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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N mutant displayed …


Comparative Analysis Of Microbial Sensing Molecules In Mucosal Tissues With Aging, Octavio A. Gonzalez, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Michael John Novak, A. J. Stromberg, L. Orraca, J. Gonzalez-Martinez, A. Burgos, Jeffrey L. Ebersole Mar 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Microbial Sensing Molecules In Mucosal Tissues With Aging, Octavio A. Gonzalez, Sreenatha S. Kirakodu, Michael John Novak, A. J. Stromberg, L. Orraca, J. Gonzalez-Martinez, A. Burgos, Jeffrey L. Ebersole

Center for Oral Health Research Faculty Publications

Host-bacterial interactions at mucosal surfaces require recognition of the bacteria by host cells enabling targeted responses to maintain tissue homeostasis. It is now well recognized that an array of host-derived pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), both cell-bound and soluble, are critical to innate immune engagement of microbes via microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP). This report describes the use of a nonhuman primate model to evaluate changes in the expression of these sensing molecules related to aging in healthy gingival tissues. Macaca mulatta aged 3-24 years were evaluated clinically and gingival tissues obtained, RNA isolated and microarray analysis conducted for gene expression of …


The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy Oct 2017

The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, with a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding …


Life-Shortening Wolbachia Infection Reduces Population Growth Of Aedes Aegypti, Eunho Suh, David R. Mercer, Stephen L. Dobson Aug 2017

Life-Shortening Wolbachia Infection Reduces Population Growth Of Aedes Aegypti, Eunho Suh, David R. Mercer, Stephen L. Dobson

Entomology Faculty Publications

Wolbachia bacteria are being introduced into natural populations of vector mosquitoes, with the goal of reducing the transmission of human diseases such as Zika and dengue fever. The successful establishment of Wolbachia infection is largely dependent on the effects of Wolbachia infection to host fitness, but the effects of Wolbachia infection on the individual life-history traits of immature mosquitoes can vary. Here, the effects of life-shortening Wolbachia (wMelPop) on population growth of infected individuals were evaluated by measuring larval survival, developmental time and adult size of Aedes aegypti in intra- (infected or uninfected only) and inter-group (mixed with …


Zinc Transporters Ybtx And Znuabc Are Required For The Virulence Of Yersinia Pestis In Bubonic And Pneumonic Plague In Mice, Alexander G. Bobrov, Olga Kirillina, Marina Y. Fosso, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, M. Clarke Miller, Tiva T. Vancleave, Joseph A. Burlison, William K. Arnold, Matthew B. Lawrenz, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Robert D. Perry Jun 2017

Zinc Transporters Ybtx And Znuabc Are Required For The Virulence Of Yersinia Pestis In Bubonic And Pneumonic Plague In Mice, Alexander G. Bobrov, Olga Kirillina, Marina Y. Fosso, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, M. Clarke Miller, Tiva T. Vancleave, Joseph A. Burlison, William K. Arnold, Matthew B. Lawrenz, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Robert D. Perry

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

A number of bacterial pathogens require the ZnuABC Zinc (Zn2+) transporter and/or a second Zn2+ transport system to overcome Zn2+ sequestration by mammalian hosts. Previously we have shown that in addition to ZnuABC, Yersinia pestis possesses a second Zn2+ transporter that involves components of the yersiniabactin (Ybt), siderophore-dependent iron transport system. Synthesis of the Ybt siderophore and YbtX, a member of the major facilitator superfamily, are both critical components of the second Zn2+ transport system. Here we demonstrate that a ybtX znu double mutant is essentially avirulent in mouse models of bubonic and pneumonic …


Are Cdi Systems Multicolored, Facultative, Helping Greenbeards?, Elizabeth S. Danka, Erin C. Garcia, Peggy A. Cotter May 2017

Are Cdi Systems Multicolored, Facultative, Helping Greenbeards?, Elizabeth S. Danka, Erin C. Garcia, Peggy A. Cotter

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Competitive and cooperative interactions between organisms, including bacteria, can significantly impact the composition of a community and the fitness of its members, as well as the fitness of their hosts when communities are living on or within other organisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical to the development of strategies to control microbiological communities that impact animal and plant health and also for understanding the evolution of social behaviors, which has been challenging for evolutionary biologists. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon defined by the delivery of a protein toxin to the cytoplasm of neighboring bacteria upon cell–cell contact, …


Mice With Infectious Colitis Exhibit Linear Growth Failure And Subsequent Catch-Up Growth Related To Systemic Inflammation And Igf-1, Mark D. Deboer, Vidhya Vijayakumar, Meiqing Gong, John L. Fowlkes, Rachel M. Smith, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P. Nataro Mar 2017

Mice With Infectious Colitis Exhibit Linear Growth Failure And Subsequent Catch-Up Growth Related To Systemic Inflammation And Igf-1, Mark D. Deboer, Vidhya Vijayakumar, Meiqing Gong, John L. Fowlkes, Rachel M. Smith, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P. Nataro

Barnstable Brown Diabetes Center Faculty Publications

In developing communities, intestinal infection is associated with poor weight gain and linear-growth failure. Prior translational animal models have focused on weight gain investigations into key contributors to linear growth failure have been lacking. We hypothesized that murine intestinal infection with Citrobacter-rodentium would induce linear-growth failure associated with systemic inflammation and suppressed serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We evaluated 4 groups of mice infected or sham-infected on day-of-life 28: uninfected-controls, wild-type C.-rodentium-infected, partially-attenuated C. rodentium-infected (with deletion of 3 serine protease genes involved in colonization), and pair-fed (given the amount of daily food consumed by the …


The Family Rhabdoviridae: Mono- And Bipartite Negative-Sense Rna Viruses With Diverse Genome Organization And Common Evolutionary Origins, Ralf G. Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Michael M. Goodin, Gael Kurath, Nikos Vasilakis Jan 2017

The Family Rhabdoviridae: Mono- And Bipartite Negative-Sense Rna Viruses With Diverse Genome Organization And Common Evolutionary Origins, Ralf G. Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Michael M. Goodin, Gael Kurath, Nikos Vasilakis

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The family Rhabdoviridae consists of mostly enveloped, bullet-shaped or bacilliform viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that infect vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. This ecological diversity is reflected by the diversity and complexity of their genomes. Five canonical structural protein genes are conserved in all rhabdoviruses, but may be overprinted, overlapped or interspersed with several novel and diverse accessory genes. This review gives an overview of the characteristics and diversity of rhabdoviruses, their taxonomic classification, replication mechanism, properties of classical rhabdoviruses such as rabies virus and rhabdoviruses with complex genomes, rhabdoviruses infecting aquatic species, and plant rhabdoviruses with both mono- …


An Analysis Of The Use Of Animal Models In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls Sep 2016

An Analysis Of The Use Of Animal Models In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Animal use continues to be central to preclinical drug development, in spite of a lack of its demonstrable validity. The current nadir of new drug approvals and the drying-up of pipelines may be a direct consequence of this. To estimate the evidential weight given by animal data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of 2,366 drugs, for which both animal and human data are available, including tissue-level effects and MedDRA Level 1–4 biomedical observations. This was done for three preclinical species (rat, mouse …


Wild Justice Redux: What We Know About Social Justice In Animals And Why It Matters, Jessica Pierce, Marc Bekoff Sep 2016

Wild Justice Redux: What We Know About Social Justice In Animals And Why It Matters, Jessica Pierce, Marc Bekoff

Marc Bekoff, PhD

Social justice in animals is beginning to attract interest in a broad range of academic disciplines. Justice is an important area of study because it may help explain social dynamics among individuals living in tightly- knit groups, as well as social interactions among individuals who only occasionally meet. In this paper, we provide an overview of what is currently known about social justice in animals and offer an agenda for further research. We provide working definitions of key terms, outline some central research questions, and explore some of the challenges of studying social justice in animals, as well as the …


The Ethics Of Wildlife Control In Humanized Landscapes, John Hadidian, Camilla H. Fox, William S. Lynn Aug 2016

The Ethics Of Wildlife Control In Humanized Landscapes, John Hadidian, Camilla H. Fox, William S. Lynn

William S. Lynn, PhD

The 21st century is witness to an unprecedented and rapid growth of human settlements, from urban centers to wilderness vacation resorts. Concurrent with this has been the growing tolerance and acceptance of many wild animals and humans for one another. This has created an expanding ‘zone’ of human-animal contacts, some number of which invariably result in conflicts. While the vast majority of our interactions with wild animals are undoubtedly benign, it is the conflict between wildlife and people that draws particularly close attention from the public. Animals viewed as vertebrate “pests” range from the small to the large, the timid …


Endocidal Regulation Of Secondary Metabolites In The Producing Organisms, Shiyou Li, Ping Wang, Wei Yuan, Zushang Su, Steven H. Bullard Jan 2016

Endocidal Regulation Of Secondary Metabolites In The Producing Organisms, Shiyou Li, Ping Wang, Wei Yuan, Zushang Su, Steven H. Bullard

Faculty Publications

Secondary metabolites are defined as organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, and reproduction of an organism. They are widely believed to be responsible for interactions between the producing organism and its environment, with the producer avoiding their toxicities. In our experiments, however, none of the randomly selected 44 species representing different groups of plants and insects can avoid autotoxicity by its endogenous metabolites once made available. We coined the term endocides (endogenous biocides) to describe such metabolites that can poison or inhibit the parent via induced biosynthesis or external applications. Dosage-dependent endocides can selectively …


Intellectual Property In Higher Life Forms: The Patent System And Controversial Technologies, Robert P. Merges May 2015

Intellectual Property In Higher Life Forms: The Patent System And Controversial Technologies, Robert P. Merges

Robert P Merges

No abstract provided.


Sociology And Anthrozoology: Symbolic Interactionist Contributions, Leslie Irvine Apr 2015

Sociology And Anthrozoology: Symbolic Interactionist Contributions, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

This essay examines the sociological contributions to anthrozoology, focusing on research from the United States that employs a symbolic interactionist perspective. In particular, the work of Arluke and Sanders highlights the importance of understanding the meanings that animals hold for people. Using a selective review of their research, this essay outlines how a focus on understanding meaning can inform anthrozoological research. Arluke’s research on animal abuse reveals how harm must be defined in context. Sanders’s research on canine–human relationships documents how people come to understand companion dogs as persons. Both bodies of work rely on careful observation and listening to …


The Ethics Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Pediatric Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis Mar 2015

The Ethics Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Pediatric Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

Introduction: Pediatric health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR). We aim to determine whether HCW consider common arguments (and counterarguments) in support (or not) of AR convincing. Design: After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, support for AR, and common arguments (with their counterarguments) to justify the moral permissibility (or not) of AR. Responses are reported using standard tabulations. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were …


The Ethics Of Wildlife Control In Humanized Landscapes, John Hadidian, Camilla H. Fox, William S. Lynn Mar 2015

The Ethics Of Wildlife Control In Humanized Landscapes, John Hadidian, Camilla H. Fox, William S. Lynn

John Hadidian, PhD

The 21st century is witness to an unprecedented and rapid growth of human settlements, from urban centers to wilderness vacation resorts. Concurrent with this has been the growing tolerance and acceptance of many wild animals and humans for one another. This has created an expanding ‘zone’ of human-animal contacts, some number of which invariably result in conflicts. While the vast majority of our interactions with wild animals are undoubtedly benign, it is the conflict between wildlife and people that draws particularly close attention from the public. Animals viewed as vertebrate “pests” range from the small to the large, the timid …


Bacterial Rna:Dna Hybrids Are Activators Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Sivapriya Kailasan Vanaja, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Maninjay K. Atianand, Parisa Kalantari, Brian M. Skehan, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, John M. Leong Dec 2014

Bacterial Rna:Dna Hybrids Are Activators Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Sivapriya Kailasan Vanaja, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Maninjay K. Atianand, Parisa Kalantari, Brian M. Skehan, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, John M. Leong

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an extracellular pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta, has been linked to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here we identify the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as an essential mediator of EHEC-induced IL-1beta. Whereas EHEC-specific virulence factors were dispensable for NLRP3 activation, bacterial nucleic acids such as RNA:DNA hybrids and RNA gained cytosolic access and mediated inflammasome-dependent responses. Consistent with a direct role for RNA:DNA hybrids in inflammasome activation, delivery of synthetic EHEC RNA:DNA hybrids into the cytosol triggered NLRP3-dependent responses, …


Annotated Bibliography: Interaction With Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner Sep 2014

Annotated Bibliography: Interaction With Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Erich Yahner, MSLIS

No abstract provided.


Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Interaction With Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner Sep 2014

Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Interaction With Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Erich Yahner

No abstract provided.


Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner Sep 2014

Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Erich Yahner, MSLIS

No abstract provided.


Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Lana Acts On Terminal Repeat Dna To Mediate Episome Persistence, Aline C. Habison, Chantal Beauchemin, J. Pedro Simas, Edward J. Usherwood Aug 2012

Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Lana Acts On Terminal Repeat Dna To Mediate Episome Persistence, Aline C. Habison, Chantal Beauchemin, J. Pedro Simas, Edward J. Usherwood

Dartmouth Scholarship

Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) ORF73 (mLANA) has sequence homology to Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA acts on the KSHV terminal repeat (TR) elements to mediate KSHV episome maintenance. Disruption of mLANA expression severely reduces the ability of MHV68 to establish latent infection in mice, consistent with the possibility that mLANA mediates episome persistence. Here we assess the roles of mLANA and MHV68 TR (mTR) elements in episome persistence. mTR-associated DNA persisted as an episome in latently MHV68-infected tumor cells, demonstrating that the mTR elements can serve as a cis-acting element for MHV68 episome maintenance. In some …


Hovering Energetics And Thermal Balance In Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte Anna), Dennis Evangelista, Maria J. Fernandez, Madalyn S. Berns, Aaron M. Hoover, Robert Dudley Jul 2012

Hovering Energetics And Thermal Balance In Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte Anna), Dennis Evangelista, Maria J. Fernandez, Madalyn S. Berns, Aaron M. Hoover, Robert Dudley

Aaron M. Hoover

We studied the energetics of hover-feeding Anna's hummingbirds, using three different simultaneous techniques: heat loss as estimated via thermal imaging, metabolic rate as measured at a feeder mask using flow-through respirometry, and aerodynamic power estimated from wingbeat kinematic data. These three methods yielded comparable estimates of power output at ambient air temperatures ranging from 18 degrees to 26 degrees C, whereas heat imbalance at higher air temperatures (up to 34 degrees C) suggested loss by mechanisms other than convection and radiation from the body, such as evaporative cooling and enthalpy rise associated with exhaled air and excreted water and convective …


Revealing Genes Associated With Vitellogenesis In The Liver Of The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) By Transcriptome Profiling., Liraz Levi, Irena Pekarski, Ellen Gutman, Paolo Fortina, Terry Hyslop, Jakob Biran, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Esther Lubzens Jan 2009

Revealing Genes Associated With Vitellogenesis In The Liver Of The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) By Transcriptome Profiling., Liraz Levi, Irena Pekarski, Ellen Gutman, Paolo Fortina, Terry Hyslop, Jakob Biran, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Esther Lubzens

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: In oviparous vertebrates, including fish, vitellogenesis consists of highly regulated pathways involving 17beta-estradiol (E2). Previous studies focused on a relatively small number of hepatic expressed genes during vitellogenesis. This study aims to identify hepatic genes involved in vitellogenesis and regulated by E2, by using zebrafish microarray gene expression profiling, and to provide information on functional distinctive genes expressed in the liver of a vitellogenic female, using zebrafish as a model fish. RESULTS: Genes associated with vitellogenesis were revealed by the following paired t-tests (SAM) comparisons: a) two-month old vitellogenic (Vit2) females were compared with non-vitellogenic (NV) females, showing 825 …


Reunification Of Child And Animal Welfare Agencies: Cross-Reporting Of Abuse In Wellington County, Ontario, Lisa Anne Zilney, Mary Zilney Jan 2005

Reunification Of Child And Animal Welfare Agencies: Cross-Reporting Of Abuse In Wellington County, Ontario, Lisa Anne Zilney, Mary Zilney

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Institutional change has resulted in the separation of organizations for the protection of animals and children. This project reunites two organizations to examine associations between human violence and animal cruelty. For 12 months, Family and Children's Services (FCS) investigators and Humane Society (HS) investigators in Wellington County, Canada, completed checklists to examine connections between forms of violence. FCS workers found some cause for concern in 20% of 1,485 homes with an animal companion. HS workers completed 247 checklists, resulting in 10 referrals to FCS. The first study of its kind, this project details the findings of cross-reporting in Wellington County …


Inhibition Modifies The Effects Of Slow Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels On Epileptiform Activity In A Neuronal Network Model, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Piotr J. Franaszczuk, Gregory K. Bergey Jan 2005

Inhibition Modifies The Effects Of Slow Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels On Epileptiform Activity In A Neuronal Network Model, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Piotr J. Franaszczuk, Gregory K. Bergey

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Generation of epileptiform activity typically results from a change in the balance between network excitation and inhibition. Experimental evidence indicates that alterations of either synaptic activity or intrinsic membrane properties can produce increased network excitation. The slow Ca2+-activated K+ currents (sI AHP) are important modulators of neuronal firing rate and excitability and have important established and potential roles in epileptogenesis. While the effects of changes in sI AHP on individual neuronal excitability are readily studied and well established, the effects of such changes on network behavior are less well known. The experiments here utilize a defined small network model of …


Biochemical Enrichment And Biophysical Characterization Of A Taste Receptor For L-Arginine From The Catfish, Ictalurus Puntatus., William Grosvenor, Yuri Kaulin, Andrew I Spielman, Douglas L Bayley, D Lynn Kalinoski, John H Teeter, Joseph G Brand Jul 2004

Biochemical Enrichment And Biophysical Characterization Of A Taste Receptor For L-Arginine From The Catfish, Ictalurus Puntatus., William Grosvenor, Yuri Kaulin, Andrew I Spielman, Douglas L Bayley, D Lynn Kalinoski, John H Teeter, Joseph G Brand

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is invested with a high density of cutaneous taste receptors, particularly on the barbel appendages. Many of these receptors are sensitive to selected amino acids, one of these being a receptor for L-arginine (L-Arg). Previous neurophysiological and biophysical studies suggested that this taste receptor is coupled directly to a cation channel and behaves as a ligand-gated ion channel receptor (LGICR). Earlier studies demonstrated that two lectins, Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris Erythroagglutinin (PHA-E), inhibited the binding of L-Arg to its presumed receptor sites, and that PHA-E inhibited the L-Arg-stimulated ion conductance …


Development Of A Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay For Detection Of Serum Antibodies To O157 Antigen Of Escherichia Coli., W Laegreid, M Hoffman, J Keen, R Elder, J Kwang Mar 1998

Development Of A Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay For Detection Of Serum Antibodies To O157 Antigen Of Escherichia Coli., W Laegreid, M Hoffman, J Keen, R Elder, J Kwang

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

The O157 antigen of Escherichia coli shares structural elements with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens of other bacterial species, notably Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica 09, a fact that confounds the interpretation of assays for anti-O157 antibodies. To address this problem, a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) was designed with E. coli O157:H7 LPS as the antigen and a monoclonal antibody specific for E. coli O157, designated 13B3, as the competing antibody. The bELISA had equivalent sensitivity to, and significantly higher specificity than, the indirect ELISA (iELISA), detecting anti-O157 antibodies in sera from cattle experimentally inoculated with O157:H7. Only 13% of sera …


Euthanasia Of Dogs And Cats: An Analysis Of Experience And Current Knowledge With Recommendation For Research, T. Carding, The Institute For The Study Of Animal Problems Aug 1978

Euthanasia Of Dogs And Cats: An Analysis Of Experience And Current Knowledge With Recommendation For Research, T. Carding, The Institute For The Study Of Animal Problems

Euthanasia Collection

While it may be regarded by some as inhumane or unethical to take any life, mankind, as responsible stewards of animals, is obliged to do so for many reasons: for food, health, population control, to alleviate incurable suffering, etc. Yet beyond the ironies and ethical dilemmas of the right to life versus the right to take life, lies the necessity to destroy life. This entails an enormous ethical responsibility relevant to the times, and also the moral injunction that the method of killing be humane, in other words, causing the least possible distress, physically and psychologically. This injunction implies, therefore, …