as many as 75% of all new infections occur among females 18-26 years of age. The human papillomavirus vaccination has a high efficacy in regards to cancer prevention, preventing as many as 76% of cancers with only one dose. The project included educating …


Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru Dec 2017

Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are two of the primary pathogens that are associated in the etiology and progression of chronic periodontitis. In T. forsythia, KLIKK proteases are the recently identified group of proteolytic enzymes that are secreted through Type IX secretion system (T9SS). Among, these KLIKK proteases a synergistic relationship was observed between karilysin and mirolysin in invading the host complement system for the survival of the bacteria. Since, karilysin has been already characterized, in this study we propose to study about mirolysin through structural, biochemical and biological characterization. The obtained results from the experiments has shown the …


Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. Mcclain, Timothy L. Cover Nov 2017

Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. Mcclain, Timothy L. Cover

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that colonizes the stomach in about half of the human population. Most persons colonized by H. pylori remain asymptomatic, but the presence of this organism is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Multiple populations and subpopulations of H. pylori with distinct geographic distributions are recognized. Genetic differences among these populations might be a factor underlying geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence. Relatively little is known about the genomic features of African H. pylori strains compared to other populations of strains. In this study, we first analyzed the genomes of …


Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik Nov 2017

Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The ability to detect and respond to oxidative stress is crucial to the survival of living organisms. In cells, sensing of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates many defensive mechanisms that limit or repair damage to cell components. The ROS-signaling responses necessary for cell survival under oxidative stress conditions remain incompletely understood, especially for the translational machinery. Here, we found that drug treatments or a genetic deficiency in the thioredoxin system that increase levels of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae promote site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage in 25S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) adjacent to the c loop of …


Emergence Of The L Phenotype In Group B Streptococci In The South Of Ireland, Katherine Hayes, Lesley Cotter, L. Barry, Fiona O'Halloran Nov 2017

Emergence Of The L Phenotype In Group B Streptococci In The South Of Ireland, Katherine Hayes, Lesley Cotter, L. Barry, Fiona O'Halloran

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Group B Streptococcal isolates (n = 235) from the South of Ireland were characterised by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility and determination of the phenotypic and genotypic mechanisms of resistance. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 21·3% and 20·4% of the total population, respectively. The c-MLSB phenotype was the most common phenotype detected (62%), with ermB being the predominant genetic determinant, present in 84% of resistant isolates. The rare L phenotype was observed in 2·9% (n = 7) of isolates, four of which harboured the lsaC gene responsible for clindamycin resistance. Serotypes Ia, III and II were the most common …


Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele Nov 2017

Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Glyphosate, the main ingredient in Roundup®, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It is also used in combination with another effective herbicide, 2,4-D, in the formulation called Enlist Duo®. The EPA approved the use of Enlist Duo® on certain crops including those genetically modified to be resistant to both herbicides. The predicted significant increase in the use of these herbicides raised concerns from the general public because both compounds have been classified as possibly or probably carcinogenic. Since herbicides are applied directly to vegetation, the safety of organisms that come in contact …


Incremental Contributions Of Fbaa And Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins To Fitness And Virulence Of A Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain, C Rouchon, A Ly, J Noto, F Luo, S Lizano, Debra Bessen Nov 2017

Incremental Contributions Of Fbaa And Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins To Fitness And Virulence Of A Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain, C Rouchon, A Ly, J Noto, F Luo, S Lizano, Debra Bessen

NYMC Faculty Publications

Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains having a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene is found to be present in most skin specialist strains, but largely absent from a genetically-related subset of pharyngitis isolates. Using an DeltafbaA mutant constructed in the impetigo strain Alab49, loss of FbaA resulted in a slight but significant decrease …


Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli Oct 2017

Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field. …


Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried Oct 2017

Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, and synaptic changes induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie memory formation. In rodents, hippocampal LTP may be induced through electrical stimulation of the perforant path. To test whether similar techniques could improve episodic memory in humans, we implemented a microstimulation technique that allowed delivery of low-current electrical stimulation via 100 μm-diameter microelectrodes. As thirteen neurosurgical patients performed a person recognition task, microstimulation was applied in a theta-burst pattern, shown to optimally induce LTP. Microstimulation in the right entorhinal area during learning significantly improved subsequent memory specificity for novel portraits; participants …


Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi Oct 2017

Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ependymal cilia protrude into the central canal of the brain ventricles and spinal cord to circulate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cilia dysfunction can hinder the movement of CSF leading to an abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain known as hydrocephalus. Although the etiology of hydrocephalus was studied before, the effects of ethanol ingestion on ependymal cilia function have not been investigated in vivo. Here, we report three distinct types of ependymal cilia, type-I, type-II and type-III classified based upon their beating frequency, their beating angle, and their distinct localization within the mouse brain-lateral ventricle. Our studies …


Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, Chris Goldsmith Oct 2017

Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, Chris Goldsmith

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy Oct 2017

The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, with a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding …


Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia Modulates Primary Cilia Differently In Adult And Fetal Ovine Kidneys, Kiumars Shamloo, Juan Chen, Jasmine Sardar, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kimberly F. Atkinson, William J. Pearce, Lubo Zhang, Surya M. Nauli Sep 2017

Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia Modulates Primary Cilia Differently In Adult And Fetal Ovine Kidneys, Kiumars Shamloo, Juan Chen, Jasmine Sardar, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kimberly F. Atkinson, William J. Pearce, Lubo Zhang, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Hypoxic environments at high altitude have significant effects on kidney injury. Following injury, renal primary cilia display length alterations. Primary cilia are mechanosensory organelles that regulate tubular architecture. The effect of hypoxia on cilia length is still controversial in cultured cells, and no corresponding in vivo study exists. Using fetal and adult sheep, we here study the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia on the renal injury, intracellular calcium signaling and the relationship between cilia length and cilia function. Our results show that although long-term hypoxia induces renal fibrosis in both fetal and adult kidneys, fetal kidneys are more susceptible to …


Antibacterial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From The Medicinal Plant Vochysia Divergens (Pantanal, Brazil), Francielly M. W. Gos, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Jon S. Thorson, Rodrigo Aluizio, Yvelise M. Possiede, Jürgen Rohr, Chirlei Glienke Sep 2017

Antibacterial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From The Medicinal Plant Vochysia Divergens (Pantanal, Brazil), Francielly M. W. Gos, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Jon S. Thorson, Rodrigo Aluizio, Yvelise M. Possiede, Jürgen Rohr, Chirlei Glienke

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Endophytic actinomycetes from medicinal plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM). However, to date, the knowledge about endophytes from Brazil remains scarce. Thus, we analyzed the antimicrobial potential of 10 actinomycetes isolated from the medicinal plant Vochysia divergens located in the Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, an unexplored wetland in Brazil. Strains were classified as belonging to the Aeromicrobium, Actinomadura, Microbacterium, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Sphaerisporangium, Streptomyces, and Williamsia genera, through morphological and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyzes. A susceptibility analysis demonstrated that the strains were largely resistant to the antibiotics oxacillin and nalidixic acid. Additionally, different culture media (SG and R5A), and …


Multiple Origins Of Endosymbionts In Chlorellaceae With No Reductive Effects On The Plastid Or Mitochondrial Genomes, Weishu Fan, Wenhu Guo, James L. Van Etten, Jeffrey P. Mower Aug 2017

Multiple Origins Of Endosymbionts In Chlorellaceae With No Reductive Effects On The Plastid Or Mitochondrial Genomes, Weishu Fan, Wenhu Guo, James L. Van Etten, Jeffrey P. Mower

James Van Etten Publications

Ancient endosymbiotic relationships have led to extreme genomic reduction in many bacterial and eukaryotic algal endosymbionts. Endosymbionts in more recent and/or facultative relationships can also experience genomic reduction to a lesser extent, but little is known about the effects of the endosymbiotic transition on the organellar genomes of eukaryotes. To understand how the endosymbiotic lifestyle has affected the organellar genomes of photosynthetic green algae, we generated the complete plastid genome (plastome) and mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from three green algal endosymbionts (Chlorella heliozoae, Chlorella variabilis and Micractinium conductrix). The mitogenomes and plastomes of the three newly sequenced endosymbionts …


Reducing Equifinality Using Isotopes In A Process-Based Stream Nitrogen Model Highlights The Flux Of Algal Nitrogen From Agricultural Streams, William I. Ford, James F. Fox, Erik Pollock Aug 2017

Reducing Equifinality Using Isotopes In A Process-Based Stream Nitrogen Model Highlights The Flux Of Algal Nitrogen From Agricultural Streams, William I. Ford, James F. Fox, Erik Pollock

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The fate of bioavailable nitrogen species transported through agricultural landscapes remains highly uncertain given complexities of measuring fluxes impacting the fluvial N cycle. We present and test a new numerical model named Technology for Removable Annual Nitrogen in Streams For Ecosystem Restoration (TRANSFER), which aims to reduce model uncertainty due to erroneous parameterization, i.e., equifinality, in stream nitrogen cycle assessment and quantify the significance of transient and permanent removal pathways. TRANSFER couples nitrogen elemental and stable isotope mass‐balance equations with existing hydrologic, hydraulic, sediment transport, algal biomass, and sediment organic …


Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount Aug 2017

Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could be …