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2020

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Articles 1 - 30 of 86

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Covid-19: Race For Vaccine, L. Hayley Burgess, Jason J. Braithwaite, Emily Singleton, Aaron M. Young, Mandelin K. Cooper Dec 2020

Covid-19: Race For Vaccine, L. Hayley Burgess, Jason J. Braithwaite, Emily Singleton, Aaron M. Young, Mandelin K. Cooper

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

The world is in the midst of a pandemic from COVID-19, a disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Despite broad mitigation efforts, new cases continue with 74 million cases and 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Regardless of previous research efforts, there is no commercially available vaccine for any coronavirus. Novel vaccine development has historically taken at least 10 years from discovery to availability with only a 6% market entry probability.

With the global impact, there is an urgency to expedite a vaccine to protect the population. The U.S. government launched Operation Warp Speed with the goal to produce and deliver 300 …


A Crisis Of Kelp, Rachel L. Sherman Dec 2020

A Crisis Of Kelp, Rachel L. Sherman

Capstones

Along with insects and lab-grown meat, for years seaweed has been lauded as a sustainable “food of the future” by the U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization. As the world increasingly turns to alternative foods in pursuit of a healthier Earth, seaweed has all the makings of an ecological savior. It’s plentiful — seaweeds and ocean algae make up roughly nine tenths of all the plant life on Earth — it’s cheap to harvest and get to market, packed with nutrition, and keeps oceans clean, absorbing more carbon dioxide and releasing more oxygen than the world’s rainforests.

But outside of Japanese …


Valley Fever: Education For Primary Care Providers And Allied Health Care Professionals, Michelle Elizabeth Bergen Dec 2020

Valley Fever: Education For Primary Care Providers And Allied Health Care Professionals, Michelle Elizabeth Bergen

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Valley Fever: Educating Primary Care Providers and Allied Healthcare Professionals

Abstract

Problem: Coccidioidomycosis (cocci), informally Valley Fever (VF), infects the lungs with the fungal spore coccidioides. It is prevalent in areas where soil disturbance occurs. Currently, there are no related educational or standardized guidelines exist for primary care providers (PCPs) in California’s Central Valley, where VF is highly endemic (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).

Context: A Doctor of Nursing Practice project educational program for PCPs and allied healthcare workers (AHWs) at the Adventist Health Central Valley Network (AHCVN) clinics. The project aimed to educate PCPs to …


Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr Dec 2020

Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr

Honors College Theses

Inteins (intervening proteins) invade genes at the DNA level and splice out at the protein level. Once thought of as only a parasitic type of a mobile genetic element, recent work suggests a mutualistic relationship has formed in some cases within bacterial and archaeal hosts. After translation, a precursor protein is formed with the intein between two exteins. The intein is catalytic and can excise itself out through protein splicing. Intein insertion is biased towards the active site of the protein and is thought to cause inactivation of the host protein prior to splicing. Intein splicing is responsive to a …


Eelgrass (Zostera Marina) Population Decline In Morro Bay, Ca: A Meta-Analysis Of Herbicide Application In San Luis Obispo County And Morro Bay Watershed, Tyler King Sinnott Dec 2020

Eelgrass (Zostera Marina) Population Decline In Morro Bay, Ca: A Meta-Analysis Of Herbicide Application In San Luis Obispo County And Morro Bay Watershed, Tyler King Sinnott

Master's Theses

The endemic eelgrass (Zostera marina) community of Morro Bay Estuary, located on the central coast of California, has experienced an estimated decline of 95% in occupied area (reduction of 344 acres to 20 acres) from 2008 to 2017 for reasons that are not yet definitively clear. One possible driver of degradation that has yet to be investigated is the role of herbicides from agricultural fields in the watershed that feeds into the estuary. Thus, the primary research goal of this project was to better understand temporal and spatial trends of herbicide use within the context of San Luis …


Arguelles, Ceci - Covid-19 Journal, Ceci Arguelles Dec 2020

Arguelles, Ceci - Covid-19 Journal, Ceci Arguelles

Personal Journals

Personal diary of EIU student Ceci Arguelles documenting her early experience with the Covid-19 pandemic. Submission includes photos and a description of the images.


Parillo, Sophia - Covid-19 Journal, Sophia Parillo Dec 2020

Parillo, Sophia - Covid-19 Journal, Sophia Parillo

Personal Journals

Personal diary of EIU college student and junior Elementary Education major with a minor in orchestra. Her journal documents the holiday season of 2020 and includes documentation that illustrates life during the pandemic.


Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko Dec 2020

Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko

Honors College

Chytridiomycota is a phylum of microscopic aquatic fungi that form motile spores that typically have a single posterior flagellum, thus they require water to disperse (James et al., 2000). Chytridiomycota, collectively called chytrids, have round shapes with structures called rhizoids that absorb nutrients and anchor them to their substrate (Mueller et al., 2004). Chytrids are typically found in aquatic environments and soils since zoospores require water to germinate (James et al., 2000), but they also have been found in a number of unexpected environments. Chytrids are difficult to find because they are microscopic and have time-sensitive life cycles (Mueller et …


Phantom Ocean, Real Impact: Natural Surf Sound Experiments Alter Foraging Activity And Habitat Use Across Taxa, Ryan N. Wardle Dec 2020

Phantom Ocean, Real Impact: Natural Surf Sound Experiments Alter Foraging Activity And Habitat Use Across Taxa, Ryan N. Wardle

Master's Theses

A growing body of research focuses on how background sounds shape and alter critical elements of animals’ lives, such as foraging behavior, habitat use, and ecological interactions (Bradbury & Vehrencamp, 2011; Barber et al., 2010; Kight & Swaddle, 2011; Shannon et al., 2016). Much of this research has centered on the effects of anthropogenic noise (Dominoni et al., 2020; Francis & Barber, 2013; Ortega, 2012; Swaddle et al., 2015), but recent studies have also revealed that natural sound sources can influence animal behavior (Davidson et al., 2017; Le et al., 2019). Natural sounds, such as crashing surf, can create conditions …


A Microbiome Analysis Of The Relationship Among Crayfish Ectosymbionts And Their Environment, John Hoverson Nov 2020

A Microbiome Analysis Of The Relationship Among Crayfish Ectosymbionts And Their Environment, John Hoverson

Senior Honors Theses

The purpose of this project was to determine if there are differences present between the α-diversities of the crayfish microbiome and its surrounding water and sediment. Furthermore, this project sought to discover if these differences hold when microbiomes are evaluated between crayfish of first and second stream orders. Finally, this project sought to determine if the presence of branchiobdellidan ectosymbionts on the crayfish caused further differences in the crayfish microbiome. While the hypothesized patterns between crayfish, ectosymbionts, and stream order were not found to exist, a significantly different microbiome was observed between water, sediment, and crayfish, and the α-diversity of …


Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr Nov 2020

Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr

The Corinthian

Shigella bacteria cause half a million infections, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 70 deaths annually in the United States. These bacteria are of particular concern due to their high survivability, low infectious dose, and high adaptability. Cases of shigellosis from Shigella sonnei are becoming a more prevalent issue in the U.S. as the bacteria continues to develop higher resistance to today’s strongest antibiotics. Much of this resistance is connected to the exchange of genes between strains of Shigella due to insertion sequences (IS), intercontinental travel, and men who have sex with men (MSM). As a result of increased resistance, the use of …


Laboratory And Epidemiological Characteristics Of Zika Virus Infections In Florida, Stephen L. White Nov 2020

Laboratory And Epidemiological Characteristics Of Zika Virus Infections In Florida, Stephen L. White

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Until recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was an obscure virus that rarely caused infections and was unknown to most. In 2015 and 2016, ZIKV came into the public spotlight as Brazil and other countries began to report large increases in infections with ZIKV and reported potential complications with developing fetuses and neurologic manifestations. In 2016, the state of Florida identified and responded to an outbreak of locally acquired ZIKV infections in Miami-Dade County. This dramatic increase in infections demonstrated both its importance as an emerging infectious disease and the paucity of knowledge surrounding ZIKV. This study seeks to utilize the data …


Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma Nov 2020

Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is recognized as one of the most important pathogens in hospital and community healthcare settings. The clinical outcome of infection of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to fulminant pseudomembranous colitis and death. In recent studies, it has been suggested that a high proportion of nosocomial CDI cases are transmitted from asymptomatic carriers which might be acting as infection reservoirs. Understanding what causes the different responses to infection could lead to the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Although several explanations have been proposed to explain variations in susceptibility, understanding of the exact mechanisms …


Response Of Extensively Drug Resistant Salmonella Typhi To Treatment With Meropenem And Azithromycin, In Pakistan, Sonia Qureshi, Abdullah B. Naveed, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Khalil Ahmad, Sarwat Ansari, Heeramani Lohana, Aiman Mukhtar, Farah Naz Qamar Oct 2020

Response Of Extensively Drug Resistant Salmonella Typhi To Treatment With Meropenem And Azithromycin, In Pakistan, Sonia Qureshi, Abdullah B. Naveed, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Khalil Ahmad, Sarwat Ansari, Heeramani Lohana, Aiman Mukhtar, Farah Naz Qamar

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading health problems in Pakistan. With the emergence of extensively drug resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi, treatment options are limited. Here we report the clinical manifestations and the response to treatment of patients with XDR Typhoid fever. The patients were treated with either Meropenem or Azithromycin or a combination of both.
Methods: We reviewed the records of culture confirmed XDR typhoid who visited Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi and Aga Khan Secondary Care Hospital, Hyderabad from April 2017 to June 2018. Symptoms developed during disease, unplanned treatment extension and complications developed while on …


Stutzman, Kelsi - Covid-19 Journal, Kelsi Stutzman Oct 2020

Stutzman, Kelsi - Covid-19 Journal, Kelsi Stutzman

Personal Journals

Personal journal of Kelsi Stutzman, a student in Dr. Laughlin-Schultz's HIS3810 History of Illinois course during Fall, 2020


Vitamin D In Covid-19 Pneumonia: High Yield With Low Risk, Shahan Waheed, Emaduddin Siddiqui Oct 2020

Vitamin D In Covid-19 Pneumonia: High Yield With Low Risk, Shahan Waheed, Emaduddin Siddiqui

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


An Approach For The In-Vivo Characterization Of Brain And Heart Inflammation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Joanne Tang Sep 2020

An Approach For The In-Vivo Characterization Of Brain And Heart Inflammation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Joanne Tang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by dystrophin loss—notably within muscles and CNS neurons. DMD presents as cognitive weakness, progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration until pre-mature death from cardiac or respiratory failure. Innovative therapies improved life expectancy, but this is accompanied by increased late-onset heart failure and emergent cognitive degeneration. Thus, there is an increasing need to both better understand and track disease pathophysiology in the dystrophic heart and brain prior to onset of severe degenerative symptoms. Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration, however chronic neuroinflammation’s role is largely unknown in …


The Development Of Bacterial Magnetic Resonance Imaging For Microbiota Analyses, Sarah C. Donnelly Sep 2020

The Development Of Bacterial Magnetic Resonance Imaging For Microbiota Analyses, Sarah C. Donnelly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current microbial analyses to assess either the commensal microbiota or microorganism infection and disease typically require ex vivo techniques that risk contamination and are not undertaken in real time. The possibilities for employing imaging techniques in the microbiology field is becoming more prominent as studies expand on the use of positron emission tomography, ultrasound and numerous microscopy techniques. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a non-invasive in vivo modality that can produce real-time results is falling behind. Here, we examined the feasibility of detecting bacteria using clinical field strength MRI. Commensal, probiotic and uropathogenic Escherichia coli were scanned by 3 Tesla …


Clinical Presentations And Antimicrobial Susceptibilities Of Corynebacterium Cystitidis Associated With Renal Disease In Four Beef Cattle, Joseph Smith, Adam C. Krull, Jennifer A. Schleining, Rachel J. Derscheid, Amanda J. Kreuder Aug 2020

Clinical Presentations And Antimicrobial Susceptibilities Of Corynebacterium Cystitidis Associated With Renal Disease In Four Beef Cattle, Joseph Smith, Adam C. Krull, Jennifer A. Schleining, Rachel J. Derscheid, Amanda J. Kreuder

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

Background

Renal disease caused by Corynebacterium cystitidis in beef cattle may be misclassified as Corynebacterium renale, and limited information about C. cystitidis infections in beef cattle currently is available.

Objective

To describe clinical presentation, diagnosis, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and outcome of renal disease caused by C. cystitidis in beef cattle.

Methods

Retrospective case series.

Animals

Four client-owned beef cattle.

Results

All affected cattle had anorexia as a primary complaint. Of the 3 that had ante-mortem diagnostic tests performed, all had pyelonephritis based on azotemia in combination with urinalysis and ultrasonographic findings. Cultures yielded C. cystitidis which was identified …


Investigating Virological, Immunological, And Pathological Avenues To Identify Potential Targets For Developing Covid-19 Treatment And Prevention Strategies, Zafar Mahmood, Hani Alrefai Alrefai, Helal F. Hetta, Hidaya A. Kader Aug 2020

Investigating Virological, Immunological, And Pathological Avenues To Identify Potential Targets For Developing Covid-19 Treatment And Prevention Strategies, Zafar Mahmood, Hani Alrefai Alrefai, Helal F. Hetta, Hidaya A. Kader

Books and Book Chapters

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging coronavirus causing respiratory disease commonly known as COVID-19. This novel coronavirus transmits from human to human and has caused profound morbidity and mortality worldwide leading to the ongoing pandemic. Moreover, disease severity differs considerably from individual to individual. Investigating the virology of COVID-19 and immunological pathways underlying its clinical manifestations will enable the identification and design of effective vaccines and potential therapies. In this review, we explore COVID-19 virology, the contribution of the immune system (innate and adaptive) during infection and control of the virus. Finally, we highlight vaccine development …


Plasmodium Impairs Antibacterial Innate Immunity To Systemic Infections In Part Through Hemozoin-Bound Bioactive Molecules., Christopher Lynn Harding Aug 2020

Plasmodium Impairs Antibacterial Innate Immunity To Systemic Infections In Part Through Hemozoin-Bound Bioactive Molecules., Christopher Lynn Harding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite efforts to decrease the global health burden of malaria, infections with Plasmodium species continue to cause over 200 million episodes of malaria each year which resulted in 405,000 deaths in 2018 [1]. One complication of malaria is increased susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Plasmodium infections impair host immunity to non-Typhoid Salmonella (NTS) through activities of heme oxygenase I (HO-I) )-induced release of immature granulocytes and myeloid cell-derived IL-10. Yet, it is not known if these mechanisms are specific to NTS. We show here, that Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) infected mice had impaired clearance of systemic Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) during …


The Inhibitory Effects Of An Antimicrobial Gel On The Staphylococcus Species, Mara Trinkle Aug 2020

The Inhibitory Effects Of An Antimicrobial Gel On The Staphylococcus Species, Mara Trinkle

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has made the choices for topical treatments for patients who experience burns wounds extremely limited. The Staphylococcus genus is naturally occurring in and on the human body but can become harmful once it enters the bloodstream. A novel antimicrobial gel has been shown by our laboratory to inhibit both the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus in previous studies. The antimicrobial gel is made of seven natural compounds including antioxidants (vitamin C and E). We wanted to examine the effects of the antimicrobial gel on numerous other Staphylococcal species because it is …


The Use Of Animal-Assisted Therapeutic Interventions In The Hospital Setting During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Alicia Cesare Aug 2020

The Use Of Animal-Assisted Therapeutic Interventions In The Hospital Setting During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Alicia Cesare

MSU Graduate Theses

Handlers of therapy and/or facility dogs working within hospital settings have experienced various barriers and challenges within their practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Animal-assisted interventions, specifically therapeutic working dogs, are a valued source of support to individuals, communities, hospital settings, and disaster sites during times of community distress. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and solutions to the continued use of animal-assisted therapeutic interventions in support of patients and families within the hospital setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. This researcher’s position within the research is the knowledge and experience of being a facility dog handler within the …


Molecular Mechanisms Lead To Sex-Specific Covid-19 Prognosis And Targeted Therapies, Thushara Galbadage, Brent M. Peterson, Jeffrey S. Wang, Avishka Jayasekara, Danny A. Ramirez, Joseph Awada, John P. Walsh, Richard S. Gunasekera Jul 2020

Molecular Mechanisms Lead To Sex-Specific Covid-19 Prognosis And Targeted Therapies, Thushara Galbadage, Brent M. Peterson, Jeffrey S. Wang, Avishka Jayasekara, Danny A. Ramirez, Joseph Awada, John P. Walsh, Richard S. Gunasekera

Faculty Articles & Research

Clinical and epidemiological studies have identified male sex as an important risk factor for COVID-19 clinical outcomes and mortality. This raises the question as to how this risk factor can be addressed in the prognosis, clinical management, and the treatment of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, there are no guidelines or protocols to help alter the course of sex-specific COVID-19 prognosis, especially in severe disease presentations. This is partly due to the lack of research studies characterizing the differences in male vs. female host response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a lack of …


Delayed Interventions, Low Compliance, And Health Disparities Amplified The Early Spread Of Covid-19, Aliea M. Jalali, Sumaia G. Khoury, Jongwon See, Alexis M. Gulsvig, Brent M. Peterson, Richard S. Gunasekera, Gentian Buzi, Jason Wilson, Thushara Galbadage Jul 2020

Delayed Interventions, Low Compliance, And Health Disparities Amplified The Early Spread Of Covid-19, Aliea M. Jalali, Sumaia G. Khoury, Jongwon See, Alexis M. Gulsvig, Brent M. Peterson, Richard S. Gunasekera, Gentian Buzi, Jason Wilson, Thushara Galbadage

Faculty Articles & Research

The United States (US) public health interventions were rigorous and rapid, yet failed to arrest the spread of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as infections spread throughout the US. Many factors have contributed to the spread of COVID-19, and the success of public health interventions depends on the level of community adherence to preventative measures. Public health professionals must also understand regional demographic variation in health disparities and determinants to target interventions more effectively. In this study, a systematic evaluation of three significant interventions employed in the US, and their effectiveness in slowing the early spread of COVID-19 was …


Invasive Pulmonary Infection By Syncephalastrum Species: Two Case Reports And Review Of Literature, Memoona Irshad, Nosheen Nasir, Urooj Haider Hashmi, Joveria Farooqi, Syed Faisal Mahmood Jul 2020

Invasive Pulmonary Infection By Syncephalastrum Species: Two Case Reports And Review Of Literature, Memoona Irshad, Nosheen Nasir, Urooj Haider Hashmi, Joveria Farooqi, Syed Faisal Mahmood

Section of Internal Medicine

Background: Syncephalastrum species belong to the class Zygomycetes and order Mucorale. These are found in the environment and tropical soil, usually presenting as colonizers and rarely cause human infection. Syncephalastrum racemosum is a species of the genus Syncephalastrum and is the most commonly identified pathogen. Most cases are reported in immunocompromised individuals, such as patients on long term steroids, poorly controlled diabetes, or patients with malignancy.
Case presentation: We are describing two cases of rare fungal infection by Syncephalastrum species causing invasive pulmonary manifestation. Both patients had compromised immune status and presented with worsening dyspnea to the emergency room. Both …


Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König Jul 2020

Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Appropriate social interactions influence animal fitness by impacting several processes, such as mating, territory defense, and offspring care. Many studies shedding light on the neurobiological underpinnings of social behavior have focused on nonapeptides (vasopressin, oxytocin, and homologues) and on sexual or parent-offspring interactions. Furthermore, animals have been studied under artificial laboratory conditions, where the consequences of behavioral responses may not be as critical as when expressed under natural environments, therefore obscuring certain physiological responses. We used automated recording of social interactions of wild house mice outside of the breeding season to detect individuals at both tails of a distribution …


A Race Against Time: Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistan, Junaid Iqbal, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Megan E. Carey, Zoe A. Dyson, Denise Garrett, Jessica C. Seidman, Furqan Kabir, Senjuti Saha, Stephen Baker, Farah Naz Qamar Jul 2020

A Race Against Time: Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistan, Junaid Iqbal, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Megan E. Carey, Zoe A. Dyson, Denise Garrett, Jessica C. Seidman, Furqan Kabir, Senjuti Saha, Stephen Baker, Farah Naz Qamar

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Antimicrobial resistance is an ongoing issue in the treatment of typhoid fever. Resistance to first-line antimicrobials and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi isolates in Pakistan have left azithromycin as the only remaining effective oral treatment. Here, we report the emergence of organisms with a single point mutation in acrB gene, implicated in azithromycin resistance, in a S. Typhi isolate from Pakistan. The isolation of this organism is worrisome and highlights the significance of the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccine in South Asia.
Importance: The emergence of XDR Salmonella Typhi in Pakistan has left azithromycin as the only viable oral …


Do Plant Secondary Metabolite‐Containing Forages Influence Soil Processes In Pasture Systems?, Andrea K. Clemensen, Juan J. Villalba, George E. Rottinghaus, Stephen T. Lee, Frederick D. Provenza, Jennifer R. Reeve Jul 2020

Do Plant Secondary Metabolite‐Containing Forages Influence Soil Processes In Pasture Systems?, Andrea K. Clemensen, Juan J. Villalba, George E. Rottinghaus, Stephen T. Lee, Frederick D. Provenza, Jennifer R. Reeve

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Grazed pastures are susceptible to N loss from urine/manure additions, which increases eutrophication, affecting the global N cycle. Plant secondary metabolites (PSM), such as condensed tannins (CT) and terpenes, influence silviculture soil dynamics by generally decreasing N mineralization. We investigated whether cattle‐grazed pastures of non‐traditional grass and legume forage monoculture strips including CT‐containing sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and tall fescue (TF) [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.] influenced soil dynamics compared with traditional grass and legume forage monoculture strips of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), without tannins, and TF. Throughout the study, CT in sainfoin averaged 58.9 g kg−1 …


Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar Jul 2020

Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ethoxyresorufin (ER)-O-deethylation (EROD) activity has been widely used to assess cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity. The kinetics of CYP1A activity have been well characterized in the liver microsomes. However, studies in kidney microsomes are limited due to the much lower EROD activity in this organ. Here, we developed and validated a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the characterization of the EROD activity in the rat kidney microsomes. In a 50 µL reaction mixture, rat kidney microsomes (0.25 mg/mL) were incubated with ER (0.1–5 µM) and NADPH (1 mM) for 10 min. Acidic solvents, such as trichloroacetic acid or formic …