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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md Apr 2024

Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Education Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention In Adult Intensive Care Patients, Carlin Morgan Apr 2024

Education Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention In Adult Intensive Care Patients, Carlin Morgan

Scholars Week

The purpose of this project was to improve knowledge related to evidence-based ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) preventative measures that decrease the prevalence of VAP in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). An educational presentation was provided to twelve critical care nurses at a 349-bed hospital in western Kentucky. A pretest was obtained to measure the nurse’s knowledge prior to the presentation. A PowerPoint and pamphlet containing VAP prevention techniques were presented to the twelve critical care nurses during each meeting. A posttest was then administered after the presentation to measure the efficacy of the educational presentation. The mean of …


Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar Mar 2024

Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar

Research Symposium

Background: Common cutaneous warts, referred to in medicine as verrucae vulgaris, are proliferative lesions caused by human papillomavirus. These lesions are mostly benign and usually resolve without incident, except in the case of the patient mentioned in this report. Our patient developed a solitary keratoacanthoma, currently accepted as a clinical variant of squamous cell carcinoma, as a result of several risk factors and traumatic exposure. The current literature does not have an established association of HPV with solitary keratoacanthomas. This case report explores the presentation and pathogenesis of solitary keratoacanthomas within the setting of HPV.

Case Presentation: 48-year-old Caucasian female …


Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty Feb 2024

Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty

Annual Research Symposium

Osteomyelitis may be classified as Bacterial (Actinomycotic), Fungal (Mucormycotic), or combined based on the etiological agent. During histopathological examination, there is a high chance that bacterial colonies or fungal hyphae may be missed by the human eye, especially when there is a paucity of organisms. This may lead to a faulty diagnosis of the type of osteomyelitis which along with an improper treatment plan would cause further progression of the disease and various other complications. Therefore, the diagnosis of the exact etiological variant of osteomyelitis is of prime importance to design an appropriate treatment plan. In the present study, bone …


A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier Jan 2024

A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

IgA vasculitis, previously known as Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP), is a disease more common in children and occurs when IgA1 immune complexes attach to the walls of small blood vessels causing inflammation. This case report is of an adult male who presented with a purpuric rash affecting both legs, microhematuria, and knee pain. Blood cultures were positive for Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Computed tomography of the pelvis revealed a prostate abscess. Skin biopsy demonstrated IgA and C3 in the dermal vessels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgA vasculitis associated with MSSA bacteremia due to a prostate …


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori Jan 2024

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are increasing in incidence and have led to higher rates of hospitalization. In this study, we measured MRSA inactivation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), a promising new cell ablation technology. Our results show that treatment with 120 pulses of 600 ns duration (28 kV/cm, 1 Hz), caused modest inactivation, indicating cellular damage. We anticipated that the perturbation created by nsPEF could increase antibiotic efficacy if nsPEF were applied as a co-treatment. To test this …


Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar Jan 2024

Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar

CMC Senior Theses

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacts not only respiratory but also gut and oral microbiomes, influencing the manifestations of COVID-19. Each person’s unique microbiome consists of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, some of which are symbiotic and others potentially harmful. Alterations in the gut microbiome, specifically, can affect the severity and symptoms of COVID-19. A review of studies indicate a pattern of gut dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients characterized by a decrease in beneficial microbiota and/or an increase in opportunistic pathogens. This gut imbalance correlates with disease severity, suggesting that the gut microbiome plays a significant role …


Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky Od Oct 2023

Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are becoming more common. These infections can cause various ocular conditions including conjunctivitis. Conjunctival cultures are an important tool to assist with proper diagnosis and treatment of these infections. Case Report : A 61-year-old African American male presented with the complaint of redness and drainage from his eyes. With the assistance of conjunctival cultures, he was diagnosed with MRSA conjunctivitis. Treatment with vancomycin ultimately led to resolution of the condition. Conclusion : MRSA conjunctivitis should always be considered when a conjunctivitis is not responding to empirical therapy. Eye care professionals should be aware …


Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado Oct 2023

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado

Research Colloquium

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) account for 40 percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Their elimination is at the forefront of quality improvement in one South Texas acute care hospital.

Methods: Over a period of 6 months, five CA-UTIs occurred in one South Texas acute care hospital. These cases were identified via regular surveillance by Infection Prevention staff and the Laboratory Department of the hospital. This research reviews patient age, sex, length of stay, bacteria contracted, appropriate antibiotic use, patient characteristics, and overall outcomes.

Results: Between the months of July and December 2021, 5 CAUTIs were contracted. Patients ranged in …


Characterization Of Epithelial Growth Factor Transcripts Identified In Crotalus Atrox Venom, Ivan Lopez, Ying Jia Sep 2023

Characterization Of Epithelial Growth Factor Transcripts Identified In Crotalus Atrox Venom, Ivan Lopez, Ying Jia

Research Symposium

Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF) is the primary source in regeneration and stimulation of essential fibroblasts cells commonly found in epithelium. Studies have shown that snake venom components are becoming a growing factor in treating illnesses such as cancer, muscular dystrophy, chronic pain, blood pressure, blood clotting, etc. EGF in human cells contains a promising quaternary structure that can bind to snake venom metalloproteinases, proposing a means of activating biochemical responses through protein-protein interactions to regulate unwanted cellular functions. This supports promising research in achieving a greater understanding of regulation along cellular pathways through ligands, increasing the likelihood of targeting unwanted …


Tailoring The Gut Microbiome Through Diet To Target Short Chain Fatty Acids And Trimethylamine N-Oxide For Heart Failure Prevention, Julia M. Gabel Sep 2023

Tailoring The Gut Microbiome Through Diet To Target Short Chain Fatty Acids And Trimethylamine N-Oxide For Heart Failure Prevention, Julia M. Gabel

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

The number of people diagnosed with heart failure is on the rise—it’s becoming an epidemic. There are treatment options available for heart failure, but unfortunately there is not a cure. However, most cases of heart failure can be prevented. One mechanism that provides promise for preventing heart failure is the implementation of a heart healthy diet. However, not in the context that most are familiar with. In this case, a heart healthy diet is in reference to the ability of diet to tailor the gut microbiome in order to target specific metabolites that are associated with heart failure. Diet plays …


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke Aug 2023

Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of daily bacterial infections is climbing and the CDC explains that this is due to the antibiotic-resistant threat in the United States. Finding a faster way of bacterial identification is necessary as it currently takes 1-4 days for a medical lab to culture and identify bacteria. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) can be used as an alternative method resulting in swift identification within an hour (Edgar, 2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell line PA01, will be coated in up to a few hundred red dyed phages making it detectible by the photoacoustic flow cytometry system. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that …


Neurotropic Manifestations As A Potential Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Following In Utero Exposure To Sars-Cov-2, Mir Ali R Talpur, Omar H. Elsayed, Rif S. El-Mallakh Jul 2023

Neurotropic Manifestations As A Potential Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Following In Utero Exposure To Sars-Cov-2, Mir Ali R Talpur, Omar H. Elsayed, Rif S. El-Mallakh

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: COVID-19 infection is associated with neurologic and psychiatric morbidity that suggests a direct effect of the virus or secondary effect of an inflammatory process. These neuropsychiatric consequences may increase the likelihood of schizophrenia in the offspring of women who become infected with COVID-19 during their pregnancy.

Methods: We performed a directed narrative review of the literature focusing on the proposed pathophysiological processes that lead to schizophrenia and known pathological consequences of COVID-19 infection.

Results: Schizophrenia in adult offspring has been associated with maternal infections during pregnancy by a wide range of respiratory and neurotropic pathogens. Spikes in the incidence …


Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor Jul 2023

Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States. Because symptoms of these infections often overlap with other urogenital infections, misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment can occur unless appropriate STI diagnostic testing is performed in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to describe STI diagnostic testing and antimicrobial treatment patterns and trends among adolescent and adult men and women with lower genitourinary tract symptoms (LGUTS). Methods: We analyzed insurance claims data from the IBM® MarketScan® Research Databases. Patients included were between 14 and 64 years old with …


On The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine, Forest W. Arnold Jun 2023

On The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart Jun 2023

Time Is Ticking For Cervical Cancer, Vijay Kumar, Caitlin Bauer, John H. Stewart

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Cervical cancer (CC) is a major health problem among reproductive-age females and comprises a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor associated with CC incidence. However, lifestyle is also a critical factor in CC pathogenesis. Despite HPV vaccination introduction, the incidence of CC is increasing worldwide. Therefore, it becomes critical to understand the CC tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) to develop immune cell-based vaccination and immunotherapeutic approaches. The current article discusses the immune environment in the normal cervix of adult females and its role in HPV infection. The subsequent sections discuss the alteration of different …


Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez Jun 2023

Mirnas Signature As Potential Biomarkers For Cervical Precancerous Lesions In Human Papillomavirus Positive Women, Martha I. González-Ramírez, Yurley T. Cardona, María C. Agudelo, Carolina López, Juan J. Florez-Acosta, Samuel Agudelo-Gamboa, Jone Garai, Li Li, Carlos A. Orozco-Castaño, Jovanny Zabaleta, Gloria I. Sánchez

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Biomarkers to identify women at risk of cervical cancer among those with high-risk HPV infection (hrHPV+) are needed. Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. We aimed at identifying miRNAs with the capacity to distinguish high (CIN2+) and low (≤ CIN1) grade cervical lesions. We sequenced miRNA libraries from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues from women with CIN2+ (n = 10) and age-matched women with ≤ CIN1 (n = 10), randomly and retrospectively selected from a trial that followed women for 24 months after a hrHPV+ test at the screening visit. Five miRNAs differentially expressed were validated by …


Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield May 2023

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield

Honors Scholar Theses

Antibiotic treatment failure is a public health crisis, with a 2019 report stating that roughly 35,000 deaths occur in the United States yearly due to bacterial infections that are unresponsive to antibiotics (1). One complication in the treatment of bacterial infection is antibiotic persistence which further compromises our battle to effectively treat infection. Bacterial persisters can exist in clonal bacterial cultures and can tolerate antibiotic treatment by undergoing reversible phenotypic changes. They can survive drug concentrations that their genetically identical kin cannot. Some persisters remain in a slow growing state and are difficult to target with current antibiotics. A specific …


Center Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcomes Associated With Covid-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study, Haley Williams, Kayla Woodworth May 2023

Center Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcomes Associated With Covid-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study, Haley Williams, Kayla Woodworth

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects: College of Nursing

Background: Traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a multidisciplinary, multifaceted program for cardiac patients. Throughout the Covid-19 pandemic, health care, including center-based CR (CBCR) programs, were closed to in-person sessions. Even with the return to CBCR participation, patient outcomes may have been affected by this disruption in care. The goal of this study was to determine if CR participation outcomes differed before and after CBCR program closure due to Covid-19.

Methods: A retrospective comparative cohort design was used to examine CR participant outcome data before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Convenience sampling of CR participants at a large, urban …


Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin May 2023

Echinomycin As A Promising Therapeutic Agent Against Kshv-Related Malignancies, Jungang Chen, Zhen Lin, Jiao Song, Karlie Plaisance-Bonstaff, Jennifer James, Shengyu Mu, Steven R. Post, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several human cancers, including Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients while lack of effective therapeutic options. Oncoproteins Myc and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) have been found closely related to KSHV infection, replication and oncogenesis. However, the strategies of dual targeting these two oncoproteins have never been developed and tested for treatments of KSHV-related malignancies. In the current study, we report that treatment of echinomycin dramatically regresses cell growth both in vitro-cultured KSHV + tumor cells and in vivo KS or PEL xenograft mice models, …


An Overview Of Viruses And The Infamous Sars-Cov-2, Jake Sun May 2023

An Overview Of Viruses And The Infamous Sars-Cov-2, Jake Sun

The Confluence

Background information on viruses is first presented which include topics like evolution, ecology, history, identification, structure, and application. The novel SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, pandemic originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Millions of people were infected with the virus in a short time period causing urgent concern worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief and general understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 to increase awareness and actions toward preventive measures. COVID-19 is a (+) ssRNA spherical enveloped virion that causes primarily respiratory illnesses. The S protein interacts with ACE-2 receptors on the host cell to gain entry …


Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna Mitchell May 2023

Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna Mitchell

Poster Presentations

Honors research poster.

Haemaphysalis longicornis is a species of tick native to eastern Asia, including eastern China, Japan, eastern Russia, and Korea. To date, it has invaded and has now established its existence in Australia, New Zealand, and several of the Pacific Islands. This species of tick has recently been introduced to the United States, having a confirmed sighting in November 2017 on a sheep farm in New Jersey and since establishing populations in 18 states along the east coast and Appalachia. Based on the existing locations of H. longicornis in its native regions, as well as in the United …


Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker May 2023

Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses faster in males than females; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Sex differences in glomerular capillary morphology has been hypothesized to contribute, in part, to the increased susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury and CKD progression in males, but this has not been investigated. The goal of the present study was to assess glomerular capillary morphology in male vs. female rats with intact kidneys and after uninephrectomy (UNX). We hypothesized that glomerular capillary radii (RCAP) and length (LCAP) would be greater in male rats.

Male (n=4) and female (n=4) with intact …


Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell May 2023

Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory-Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna L. Mitchell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks are invasive to the United States with potential to transmit several tick-borne pathogens that are native to the United States. Based on existing locations of H. longicornis in its native regions in Asia, as well as its invasive populations that are established in the United States, several geographic range prediction models have been produced to help understand future range expansion and distribution of this invasive tick in North America. Unfortunately, these models do not all agree and there is uncertainty associated with the potential geographic range expansion of H. longicornis ticks in North America. Climate can affect …


Identification Of Molecular Markers Associated With Copd In Non-Smokers And Smokers: A Bioinformatics Analysis, Agede O. Ayodele, Isa M. Wasagu, Ademola E. Fawibe, Alakija K. Salami May 2023

Identification Of Molecular Markers Associated With Copd In Non-Smokers And Smokers: A Bioinformatics Analysis, Agede O. Ayodele, Isa M. Wasagu, Ademola E. Fawibe, Alakija K. Salami

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background

Even though the proportional burden of COPD among never-smokers is significant in both developing and developed nations, accounting for around 30% of all COPD in the community, there is little awareness of the prevalence of COPD in this population. Understanding the molecular processes that underlie COPD in nonsmokers is essential.

Methods

Dataset (GSE146560) was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The limma and clusterProfiler software tools were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and conduct a functional enrichment analysis respectively.

Results

In all, 10,583 DEGs were found, of which 1,065 were up-regulated and 9,518 were down-regulated. The …


Leptospira Seroprevalence In Companion Animals In Tennessee, Kellie Anne Mccreight May 2023

Leptospira Seroprevalence In Companion Animals In Tennessee, Kellie Anne Mccreight

Masters Theses

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in humans and animals. The bacteria Leptospira spp. causing this disease is maintained in the kidneys of animals such as rodents and cattle as well as in the environment. Animals harboring Leptospira spp. in the kidneys frequently shed the bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Contact with contaminated soil and water may result in infection. Animals and humans may develop serious life threatening disease from Leptospira infection. Approximately 1 million new human cases and over 50,000 deaths are reported worldwide. Numerous animal species including rodents, cattle, and dogs may serve as reservoir …


Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel Apr 2023

Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

The oral microbiome is an important predictor of health and disease. We recently reported significant yet modest effects of HIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the oral microbiome (bacterial and fungal) in a large cohort of HIV-positive (HIV+) and matched HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. As it was unclear whether ART added to or masked further effects of HIV on the oral microbiome, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of HIV and ART independently, which also included HIV- subjects on preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy. Cross-sectional analyses of the effect of HIV devoid of ART (HIV+ ART- versus matched …


Exploring The Possible Phenomenon Of Viral Interference Between The Novel Coronavirus And Common Respiratory Viruses, Spencer Deleveaux, Alexandria Clarke-Kregor, Xavier Fonseca-Fuentes, Essam Mekhaiel Apr 2023

Exploring The Possible Phenomenon Of Viral Interference Between The Novel Coronavirus And Common Respiratory Viruses, Spencer Deleveaux, Alexandria Clarke-Kregor, Xavier Fonseca-Fuentes, Essam Mekhaiel

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

At the peak of the 2021 wave of the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant in North America, there was concern for a superimposed wave of viral respiratory infections. There was, however, an apparent shift in the usual epidemiology of these pathogens, especially during the traditional influenza season from approximately October 2020 to March 2021. This article seeks to briefly describe the epidemiology of notable respiratory pathogens during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and to focus on one possible factor for the trends observed. There are many contributory elements to the observed viral trends, but in particular, we present a synopsis …


Investigating The Antibacterial And Immunomodulatory Properties Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Postbiotics, Rachael M. Wilson Apr 2023

Investigating The Antibacterial And Immunomodulatory Properties Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Postbiotics, Rachael M. Wilson

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that have been extensively studied for their ability to prevent various infectious, gastrointestinal, and autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms underlying these probiotic effects have not been elucidated. However, we and other researchers have evidence suggesting that probiotic bacteria secrete metabolites that are antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. As such, we developed a methodology to collect the secreted metabolites from a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and tested this cell free filtrate (CFF) both in vitro and in vivo. Using this CFF, we have demonstrated that L. acidophilus secretes a molecule(s) that has specific bactericidal activity against the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas …