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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Utilizing Biomimicry To Design Sustainable Architecture, Virginia Hammond May 2024

Utilizing Biomimicry To Design Sustainable Architecture, Virginia Hammond

Architecture Undergraduate Honors Theses

Nature has an integral relationship with architecture and serves as a sustainable role model and inspiration for designers. The process of biomimicry in architecture has the potential to produce more sustainable design solutions and foster a connection between humans and nature. Existing biomimetic design projects have varying strengths and weaknesses as examples of the process. Utilizing guidelines and references from key leaders in biomimetic design consultancy (Biomimicry 3.8), selected case studies are assessed for their ability to demonstrate the benefits of this design strategy. Using these evaluations, the case studies are diagrammed and critiqued to determine how new projects could …


A Potential Klebsiella Bacteriocin With Efficacy Toward The Enterbacteriaceae Family, Kasey Barber May 2024

A Potential Klebsiella Bacteriocin With Efficacy Toward The Enterbacteriaceae Family, Kasey Barber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drug resistance is unfortunately becoming a prevalent issue in the course of patient treatment, ranging from chemotherapy resistance to antimicrobial resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated in 2016 that at least 23,000 people die every year in the United States from an infection with an antibiotic-resistant organism (Munita, et al, 2016). Carl Friedlander was the first scientist to describe Klebsiella pneumoniae in 1882 as an encapsulated bacillus after isolating the bacterium from the lungs of patients who had died from pneumonia (Ashurst and Dawson, 2022). Klebsiella pneumoniae is the type species for the Klebsiella genus and …


Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty Feb 2024

Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty

Annual Research Symposium

Osteomyelitis may be classified as Bacterial (Actinomycotic), Fungal (Mucormycotic), or combined based on the etiological agent. During histopathological examination, there is a high chance that bacterial colonies or fungal hyphae may be missed by the human eye, especially when there is a paucity of organisms. This may lead to a faulty diagnosis of the type of osteomyelitis which along with an improper treatment plan would cause further progression of the disease and various other complications. Therefore, the diagnosis of the exact etiological variant of osteomyelitis is of prime importance to design an appropriate treatment plan. In the present study, bone …


A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier Jan 2024

A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

IgA vasculitis, previously known as Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP), is a disease more common in children and occurs when IgA1 immune complexes attach to the walls of small blood vessels causing inflammation. This case report is of an adult male who presented with a purpuric rash affecting both legs, microhematuria, and knee pain. Blood cultures were positive for Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Computed tomography of the pelvis revealed a prostate abscess. Skin biopsy demonstrated IgA and C3 in the dermal vessels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgA vasculitis associated with MSSA bacteremia due to a prostate …


Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova Jan 2024

Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage P23-45 encodes a giant 5,002-residue tail tape measure protein (TMP) that defines the length of its extraordinarily long tail. Here, we show that the N-terminal portion of P23-45 TMP is an unusual RNA polymerase (RNAP) homologous to cellular RNAPs. The TMP-fused virion RNAP transcribes pre-early phage genes, including a gene that encodes another, non-virion RNAP, that transcribes early and some middle phage genes. We report the crystal structures of both P23-45 RNAPs. The non-virion RNAP has a crab-claw-like architecture. By contrast, the virion RNAP adopts a unique flat structure without a clamp. Structure and sequence comparisons of …


Resilience And Associated Factors In Orphaned And Separated Adolescents In Kenya: Understanding The Relationship With Care Environment And Hiv Risks., Sarah Sutherland, Harry Shannon, David Ayuku, David Kleiner, Olli Saarela, Lukoye Atwoli, Joseph Hogan, Paula Braitstein Jan 2024

Resilience And Associated Factors In Orphaned And Separated Adolescents In Kenya: Understanding The Relationship With Care Environment And Hiv Risks., Sarah Sutherland, Harry Shannon, David Ayuku, David Kleiner, Olli Saarela, Lukoye Atwoli, Joseph Hogan, Paula Braitstein

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Orphans are at higher risk of HIV infection and several important HIV risk factors than non-orphans; however, this may be due to a combination of related social, psychological, and economic factors, as well as care environment, rather than orphan status alone. Understanding these complex relationships may aid policy makers in supporting evidence-based, cost-effective programming for this vulnerable population. This longitudinal study uses a causal effect model to examine, through decomposition, the relationship between care environment and HIV risk factors in orphaned and separated adolescents and youths (OSAY) in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya; considering resilience, social, peer, or family support, volunteering, …


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori Jan 2024

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are increasing in incidence and have led to higher rates of hospitalization. In this study, we measured MRSA inactivation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), a promising new cell ablation technology. Our results show that treatment with 120 pulses of 600 ns duration (28 kV/cm, 1 Hz), caused modest inactivation, indicating cellular damage. We anticipated that the perturbation created by nsPEF could increase antibiotic efficacy if nsPEF were applied as a co-treatment. To test this …


Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar Jan 2024

Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar

CMC Senior Theses

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacts not only respiratory but also gut and oral microbiomes, influencing the manifestations of COVID-19. Each person’s unique microbiome consists of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, some of which are symbiotic and others potentially harmful. Alterations in the gut microbiome, specifically, can affect the severity and symptoms of COVID-19. A review of studies indicate a pattern of gut dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients characterized by a decrease in beneficial microbiota and/or an increase in opportunistic pathogens. This gut imbalance correlates with disease severity, suggesting that the gut microbiome plays a significant role …


Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared Mr Crocco Jan 2024

Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared Mr Crocco

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Bacterial human pathogens are among the leading causes of death around the world, especially in low income and developing countries. One important element in a bacterium’s ability to cause disease are genes that directly contribute to pathogenicity called virulence factors. A second significant aspect are antimicrobial resistance genes which allow microorganisms to persist in the presence of antimicrobial agents. In this project I aimed to determine if Salmonella isolated from different sources differed in pathogenicity profiles based on the complement of genes identified through genomic analysis. Accordingly, Salmonella genomes were organized into 8 groups: animal, clinical, human, environmental, food, water …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi Dec 2023

Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Background: The current polio epidemiology in Pakistan poses a unique challenge for global eradication as the country is affected by ongoing endemic poliovirus transmission. Across the country, 40 union councils (UCs) which serve as core reservoirs for poliovirus with continuous incidences of polio cases are categorized as super-high-risk union councils (SHRUCs).
Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 39 SHRUCs using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. 6,976 children aged 12-23 months were covered. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using STATA version 17.
Results: Based on both vaccination records and recall, 48.3% of children …


Prevalence, Faunal Composition, And Vertical Distribution Of Bioluminescence In The Pelagic Gulf Of Mexico: Fishes, Crustaceans, Cephalopods And Gelatinous Megaplankton, Devynne M. Brown Dec 2023

Prevalence, Faunal Composition, And Vertical Distribution Of Bioluminescence In The Pelagic Gulf Of Mexico: Fishes, Crustaceans, Cephalopods And Gelatinous Megaplankton, Devynne M. Brown

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Bioluminescence is the phenomenon of light emission by living organisms. It occurs through a chemical reaction within an organism and serves various purposes. The diversity of bioluminescent capabilities and occurrence in unrelated taxa suggest that bioluminescence has evolved independently numerous times amongst taxa thriving in certain environments. One such environment is the deep ocean, where little to no sunlight penetrates the water column, specifically in the mesopelagic (200-1000 m depth) and bathypelagic (> 1000 m) zones. The mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones have been extensively sampled and well documented in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), one of the few places globally …


How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis Nov 2023

How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Southern California experienced unprecedented megadrought between 2012 and 2018. During this time, Malosma laurina, a chaparral species normally resilient to single-year intense drought, developed extensive mortality exceeding 60% throughout low-elevation coastal populations of the Santa Monica Mountains. We assessed the physiological mechanisms by which the advent of megadrought predisposed M. laurina to extensive shoot dieback and whole-plant death. We found that hydraulic conductance of stem xylem (Ks, native) was reduced seven to 11-fold in dieback adult and resprout branches, respectively. Staining of stem xylem vessels revealed that dieback plants experienced 68% solid-blockage, explaining the reduction in water transport. Following Koch's …


Genomic Diversity And Carbohydrate Utilisation In Human-Associated Bifidobacterial Isolates, Ortensia Catalano Gonzaga Nov 2023

Genomic Diversity And Carbohydrate Utilisation In Human-Associated Bifidobacterial Isolates, Ortensia Catalano Gonzaga

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Bifidobacteria are beneficial commensals of the human gastrointestinal tract and their presence in the gut has been associated with positive health effects on the host. They account for a vast proportion of the infant gut microbiota, when the infant is fed on a milk-based diet, with their number progressively decreasing in adult and elderly. The gut microbiota and associated metabolic activities significantly impact on human health by promoting appropriate development of the infant immune system and contributing to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis. In recent years it has become clear that microbial colonization of the gut immediately following birth …


Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones Nov 2023

Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. As global incidences of UTIs caused by multidrug resistant bacteria continue to increase, so too does the demand for novel antimicrobial therapies.

Due to its relatively understudied nature, the urinary microbiome represents a niche with an untapped source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted these potential alternative treatments and control strategies to target antibiotic resistant uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

METHODS: Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine samples. Urinary isolates …


Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky Od Oct 2023

Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are becoming more common. These infections can cause various ocular conditions including conjunctivitis. Conjunctival cultures are an important tool to assist with proper diagnosis and treatment of these infections. Case Report : A 61-year-old African American male presented with the complaint of redness and drainage from his eyes. With the assistance of conjunctival cultures, he was diagnosed with MRSA conjunctivitis. Treatment with vancomycin ultimately led to resolution of the condition. Conclusion : MRSA conjunctivitis should always be considered when a conjunctivitis is not responding to empirical therapy. Eye care professionals should be aware …


Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed Oct 2023

Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed

Wills Eye Hospital Papers

BACKGROUND: Although the primary target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the respiratory tract, the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in other tissues facilitates viral entry in others parts of the body, including ocular structures. Ocular manifestations may occur before, during, or after systemic infection.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 60-year-old male who presented with bilateral interstitial keratitis after the onset of COVID-19, with ocular symptoms starting within 7 days after systemic symptoms. Laboratory investigation did not identify any alternative etiology for his disease, although the possibility of Epstein-Barr virus or herpes simpex …


Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado Oct 2023

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado

Research Colloquium

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) account for 40 percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Their elimination is at the forefront of quality improvement in one South Texas acute care hospital.

Methods: Over a period of 6 months, five CA-UTIs occurred in one South Texas acute care hospital. These cases were identified via regular surveillance by Infection Prevention staff and the Laboratory Department of the hospital. This research reviews patient age, sex, length of stay, bacteria contracted, appropriate antibiotic use, patient characteristics, and overall outcomes.

Results: Between the months of July and December 2021, 5 CAUTIs were contracted. Patients ranged in …


Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo Sep 2023

Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo

Research Symposium

Background: Baboons exhibit a genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) that resembles juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and may represent a suitable genetic model for human epilepsy. The genetic underpinnings of epilepsy were investigated in a baboon colony at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (San Antonio, TX) through the analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data.

Methods: Baboon WGS data were obtained for 38 cases and 19 healthy controls from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive and, after standard QC filtering, two subsets of variants were examined: (1) 20,881 SNPs from baboon homologs of 19 candidate GGE genes; and (2) 36,169 protein-altering SNPs. Association tests …


Characterization Of Epithelial Growth Factor Transcripts Identified In Crotalus Atrox Venom, Ivan Lopez, Ying Jia Sep 2023

Characterization Of Epithelial Growth Factor Transcripts Identified In Crotalus Atrox Venom, Ivan Lopez, Ying Jia

Research Symposium

Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF) is the primary source in regeneration and stimulation of essential fibroblasts cells commonly found in epithelium. Studies have shown that snake venom components are becoming a growing factor in treating illnesses such as cancer, muscular dystrophy, chronic pain, blood pressure, blood clotting, etc. EGF in human cells contains a promising quaternary structure that can bind to snake venom metalloproteinases, proposing a means of activating biochemical responses through protein-protein interactions to regulate unwanted cellular functions. This supports promising research in achieving a greater understanding of regulation along cellular pathways through ligands, increasing the likelihood of targeting unwanted …


Disseminated Infection With Bartonella Henselae In A Drug-Induced Immunosuppressed Adult Causing Fever, Thrombocytopenia, And Encephalitis: Case Report, Celin Rajan, Ileana Mendez, Jacinto Kadour, Mohammed Jamal, Maria Najam Sep 2023

Disseminated Infection With Bartonella Henselae In A Drug-Induced Immunosuppressed Adult Causing Fever, Thrombocytopenia, And Encephalitis: Case Report, Celin Rajan, Ileana Mendez, Jacinto Kadour, Mohammed Jamal, Maria Najam

Research Symposium

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae, typically characterized by self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. CSD is more prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. However, serious illness is infrequent. This case report demonstrates uncommon symptoms of disseminated Bartonella henselae infection manifesting as encephalopathy, thrombocytopenia, and septic shock.

A 62-year-old malnourished, Hispanic man presented with fever and malaise for 1 week which was associated with headache. Past medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis treated with prolonged, unmonitored prednisone, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a history of 18 cats at home. On examination, the patient was alert and oriented, febrile, and …


Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio Sep 2023

Oral Dosages Of The Nsaid Aspirin Decreased The Growth Rate Of Species Found In The Human Gut Microbiome Including Akkermansia Muciniphila, Bacteroides Fragilis, Clostridium Sordellii, And Clostridium Difficile, Wyatt H. Greenbaum, Garrett J. Greenbaum, Anna Spiezio

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Over past few decades, new insight has been revealed in the scientific community about the importance of the human gut microbiome relating to general health. It is known that imbalances in the species that reside in the human gut can cause organism-wide problems in humans. When prescribing or injecting oral medications, the thought of the downstream effects on the gut microbiome are not always considered. By exposing known healthy members of the gut; Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium sordellii, and Clostridium difficile to the Aspirin, this study attempted to provide insight into the effects of the drug on bacterial growth. …


Tailoring The Gut Microbiome Through Diet To Target Short Chain Fatty Acids And Trimethylamine N-Oxide For Heart Failure Prevention, Julia M. Gabel Sep 2023

Tailoring The Gut Microbiome Through Diet To Target Short Chain Fatty Acids And Trimethylamine N-Oxide For Heart Failure Prevention, Julia M. Gabel

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

The number of people diagnosed with heart failure is on the rise—it’s becoming an epidemic. There are treatment options available for heart failure, but unfortunately there is not a cure. However, most cases of heart failure can be prevented. One mechanism that provides promise for preventing heart failure is the implementation of a heart healthy diet. However, not in the context that most are familiar with. In this case, a heart healthy diet is in reference to the ability of diet to tailor the gut microbiome in order to target specific metabolites that are associated with heart failure. Diet plays …


Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium Sep 2023

Molecular Characterization Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Disease Among Children In Nigeria During The Introduction Of Pcv10 (Gsk), Stephanie W. Lo, Paulina A. Hawkins, Binta Jibir, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Mahmoud Gambo, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Safiya Gambo, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Fey, Robert F. Breiman, Lesley Mcgee, Stephen D. Bentley, Stephen K. Obaro, Community Acquired Pneumonia And Invasive Bacterial Disease Capibd Consortium

Student Papers, Posters & Projects

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of childhood invasive disease. Nigeria has the second highest pneumococcal disease burden globally, with an estimated ~49 000 child deaths caused by pneumococcal infections each year. Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (GSK; PCV10) was introduced in December 2014 in a phased approach. However, few studies have characterized the disease-causing pneumococci from Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence of serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility and genomic lineages using whole genome sequencing and identified lineages that could potentially escape PCV10 (GSK). We also investigated the potential differences in pneumococcal lineage features between children with and without sickle …


Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi Aug 2023

Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Opportunistic fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in immunosuppressed patients, with mucormycosis and aspergillosis as two of the most commonly identified fungal organisms. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis is rare, but cases have been reported in literature, most commonly presenting as disseminated invasive fungal infection with cerebrorhino-orbital involvement in an immunocompromised patient. Infections are most commonly caused by direct implantation of spores with localised angioinvasion. Haematogenous spread is rare, with most cases secondary to haematological malignancies or intravenous drug use. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis portends a poor prognosis, with a high mortality rate. Thus, prompt recognition and …


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Profiling And Verifying The Substrates Of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rsp5 In Yeast Cells, Shuai Fang, Geng Chen, Yiyang Wang, Rakhee Ganti, Tatiana A Chernova, Li Zhou, Savannah E Jacobs, Duc Duong, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Yury O Chernoff, Ming Li, Natalia Shcherbik, Bo Zhao, Jun Yin Aug 2023

Profiling And Verifying The Substrates Of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rsp5 In Yeast Cells, Shuai Fang, Geng Chen, Yiyang Wang, Rakhee Ganti, Tatiana A Chernova, Li Zhou, Savannah E Jacobs, Duc Duong, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Yury O Chernoff, Ming Li, Natalia Shcherbik, Bo Zhao, Jun Yin

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Yeast is an essential model organism for studying protein ubiquitination pathways; however, identifying the direct substrates of E3 in the cell presents a challenge. Here, we present a protocol for using the orthogonal ubiquitin transfer (OUT) cascade to profile the substrate specificity of yeast E3 Rsp5. We describe steps for OUT profiling, proteomics analysis, in vitro and in cell ubiquitination, and stability assay. The protocol can be adapted for identifying and verifying the ubiquitination targets of other E3s in yeast. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Wang et al.


Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke Aug 2023

Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of daily bacterial infections is climbing and the CDC explains that this is due to the antibiotic-resistant threat in the United States. Finding a faster way of bacterial identification is necessary as it currently takes 1-4 days for a medical lab to culture and identify bacteria. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) can be used as an alternative method resulting in swift identification within an hour (Edgar, 2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell line PA01, will be coated in up to a few hundred red dyed phages making it detectible by the photoacoustic flow cytometry system. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that …


Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen Aug 2023

Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

Locus SMU.243 in Streptococcus mutans was annotated as a member of the DUF2207 family proteins highly conserved in all bacteria but with unknown function. To investigate its role in S. mutans physiology, a SMU.243-deficient mutant was constructed using allelic exchange mutagenesis, and the impacts of SMU.243 deletion on bacterial growth, stress tolerance response, and biofilm formation were analyzed. Compared to the wild-type UA159, S. mutans lacking SMU.243 displayed a reduced growth rate and a reduced overnight culture density (p < 0.01) when grown at low pH and in the presence of methyl viologen. Relative to the parent strain, the deficient mutant also had a reduced survival rate following incubation in a buffer of pH 2.8 (p < 0.01) and in a buffer containing hydrogen peroxide at 58 mM after 60 min (p < 0.001) and had a reduced capacity in biofilm formation especially in the presence of sucrose (p < 0.01). To study any ensuing functional/phenotypical links between SMU.243 and uppP, which is located immediately downstream of SMU.243 and encodes an undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in recycling of carrier lipid undecaprenyl phosphate, a uppP deficient mutant was generated using allelic exchange mutagenesis. Unlike the SMU.243 mutant, deletion of uppP affected cell envelope biogenesis and caused major increases in susceptibility to bacitracin. In addition, two variant morphological mutants, one forming rough colonies and the other forming mucoid, smooth colonies, also emerged following the deletion of uppP. The results suggest that the SMU.243-encoded protein of the DUF2207 family in S. mutans plays an important role in stress tolerance response and biofilm formation, but unlike the downstream uppP, does not seem to be involved in cell envelope biogenesis, although the exact roles in S. mutans’ physiology awaits further investigation.


Neurotropic Manifestations As A Potential Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Following In Utero Exposure To Sars-Cov-2, Mir Ali R Talpur, Omar H. Elsayed, Rif S. El-Mallakh Jul 2023

Neurotropic Manifestations As A Potential Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Following In Utero Exposure To Sars-Cov-2, Mir Ali R Talpur, Omar H. Elsayed, Rif S. El-Mallakh

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: COVID-19 infection is associated with neurologic and psychiatric morbidity that suggests a direct effect of the virus or secondary effect of an inflammatory process. These neuropsychiatric consequences may increase the likelihood of schizophrenia in the offspring of women who become infected with COVID-19 during their pregnancy.

Methods: We performed a directed narrative review of the literature focusing on the proposed pathophysiological processes that lead to schizophrenia and known pathological consequences of COVID-19 infection.

Results: Schizophrenia in adult offspring has been associated with maternal infections during pregnancy by a wide range of respiratory and neurotropic pathogens. Spikes in the incidence …