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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Perinatal Buprenorphine Effects On Offspring Growth, Opioid Withdrawal, And Brain Morphology In Rats, Parker Barnes May 2024

Perinatal Buprenorphine Effects On Offspring Growth, Opioid Withdrawal, And Brain Morphology In Rats, Parker Barnes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Opioid use disorder (OUD) impacts 5.6 million people in the US. Buprenorphine (BUP) is a commonly prescribed opioid medication used to treat OUD, including in pregnant women. However, opioid use during pregnancy is associated with poorer infant outcomes including reduced fetal growth, neurodevelopmental deficits, and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Recent clinical data suggests that providing mothers with a lower dose of BUP may result in fewer negative outcomes in infants. Here, a preclinical rodent model of low-dose perinatal BUP exposure was used to study offspring health outcomes in the neonate, juvenile, and adolescent offspring. Dams were given clinically relevant …


Headache And Vision Loss As Initial Symptoms For An Acute Invasive Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis, Thanh Le Od, Gregg Wentworth Od Apr 2024

Headache And Vision Loss As Initial Symptoms For An Acute Invasive Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis, Thanh Le Od, Gregg Wentworth Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background: Acute invasive rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a rare fungal infection commonly caused by Rhizopus species. It occurs in immune- compromised individuals who have acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), leukemia, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or organ transplant patients who are on immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosing invasive ROCM is challenging because its clinical presentation can be nonspecific, and it is not frequently observed in ophthalmic practices. Case Report: A 66-year-old Hispanic male with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented with the complaint of severe headache and retrobulbar pain in the right eye. An ophthalmic examination revealed normal ocular health in both eyes. Computerized tomography …


Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md Apr 2024

Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar Mar 2024

Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar

Research Symposium

Background: Common cutaneous warts, referred to in medicine as verrucae vulgaris, are proliferative lesions caused by human papillomavirus. These lesions are mostly benign and usually resolve without incident, except in the case of the patient mentioned in this report. Our patient developed a solitary keratoacanthoma, currently accepted as a clinical variant of squamous cell carcinoma, as a result of several risk factors and traumatic exposure. The current literature does not have an established association of HPV with solitary keratoacanthomas. This case report explores the presentation and pathogenesis of solitary keratoacanthomas within the setting of HPV.

Case Presentation: 48-year-old Caucasian female …


Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty Feb 2024

Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty

Annual Research Symposium

Osteomyelitis may be classified as Bacterial (Actinomycotic), Fungal (Mucormycotic), or combined based on the etiological agent. During histopathological examination, there is a high chance that bacterial colonies or fungal hyphae may be missed by the human eye, especially when there is a paucity of organisms. This may lead to a faulty diagnosis of the type of osteomyelitis which along with an improper treatment plan would cause further progression of the disease and various other complications. Therefore, the diagnosis of the exact etiological variant of osteomyelitis is of prime importance to design an appropriate treatment plan. In the present study, bone …


Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared Mr Crocco Jan 2024

Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared Mr Crocco

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Bacterial human pathogens are among the leading causes of death around the world, especially in low income and developing countries. One important element in a bacterium’s ability to cause disease are genes that directly contribute to pathogenicity called virulence factors. A second significant aspect are antimicrobial resistance genes which allow microorganisms to persist in the presence of antimicrobial agents. In this project I aimed to determine if Salmonella isolated from different sources differed in pathogenicity profiles based on the complement of genes identified through genomic analysis. Accordingly, Salmonella genomes were organized into 8 groups: animal, clinical, human, environmental, food, water …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado Oct 2023

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado

Research Colloquium

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) account for 40 percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Their elimination is at the forefront of quality improvement in one South Texas acute care hospital.

Methods: Over a period of 6 months, five CA-UTIs occurred in one South Texas acute care hospital. These cases were identified via regular surveillance by Infection Prevention staff and the Laboratory Department of the hospital. This research reviews patient age, sex, length of stay, bacteria contracted, appropriate antibiotic use, patient characteristics, and overall outcomes.

Results: Between the months of July and December 2021, 5 CAUTIs were contracted. Patients ranged in …


Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo Sep 2023

Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo

Research Symposium

Background: Baboons exhibit a genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) that resembles juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and may represent a suitable genetic model for human epilepsy. The genetic underpinnings of epilepsy were investigated in a baboon colony at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (San Antonio, TX) through the analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data.

Methods: Baboon WGS data were obtained for 38 cases and 19 healthy controls from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive and, after standard QC filtering, two subsets of variants were examined: (1) 20,881 SNPs from baboon homologs of 19 candidate GGE genes; and (2) 36,169 protein-altering SNPs. Association tests …


Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio Sep 2023

Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Over past few decades, new insight has been revealed in the scientific community about the importance of the human gut microbiome relating to general health. It is known that imbalances in the species that reside in the human gut can cause organism-wide problems in humans. When prescribing or injecting oral medications, the thought of the downstream effects on the gut microbiome are not always considered. By exposing known healthy members of the gut; Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium sordellii, and Clostridium difficile to the Aspirin, this study attempted to provide insight into the effects of the drug on bacterial growth. …


Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium Sep 2023

Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium

Student Papers, Posters & Projects

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of childhood invasive disease. Nigeria has the second highest pneumococcal disease burden globally, with an estimated ~49 000 child deaths caused by pneumococcal infections each year. Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (GSK; PCV10) was introduced in December 2014 in a phased approach. However, few studies have characterized the disease-causing pneumococci from Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence of serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility and genomic lineages using whole genome sequencing and identified lineages that could potentially escape PCV10 (GSK). We also investigated the potential differences in pneumococcal lineage features between children with and without sickle …


Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi Aug 2023

Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Opportunistic fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in immunosuppressed patients, with mucormycosis and aspergillosis as two of the most commonly identified fungal organisms. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis is rare, but cases have been reported in literature, most commonly presenting as disseminated invasive fungal infection with cerebrorhino-orbital involvement in an immunocompromised patient. Infections are most commonly caused by direct implantation of spores with localised angioinvasion. Haematogenous spread is rare, with most cases secondary to haematological malignancies or intravenous drug use. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis portends a poor prognosis, with a high mortality rate. Thus, prompt recognition and …


Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke Aug 2023

Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of daily bacterial infections is climbing and the CDC explains that this is due to the antibiotic-resistant threat in the United States. Finding a faster way of bacterial identification is necessary as it currently takes 1-4 days for a medical lab to culture and identify bacteria. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) can be used as an alternative method resulting in swift identification within an hour (Edgar, 2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell line PA01, will be coated in up to a few hundred red dyed phages making it detectible by the photoacoustic flow cytometry system. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that …


Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen Aug 2023

Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

Locus SMU.243 in Streptococcus mutans was annotated as a member of the DUF2207 family proteins highly conserved in all bacteria but with unknown function. To investigate its role in S. mutans physiology, a SMU.243-deficient mutant was constructed using allelic exchange mutagenesis, and the impacts of SMU.243 deletion on bacterial growth, stress tolerance response, and biofilm formation were analyzed. Compared to the wild-type UA159, S. mutans lacking SMU.243 displayed a reduced growth rate and a reduced overnight culture density (p < 0.01) when grown at low pH and in the presence of methyl viologen. Relative to the parent strain, the deficient mutant also had a reduced survival rate following incubation in a buffer of pH 2.8 (p < 0.01) and in a buffer containing hydrogen peroxide at 58 mM after 60 min (p < 0.001) and had a reduced capacity in biofilm formation especially in the presence of sucrose (p < 0.01). To study any ensuing functional/phenotypical links between SMU.243 and uppP, which is located immediately downstream of SMU.243 and encodes an undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in recycling of carrier lipid undecaprenyl phosphate, a uppP deficient mutant was generated using allelic exchange mutagenesis. Unlike the SMU.243 mutant, deletion of uppP affected cell envelope biogenesis and caused major increases in susceptibility to bacitracin. In addition, two variant morphological mutants, one forming rough colonies and the other forming mucoid, smooth colonies, also emerged following the deletion of uppP. The results suggest that the SMU.243-encoded protein of the DUF2207 family in S. mutans plays an important role in stress tolerance response and biofilm formation, but unlike the downstream uppP, does not seem to be involved in cell envelope biogenesis, although the exact roles in S. mutans’ physiology awaits further investigation.


Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart Jun 2023

Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Cervical cancer (CC) is a major health problem among reproductive-age females and comprises a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor associated with CC incidence. However, lifestyle is also a critical factor in CC pathogenesis. Despite HPV vaccination introduction, the incidence of CC is increasing worldwide. Therefore, it becomes critical to understand the CC tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) to develop immune cell-based vaccination and immunotherapeutic approaches. The current article discusses the immune environment in the normal cervix of adult females and its role in HPV infection. The subsequent sections discuss the alteration of different …


Equine Polyclonal Antibodies Prevent Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection In Mice, Douglas Barker, Xiaobing Han, Eryu Wang, Ashley Dagley, Deborah M. Anderson, Aruni Jha, Scott C. Weaver, Justin Julander, Cory Nykiforuk, Shantha Kodihalli Jun 2023

Equine Polyclonal Antibodies Prevent Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection In Mice, Douglas Barker, Xiaobing Han, Eryu Wang, Ashley Dagley, Deborah M. Anderson, Aruni Jha, Scott C. Weaver, Justin Julander, Cory Nykiforuk, Shantha Kodihalli

Office of Research Faculty and Staff Publications

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen that causes chikungunya disease (CHIK); the disease is characterized by fever, muscle ache, rash, and arthralgia. This arthralgia can be debilitating and long-lasting, seriously impacting quality of life for years. Currently, there is no specific therapy available for CHIKV infection. We have developed a despeciated equine polyclonal antibody (CHIKV-EIG) treatment against CHIKV and evaluated its protective efficacy in mouse models of CHIKV infection. In immunocompromised (IFNAR−/−) mice infected with CHIKV, daily treatment for five consecutive days with CHIKV-EIG administered at 100 mg/kg starting on the day of infection prevented mortality, reduced …


Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron May 2023

Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Campylobacter ureolyticus is an emerging pathogen increasingly appreciated as a common cause of gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Outside the setting of gastroenteritis, little work has been done to describe the genomic content and relatedness of the species, especially regarding clinical isolates. We reviewed the epidemiology of clinical C. ureolyticus cultured by our institution over the past 10 years. Fifty-one unique C. ureolyticus isolates were identified between January 2010 and August 2022, mostly originating from abscesses and blood cultures. To clarify the taxonomic relationships between isolates and to attribute specific genes with different clinical manifestations, we sequenced 19 available …


Aging Manuka Honey Improves Antimicrobial Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria, Rayna M. Carlson May 2023

Aging Manuka Honey Improves Antimicrobial Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria, Rayna M. Carlson

2023 Symposium

Manuka honey (MH) has been documented to possess powerful anti-microbial properties through multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms include a low pH, high osmolarity, iron chelation, and its unique manuka factor (UMF), methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is purported to be a major pillar in the honey’s antimicrobial properties, its activity is variable against different bacterial species. We hypothesize that MH’s other antimicrobial mechanisms may also exhibit variable activity against different bacterial species. Preliminary experiments to determine the Manuka honey minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, suggested that some Manuka honey antimicrobial mechanisms …


Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield May 2023

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield

Honors Scholar Theses

Antibiotic treatment failure is a public health crisis, with a 2019 report stating that roughly 35,000 deaths occur in the United States yearly due to bacterial infections that are unresponsive to antibiotics (1). One complication in the treatment of bacterial infection is antibiotic persistence which further compromises our battle to effectively treat infection. Bacterial persisters can exist in clonal bacterial cultures and can tolerate antibiotic treatment by undergoing reversible phenotypic changes. They can survive drug concentrations that their genetically identical kin cannot. Some persisters remain in a slow growing state and are difficult to target with current antibiotics. A specific …


Center Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcomes Associated With Covid-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study, Haley Williams, Kayla Woodworth May 2023

Center Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcomes Associated With Covid-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study, Haley Williams, Kayla Woodworth

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects: College of Nursing

Background: Traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a multidisciplinary, multifaceted program for cardiac patients. Throughout the Covid-19 pandemic, health care, including center-based CR (CBCR) programs, were closed to in-person sessions. Even with the return to CBCR participation, patient outcomes may have been affected by this disruption in care. The goal of this study was to determine if CR participation outcomes differed before and after CBCR program closure due to Covid-19.

Methods: A retrospective comparative cohort design was used to examine CR participant outcome data before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Convenience sampling of CR participants at a large, urban …


Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker May 2023

Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses faster in males than females; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Sex differences in glomerular capillary morphology has been hypothesized to contribute, in part, to the increased susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury and CKD progression in males, but this has not been investigated. The goal of the present study was to assess glomerular capillary morphology in male vs. female rats with intact kidneys and after uninephrectomy (UNX). We hypothesized that glomerular capillary radii (RCAP) and length (LCAP) would be greater in male rats.

Male (n=4) and female (n=4) with intact …


Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna Mitchell May 2023

Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna Mitchell

Poster Presentations

Honors research poster.

Haemaphysalis longicornis is a species of tick native to eastern Asia, including eastern China, Japan, eastern Russia, and Korea. To date, it has invaded and has now established its existence in Australia, New Zealand, and several of the Pacific Islands. This species of tick has recently been introduced to the United States, having a confirmed sighting in November 2017 on a sheep farm in New Jersey and since establishing populations in 18 states along the east coast and Appalachia. Based on the existing locations of H. longicornis in its native regions, as well as in the United …


Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell May 2023

Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell

Honors Theses

Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks are invasive to the United States with potential to transmit several tick-borne pathogens that are native to the United States. Based on existing locations of H. longicornis in its native regions in Asia, as well as its invasive populations that are established in the United States, several geographic range prediction models have been produced to help understand future range expansion and distribution of this invasive tick in North America. Unfortunately, these models do not all agree and there is uncertainty associated with the potential geographic range expansion of H. longicornis ticks in North America. Climate can affect …


Investigating Differences In Iga Antibody Response Against Aspergillus Fumigatus In Wild Type And Tlr7 Protein Deficient Mice, Courtney Folk Apr 2023

Investigating Differences In Iga Antibody Response Against Aspergillus Fumigatus In Wild Type And Tlr7 Protein Deficient Mice, Courtney Folk

Student Academic Conference

Aspergillus fumigatus is a commonly inhaled, respiratory fungal pathogen and an allergen found in flooded indoor environments, household dust, soil, and plant matter. While a competent immune system effectively clears the inhaled fungus, this same fungus poses a significant threat to weakened immune systems due to its potential to invade the lungs, bloodstream and brain tissue. The mouse genome is 99% similar to the human genome and can serve effectively model the effects of inhaled A. fumigatus (Guénet, 2005). Antibodies play a crucial role in neutralizing pathogens and in mediating an allergic response. In this study, we will investigate the …


Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel Apr 2023

Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

The oral microbiome is an important predictor of health and disease. We recently reported significant yet modest effects of HIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the oral microbiome (bacterial and fungal) in a large cohort of HIV-positive (HIV+) and matched HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. As it was unclear whether ART added to or masked further effects of HIV on the oral microbiome, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of HIV and ART independently, which also included HIV- subjects on preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy. Cross-sectional analyses of the effect of HIV devoid of ART (HIV+ ART- versus matched …


Facile Green Synthesis Of Cinnamomum Tamala Extract Capped Silver Nanoparticles And Its Biological Applications, Sajina Narath, S. Sharath Shankar, Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan, Bini George, T. Dennis Thomas, Sankarannair Sabarinath, Sajithkumar K. Jayaprakash, Stanisław Wacławek, Vinod V.T. Padil Apr 2023

Facile Green Synthesis Of Cinnamomum Tamala Extract Capped Silver Nanoparticles And Its Biological Applications, Sajina Narath, S. Sharath Shankar, Saranya Kothaplamoottil Sivan, Bini George, T. Dennis Thomas, Sankarannair Sabarinath, Sajithkumar K. Jayaprakash, Stanisław Wacławek, Vinod V.T. Padil

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

The plant mediated biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles is of magnificent concern due to its eco-benign and single pot nature. Here, Cinnamomum tamala (C. tamala) aqueous leaf extract was utilised for the silver nanoparticles’ (Ag NPs) synthesis. The phytoconstituents in the leaf extract were analysed by standard methods. These metabolites, especially carbohydrate polymers reduce Ag ions to Ag NPs accompanied by a reddish-brown coloration of the reaction mixture. The visual observation of intense brown colour is the first indication of the formation of Ag NPs. Various spectro-analytical techniques further characterise the Ag NPs. The green synthesised spherical Ag NPs were crystalline …


Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang Apr 2023

Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blasts posing serious threats to food security worldwide. During infection, M. oryzae utilizes several transmembrane receptor proteins that sense cell surface cues to induce highly specialized infectious structures called appressoria. However, little is known about the mechanisms of intracellular receptor tracking and their function. Here, we described that disrupting the coat protein complex II (COPII) cargo protein MoErv14 severely affects appressorium formation and pathogenicity as the ΔMoerv14 mutant is defective not only in cAMP production but also in the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MoPmk1. Studies also showed that either externally supplementing cAMP or …


Decoupling Body Shape And Mass Distribution In Birds And Their Dinosaurian Ancestors, Sophie Macaulay, Tatjana Hoehfurtner, Samuel R.R. Cross, Ryan D. Marek, John R. Hutchinson, Emma R. Schachner, Alice E. Maher, Karl T. Bates Mar 2023

Decoupling Body Shape And Mass Distribution In Birds And Their Dinosaurian Ancestors, Sophie Macaulay, Tatjana Hoehfurtner, Samuel R.R. Cross, Ryan D. Marek, John R. Hutchinson, Emma R. Schachner, Alice E. Maher, Karl T. Bates

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

It is accepted that non-avian theropod dinosaurs, with their long muscular tails and small forelimbs, had a centre-of-mass close to the hip, while extant birds, with their reduced tails and enlarged wings have their mass centred more cranially. Transition between these states is considered crucial to two key innovations in the avian locomotor system: crouched bipedalism and powered flight. Here we use image-based models to challenge this dichotomy. Rather than a phylogenetic distinction between ‘dinosaurian’ and ‘avian’ conditions, we find terrestrial versus volant taxa occupy distinct regions of centre-of-mass morphospace consistent with the disparate demands of terrestrial bipedalism and flight. …


Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher Bs, Jacob Im Md, Linda Kang Bs, Aleksey Mishulin Md, Sukhvinder Singh Phd, Ashok Kumar Phd Mar 2023

Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher Bs, Jacob Im Md, Linda Kang Bs, Aleksey Mishulin Md, Sukhvinder Singh Phd, Ashok Kumar Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of viscous lidocaine gel on the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone-iodine (PI) and their order of application in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Methods: In vitro antibacterial effects were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with disc diffusion methods for application of lidocaine alone, PI alone, PI before lidocaine, and lidocaine before PI. Zones of inhibition were measured after incubation at 37°C overnight. Mouse eyes were colonized with S. aureus for in vivo study to which PI and/or lidocaine were applied in various combinations. Eyes were then rinsed with saline, and …


Longitudinal Ultrasound Imaging And Network Modeling In Rats Reveal Sex-Dependent Suppression Of Liver Regeneration After Resection In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Benjamin K. Barnhart, Toshiki Kan, Ankita Srivastava, Corinne E. Wessner, John Waters, Manju Ambelil, John R. Eisenbrey, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli Mar 2023

Longitudinal Ultrasound Imaging And Network Modeling In Rats Reveal Sex-Dependent Suppression Of Liver Regeneration After Resection In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Benjamin K. Barnhart, Toshiki Kan, Ankita Srivastava, Corinne E. Wessner, John Waters, Manju Ambelil, John R. Eisenbrey, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Liver resection is an important surgical technique in the treatment of cancers and transplantation. We used ultrasound imaging to study the dynamics of liver regeneration following two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx) in male and female rats fed via Lieber-deCarli liquid diet protocol of ethanol or isocaloric control or chow for 5–7 weeks. Ethanol-fed male rats did not recover liver volume to the pre-surgery levels over the course of 2 weeks after surgery. By contrast, ethanol-fed female rats as well as controls of both sexes showed normal volume recovery. Contrary to expectations, transient increases in both portal and hepatic artery blood flow …