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2012

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Reviewing The American University Law Review On Extraterritoriality: A Critical Response To Viki Economides, Note, Tianrui Group Co. V. Itc: The Dubious Status Of Extraterritoriality And The Domestic Industry Requirement Requirement Of Section 337(Link), Jonathan Stroud Nov 2012

Reviewing The American University Law Review On Extraterritoriality: A Critical Response To Viki Economides, Note, Tianrui Group Co. V. Itc: The Dubious Status Of Extraterritoriality And The Domestic Industry Requirement Requirement Of Section 337(Link), Jonathan Stroud

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Recently, the Federal Circuit upheld the Commission’s decision to exclude goods based on a trade secret violation that largely happened abroad. The American University Law Review critiqued that decision on two grounds: First, that a presumption against extraterritorial application of U.S. law applied; and second, that licensing alone could not establish a domestic industry. The American University Law Review's critique remains incomplete, however, as the Federal Circuit correctly decided the case for at least two reasons. first, the Federal Circuit correctly applied the “extraterritorial presumption” canon of construction; and second, the recent Federal Circuit decision in InterDigital Communications LLC v. …


Reviewing The American University Law Review On Extraterritoriality: A Critical Response To Viki Economides, Note, Tianrui Group Co. V. Itc: The Dubious Status Of Extraterritoriality And The Domestic Industry Requirement Requirement Of Section 337(Link), Jonathan R. K. Stroud Nov 2012

Reviewing The American University Law Review On Extraterritoriality: A Critical Response To Viki Economides, Note, Tianrui Group Co. V. Itc: The Dubious Status Of Extraterritoriality And The Domestic Industry Requirement Requirement Of Section 337(Link), Jonathan R. K. Stroud

Jonathan R. K. Stroud

Recently, the Federal Circuit upheld the Commission’s decision to exclude goods based on a trade secret violation that largely happened abroad. The American University Law Review critiqued that decision on two grounds: First, that a presumption against extraterritorial application of U.S. law applied; and second, that licensing alone could not establish a domestic industry. The American University Law Review's critique remains incomplete, however, as the Federal Circuit correctly decided the case for at least two reasons. first, the Federal Circuit correctly applied the “extraterritorial presumption” canon of construction; and second, the recent Federal Circuit decision in InterDigital Communications LLC v. …


Comparative Study Of Influenza Virus Replication In Mdck Cells And In Primary Cells Derived From Adenoids And Airway Epithelium, Natalia A. Ilyushina, Mine R. Ikizler, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Larisa G. Rudenko Nov 2012

Comparative Study Of Influenza Virus Replication In Mdck Cells And In Primary Cells Derived From Adenoids And Airway Epithelium, Natalia A. Ilyushina, Mine R. Ikizler, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Larisa G. Rudenko

Dartmouth Scholarship

Although clinical trials with human subjects are essential for determination of safety, infectivity, and immunogenicity, it is de- sirable to know in advance the infectiousness of potential candidate live attenuated influenza vaccine strains for human use. We compared the replication kinetics of wild-type and live attenuated influenza viruses, including H1N1, H3N2, H9N2, and B strains, in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, primary epithelial cells derived from human adenoids, and human bron- chial epithelium (NHBE cells). Our data showed that despite the fact that all tissue culture models lack a functional adaptive im- mune system, differentiated cultures of human epithelium exhibited …


Bugs In The News: Arbovirus And Hantavirus, Richard N. Bradley Sep 2012

Bugs In The News: Arbovirus And Hantavirus, Richard N. Bradley

Richard N Bradley

The objectives of this presentation are:

(1) Recognize zoonotic infections of public health importance that are currently in the news

(2) Understand the clinical presentations of arbovirus and hantavirus

(3) Describe actions a physician should take when suspecting one of these infections


Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Lana Acts On Terminal Repeat Dna To Mediate Episome Persistence, Aline C. Habison, Chantal Beauchemin, J. Pedro Simas, Edward J. Usherwood Aug 2012

Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Lana Acts On Terminal Repeat Dna To Mediate Episome Persistence, Aline C. Habison, Chantal Beauchemin, J. Pedro Simas, Edward J. Usherwood

Dartmouth Scholarship

Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) ORF73 (mLANA) has sequence homology to Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA acts on the KSHV terminal repeat (TR) elements to mediate KSHV episome maintenance. Disruption of mLANA expression severely reduces the ability of MHV68 to establish latent infection in mice, consistent with the possibility that mLANA mediates episome persistence. Here we assess the roles of mLANA and MHV68 TR (mTR) elements in episome persistence. mTR-associated DNA persisted as an episome in latently MHV68-infected tumor cells, demonstrating that the mTR elements can serve as a cis-acting element for MHV68 episome maintenance. In some …


Effects Of Planting Date, Harvest Date, And Environmental Conditions On Germination Of Forage Kochia Accessions, Cody F. Creech Aug 2012

Effects Of Planting Date, Harvest Date, And Environmental Conditions On Germination Of Forage Kochia Accessions, Cody F. Creech

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forage kochia (Bassia prostrata, [L.] A. J. Scott) (Synonym = Kochia prostrata [L.] Schrad.) is a perennial semi-shrub that is valued for its forage quality and ability to restore degraded rangeland. However, establishment success of forage kochia plantings in western North America has been erratic. These failures leave the land vulnerable to erosion and invasion of undesirable plants. This research focused on the germination dynamics of forage kochia accessions as it relates to harvest date, planting date, age of seed, and environmental conditions. The effect of planting date, age of seed, and environmental conditions on forage kochia germination was elucidated …


Hovering Energetics And Thermal Balance In Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte Anna), Dennis Evangelista, Maria J. Fernandez, Madalyn S. Berns, Aaron M. Hoover, Robert Dudley Jul 2012

Hovering Energetics And Thermal Balance In Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte Anna), Dennis Evangelista, Maria J. Fernandez, Madalyn S. Berns, Aaron M. Hoover, Robert Dudley

Aaron M. Hoover

We studied the energetics of hover-feeding Anna's hummingbirds, using three different simultaneous techniques: heat loss as estimated via thermal imaging, metabolic rate as measured at a feeder mask using flow-through respirometry, and aerodynamic power estimated from wingbeat kinematic data. These three methods yielded comparable estimates of power output at ambient air temperatures ranging from 18 degrees to 26 degrees C, whereas heat imbalance at higher air temperatures (up to 34 degrees C) suggested loss by mechanisms other than convection and radiation from the body, such as evaporative cooling and enthalpy rise associated with exhaled air and excreted water and convective …


Composition Of The Adult Digestive Tract Bacterial Microbiome Based On Seven Mouth Surfaces, Tonsils, Throat And Stool Samples, Nicola Segata, Susan Kinder Haake, Peter Mannon, Katherine P. Lemon, Levi Waldron, Dirk Gevers, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard Jun 2012

Composition Of The Adult Digestive Tract Bacterial Microbiome Based On Seven Mouth Surfaces, Tonsils, Throat And Stool Samples, Nicola Segata, Susan Kinder Haake, Peter Mannon, Katherine P. Lemon, Levi Waldron, Dirk Gevers, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard

Publications and Research

Background: To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body’s greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites.

Results: The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. …


Role Of Lactic Acid Bacteria As A Bio-Sanitizer To Prevent Attachment Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Deli Slicer Contact Surfaces, And The Influence Of Listeria Innocua On The Attachment Of L. Monocytogenes On Selected Materials Located In The Food-Processing Environment, Jean Baptiste Ndahetuye May 2012

Role Of Lactic Acid Bacteria As A Bio-Sanitizer To Prevent Attachment Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Deli Slicer Contact Surfaces, And The Influence Of Listeria Innocua On The Attachment Of L. Monocytogenes On Selected Materials Located In The Food-Processing Environment, Jean Baptiste Ndahetuye

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes an important foodborne pathogen that continues to be a serious problem for the food industry. This pathogen contaminates food primarily during post-harvest in the food-processing environment. Its ecology in the food-processing environment is not well understood but previous research has demonstrated the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive on food contact surfaces after cleaning and disinfection. The current study explored the attachment of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus animalis , Lb. amylovorus and Pediococcus acidilactici , their combination in a cocktail, and their influence to prevent the attachment of L. monocytogenes at room temperature by examining …


Recombinant Protein Production In Bacillus Species, Isolation And Methionine Production In Methionine-Producing Microorganisms, Suwat Saengkerdsub May 2012

Recombinant Protein Production In Bacillus Species, Isolation And Methionine Production In Methionine-Producing Microorganisms, Suwat Saengkerdsub

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Linoleic acid isomerase (LAI) is the enzyme that converts linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) which appear to be capable of lowering cancer risk and enhancing immunity. There is an interest in developing commercial processes for the production of single isomers of CLA by biotransformation of LA using microbial cells and enzymes. However, the evaluation of these strains suggest that growth and LA isomerase production levels by these anaerobes are insufficient to support economic commercial production of single CLA isomers. A better alternative is to clone the isomerase gene and to generate new production strains using recombinant technology. Bifidobacterium …


The Relationship Between Salinity And Drought Tolerance In Turfgrasses And Woody Species, Nisa Leksungnoen May 2012

The Relationship Between Salinity And Drought Tolerance In Turfgrasses And Woody Species, Nisa Leksungnoen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Both salinity and drought stresses induce osmotic stress. Thus, cross-tolerance responses and mechanisms may occur in plants. The overall objectives of this study were to determine morphological and physiological responses and mechanisms of turfgrasses and woody species under salinity and drought stress conditions, and determine the relationship between drought and salinity tolerance ability in those species. Five turfgrass entries, ‘Gazelle’ and ‘Matador’ tall fescue (TF), ‘Midnight’ Kentucky bluegrass (KBG), PI368233 (Tolerant KBG), and PI372742 (Susceptible KBG), and three woody species, bigtooth maple (xeric-non saline), bigleaf maple (mesicnon saline) and Eucalyptus (mesic-saline) were compared. For the drought study, water was withheld …


Inhibition Of Adhesion And Invasion Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa To Lung Epithelial Cells: A Model Of Cystic Fibrosis Infection, Ayman Noreddin, Ghada Sawy, Walid Elkhatib, Ehab Noreddin, Atef Shibl Mar 2012

Inhibition Of Adhesion And Invasion Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa To Lung Epithelial Cells: A Model Of Cystic Fibrosis Infection, Ayman Noreddin, Ghada Sawy, Walid Elkhatib, Ehab Noreddin, Atef Shibl

Pharmacy Faculty Books and Book Chapters

"Over their life time, CF patients experience multiple infections by various pneumoniacausing bacteria [6]. With more patients surviving to adulthood, chronic infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are coming to the forefront as a leading cause of death [7]. Problems presented by infected CF lung are multi-dimensional; the electrolyte balance and pH of the fluids are abnormal. The mucus is thick and of an alternative composition compared to normal lung and may contribute to colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa [2, 3, 5]. As such, research is multi-pronged and includes gene therapy to correct the defective protein, amelioration of inflammatory response and thinning of …


Influence Of Soil Microorganisms On Plant Growth And Fitness, Benjamin Jayne Jan 2012

Influence Of Soil Microorganisms On Plant Growth And Fitness, Benjamin Jayne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Most terrestrial plants benefit from symbiosis with soil microorganisms. Symbiotic bacteria and fungi have wide-ranging effects on host plants, including improved nutrition, disease resistance, and drought tolerance. Association with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can enhance growth and protect plants from environmental stressors while they share products of photosynthesis with the resident fungi. Scores of studies indicate that mycorrhizal plants are more resistant to drought stress than their non-mycorrhizal counterparts. Use of microbes as a plant and soil supplement in home gardens represents a sustainable alternative to resource-intensive inputs and may allow for reduced water use. I investigated the effects of …


Hepatic Immunosuppressive Effects Of Systemically- Administered Novel Dextran-Methylprednisolone Prodrugs With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Imam H. Shaik, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar Jan 2012

Hepatic Immunosuppressive Effects Of Systemically- Administered Novel Dextran-Methylprednisolone Prodrugs With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Imam H. Shaik, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The hepatic immunosuppressive activities of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP1) or five (DMP5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. At various times (02 weeks) after intravenous administration of single 5 mg/kg (MP equivalent) doses of each prodrug or MP succinate (MPS), livers were isolated and immunologically stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in the outlet perfusate were then quantitated to assess immune response. Additionally, the concentrations of DMP1, DMP5, and/or MP were measured in the liver. MPS, DMP5, or DMP1 injections caused a maximum of 48.9%, 63.5%, …


Effects Of In Vivo Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury On The Hepatobiliary Disposition Of Rhodamine 123 And Its Metabolites In Isolated Perfused Rat Livers, Ridhi Parasrampuria, Imam H. Shaik, Reza Mehvar Jan 2012

Effects Of In Vivo Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury On The Hepatobiliary Disposition Of Rhodamine 123 And Its Metabolites In Isolated Perfused Rat Livers, Ridhi Parasrampuria, Imam H. Shaik, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose. A few studies have shown that normothermic hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury may affect the mRNA and/or protein levels of canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). However, the effects of the injury on the functions of these canalicular transporters with respect to the biliary excretion of drugs remain largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of warm hepatic IR on the hepatobiliary disposition of rhodamine 123 (RH-123), a P-gp substrate, and its glucuronidated metabolite (RH-Glu), an Mrp2 substrate, in rats.

Methods. Twenty four or 72 h following a …


Vorinostat: A Potent Agent To Prevent And Treat Laser-Induced Corneal Haze, Ashish Tandon, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Michael R. Waggoner, Ajay Sharma, John W. Cowden, Daniel J. Gibson, Yuanjing Liu, Gregory S. Schultz, Rajiv R. Mohan Jan 2012

Vorinostat: A Potent Agent To Prevent And Treat Laser-Induced Corneal Haze, Ashish Tandon, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Michael R. Waggoner, Ajay Sharma, John W. Cowden, Daniel J. Gibson, Yuanjing Liu, Gregory S. Schultz, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE—This study investigated the efficacy and safety of vorinostat, a deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in the treatment of laser-induced corneal haze following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits in vivo and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) -induced corneal fibrosis in vitro.

METHODS—Corneal haze in rabbits was produced with −9.00 diopters (D) PRK. Fibrosis in cultured human and rabbit corneal fibroblasts was activated with TGFβ1. Vorinostat (25 μm) was topically applied once for 5 minutes on rabbit cornea immediately after PRK for in vivo studies. Vorinostat (0 to 25 μm) was given to human/rabbit corneal fibroblasts for 5 minutes or 48 …


Attenuation Of Corneal Myofibroblast Development Through Nanoparticle-Mediated Soluble Transforming Growth Factor-Β Type Ii Receptor (Stgfβrii) Gene Transfer, Ajay Sharma, Jason T. Rodier, Ashish Tandon, Alexander M. Klibanov, Rajiv R. Mohan Jan 2012

Attenuation Of Corneal Myofibroblast Development Through Nanoparticle-Mediated Soluble Transforming Growth Factor-Β Type Ii Receptor (Stgfβrii) Gene Transfer, Ajay Sharma, Jason T. Rodier, Ashish Tandon, Alexander M. Klibanov, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: To explore (i) the potential of polyethylenimine (PEI)-DNA nanoparticles as a vector for delivering genes into human corneal fibroblasts, and (ii) whether the nanoparticle-mediated soluble extracellular domain of the transforming growth factor–β type II receptor (sTGFβRII) gene therapy could be used to reduce myofibroblasts and fibrosis in the cornea using an in vitro model.

Methods: PEI-DNA nanoparticles were prepared at a nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio of 30 by mixing linear PEI and a plasmid encoding sTGFβRII conjugated to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion of human immunoglobulin. The PEI-DNA polyplex formation was confirmed through gel retardation assay. Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were …


Cyanobacteria Dominance In The Oligohaline Waters Of Back Bay, Virginia, Harold G. Marshall Jan 2012

Cyanobacteria Dominance In The Oligohaline Waters Of Back Bay, Virginia, Harold G. Marshall

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Back Bay and its flora have historically been influenced by the interaction of freshwater flow in combination with frequent intrusion of saline water into its basin. These events have resulted in a dynamic environmental setting influencing the abundance and composition of its phytoplankton community. Dominating these oligohaline waters is a diverse representation and high abundance of freshwater filamentous and colonial cyanobacteria. These include the nonheterocystous Planktolyngbya contorta, Planktolyngbya limnetica, and Pseudanabaena limnetica, taxa implicated as bloom producers in Bay waters with N:P molar ratios ranging from 23:1 to 74:1.


The Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol (Ee2) On Gonadal Development And Differentiation In The Estuarine Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Ibrahim Chehade Jan 2012

The Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol (Ee2) On Gonadal Development And Differentiation In The Estuarine Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Ibrahim Chehade

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Endocrine disrupting substances (EDSs) comprise a wide variety of chemicals that perturb normal endocrine function including developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates. The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly-used model EDS because of its environmental relevance and its effects on the reproductive endocrine system. Early life-stage exposure of fish to estrogenic EDSs causes effects such as intersex (ovotestes in males) and feminization. This study aims to confirm the period of gonadal differentiation in the estuarine killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and to determine the sensitivity of gonadal development to EE2. Artificially-regressed mummichog were spawned, and …