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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Sea-Phages Research Opportunity, Sarah Ballarin Oct 2022

Sea-Phages Research Opportunity, Sarah Ballarin

Trick to the Treat of Internships and Research

Research opportunity targeted for freshmen and sophomores through the SEA-PHAGES program. The goal of the research is to discover new bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to help combat antibiotic resistance. Phage therapy is a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Phages have also been widely used in the food industry to prevent microbial growth on certain foods and are currently being explored as a method for bioremediation of oil spills and wastewater treatment.

Last year, my research team discovered two new bacteriophages: Genamy16 and NovaSharks that were able to infect the bacteria Gordonia rubripertincta. These phages can possibly be used for …


Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo Do Oct 2022

Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo Do

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong Aug 2022

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak Aug 2022

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these …


Safety And Efficacy Of Silver-Coated Biomaterials In Vivo, Megan Klem, Darien L. Seidman, Rahyan Mahmoud, Manuella Adu, Lei Yu, Jeffrey Hettinger, Renee M Demarest May 2022

Safety And Efficacy Of Silver-Coated Biomaterials In Vivo, Megan Klem, Darien L. Seidman, Rahyan Mahmoud, Manuella Adu, Lei Yu, Jeffrey Hettinger, Renee M Demarest

Stratford Campus Research Day

Overtreatment and overuse of antibiotics in healthcare and agricultural settings have contributed to the selective pressure on bacterial strains to develop resistance. Resistance can develop as a result of mutations and subsequent resistance genes that allow bacteria to survive against antibiotics. Novel silver-oxide coatings were developed and were previously demonstrated to prevent adhesion of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia Coli and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa) to the disc, but did not prevent gram-positive bacterial adherence (Streptococcus Aureus). In order to determine whether the silver-oxide coatings are bacterial static and may be preventing progression to biofilm formation, in vivo analysis of S. Aureus attached to …


An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar May 2022

An Herbal Liver Effect: Ashwagandha-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Mohammad Rattu, Eric Maddock, James Espinosa, Alan Lucerna, Neeharika Bhatnagar

Stratford Campus Research Day

Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb that is derived from the extracts of the roots of Withania somnifera, an evergreen shrub endemic to India and Southeast Asia. It is generally utilized as a tonic to increase one’s energy and reduce stress levels. Often referred to as “Indian ginseng”, it provides neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that address stress, pain, and fatigue. Additionally, it may assist in dealing with rashes, diabetes, and arthritis. It has also been shown to counteract the effects of aging. Though these properties have not been shown in prospective studies, it has become a popular product among western …


Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff Apr 2022

Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff

Scholars Day Conference

Antibiotics will not be used forever by society due to antibiotic resistance. By the year 2050, it is predicted to have caused millions of casualties throughout the world. Thankfully, bacteriophages and phage therapy could be a potential solution to this problem.


New Paenibacillus Bacteria Genome Assembly, Makenna Kager Apr 2022

New Paenibacillus Bacteria Genome Assembly, Makenna Kager

Scholars Day Conference

Due to DLA16’s ability to produce antibiotics it was selected for whole genome sequencing.


Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti Apr 2022

Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti

Student Scholar Showcase

Widespread antibiotic resistance has quickly become one of the most concerning crises affecting modern medicine, especially in cases of Staphylococcal infections, which have become resistant to all ��-lactam antibiotics. As a result, research into alternative forms of treatment for bacterial infections is a top priority. Bacteriophage therapy is a popular candidate for replacing antibiotics, due to the way the viruses interact with the bacteria. The 80�� prophage integrates its DNA into Staphylococcus aureus strain 10616 via the lysogenic cycle, and replicates with the bacterial cell. When stressed, the bacteria stop replicating and the prophage stimulates the lytic cycle, activating transcription …


Outcomes Of Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration In Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcal Bacteremia, Theresa Tran Mar 2022

Outcomes Of Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration In Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcal Bacteremia, Theresa Tran

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez Mar 2022

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


S-Layer Increases Predation Ability Of Myxococcus Xanthus Aug 2021

S-Layer Increases Predation Ability Of Myxococcus Xanthus

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative soil bacterium that exhibits micro-predatory activities. When starved, M. xanthus produces resistant spores within fruiting bodies for survival. The S-layer is a paracrystalline structure intertwined in many different patterns and is composed of proteins or glycoproteins. A species that produces the S-layer is Aeromonas. A. salmonicida is a strain of Aeromonas that infects fish. A. hydrophila is another pathogenic strain that causes a wide range of human diseases. We investigated the ability of the S-layer to protect Aeromonas from predation by Myxobacteria. Methods: Myxococcus and prey Aeromonas cultures were standardized to a concentration …


Molecular Detection Of Aspergillus Flavus In Georgia Peanut, Variety Tifguard., Carolle Zolome Aug 2021

Molecular Detection Of Aspergillus Flavus In Georgia Peanut, Variety Tifguard., Carolle Zolome

Symposium of Student Scholars

Peanuts provide a good source of protein, minerals, and vitamins to consumers. The US peanut industry suffers great losses of nearly $26 million annually due to contamination by Aspergillus species. In spite of strict control measures against Aspergillus species, the industry is still facing economic loss due to contamination by this mold. Poor storage of peanuts in commercial outlets can lead to infection by the mold, releasing aflatoxin which is carcinogenic. A number of DNA based techniques are currently available for identification of the fungal population. This research aims at identifying if peanut, the variety Tifguard which is highly recommended …


Effects Of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus Flavus In Peanuts, Onachukwu Nwolisa Aug 2021

Effects Of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus Flavus In Peanuts, Onachukwu Nwolisa

Symposium of Student Scholars

Effects of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus flavus in peanuts**

Ona Nwolisa and Premila N Achar1

1Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA.

Aspergillus flavus is known to contaminate peanuts and produce aflatoxin which are carcinogenic metabolites. According to the USDA, more than $1 billion is spent on infection and prevention. Currently there is no single method known to eradicate Aspergillus spp. in peanuts and the industry continue to face the aflatoxin problem. There has been an increased interest in use of plant based antifungal products which are environmentally friendly and …


Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker May 2021

Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker

Symposium of Student Scholars

Many habitats face fluctuating temperatures year round. The animals that live there are typically able to adjust their behaviors to match these conditions. When temperatures become too extreme, however, it could potentially start having a negative effect on the animal’s reproductive success. In birds, for example, severe climate can affect their eggs and nestlings due to nestlings lacking the ability to thermoregulate. The parents then have to bear the responsibility of thermoregulation for their young, through a behavior called incubation or brooding. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are a species of birds common across the United States where both …


Refining The Optimal First Treatment For Pediatric Breast Abscesses, Kayla B. Briggs May 2021

Refining The Optimal First Treatment For Pediatric Breast Abscesses, Kayla B. Briggs

Research Days

Background: We previously reported treatment and outcomes of children with untreated, not spontaneously draining (UTND) breast abscesses. What has not been well defined however are those with previously treated, not spontaneously draining (PTND) pediatric breast abscesses. In general, a more conservative approach is favored in children with breast abscesses to avoid damage to the developing breast bud.

Objectives/Goal: We sought to determine if care at a pediatric tertiary referral center impacts disease persistence rate.

Methods/Design: Following IRB approval, patientstherapy.

Results: In all, 114 patients met inclusion criteria, 96 in the UTND group and 18 in the PTND group (Figure 1). …


Neuroactivational And Behavioral Correlates Of Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine Seeking In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Stephany J. Mcdonald, Samantha De Guzman, Nicole E. Hubbard, Colin M. Kulick-Soper, Jessica J. Debski, Bianca Patel, Daniel Manvich May 2021

Neuroactivational And Behavioral Correlates Of Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine Seeking In Rats, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Stephany J. Mcdonald, Samantha De Guzman, Nicole E. Hubbard, Colin M. Kulick-Soper, Jessica J. Debski, Bianca Patel, Daniel Manvich

Stratford Campus Research Day

A prominent feature of cocaine abuse is a high risk of relapse even despite prolonged periods of abstinence. Psychosocial stress is thought to be a major contributor to the onset of cocaine craving and relapse in human substance abusers, yet most preclinical models of stress-induced relapse employ physical stressors (e.g., unpredictable footshock) or pharmacological stressors (e.g., yohimbine to elicit a drug seeking response) and do not rely upon psychosocial stress per se. Importantly, social stressors are well known to activate distinct neural circuits within the brain as compared to other stressors. It is therefore possible that currently available animal models …


Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood May 2021

Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood

Stratford Campus Research Day

Social behavior is inextricably linked to human health, shaping both our susceptibility and resilience to disease and stress. Positive interactions as simple as maternal contact or friendships among children and adults can protect against emotional distress and improve treatment outcomes, whereas negative interactions such as abuse, social isolation, or bullying can increase aggression and precipitate mood disorders. Discovering the structure and function of neural circuits underlying social behavior is critical to understanding the link between social interaction and health. The neuropeptide vasopressin has been implicated in the regulation of multiple social interactions including social memory, aggression, mating, pair-bonding, and parental …


289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith Apr 2021

289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith

GREAT Day

Neurospora crassa is a model filamentous fungal organism that can reproduce both asexually and sexually. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the N. crassa female sexual development cycle. The transcription factor fsd-1 is necessary for sexual development, and fsd-1 deletion strains show delayed development of female reproductive structures and are sterile. Through previous experiments, we have been able to determine that there are three different transcripts of the fsd-1 gene, which differ by the length and intron/exon structure of their 5’ untranslated region. This project focuses on phenotypically characterizing the reproductive ability of strains overexpressing fsd-1, for …


Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates Apr 2021

Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates

Ramaley Celebration

Many different diving ducks in the Midwest are hosts to parasites like cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. These parasites often live in the ducks gastrointestinal tract and use the ducks chyme and intestinal tissues to thrive. For this research, local hunters volunteered to donate diving duck carcasses they harvested. Ducks donated were cut open on the ventral side from esophagus to cloaca. Major organs were separated into bottles containing 0.85% saline, shaken, settled, and then the supernatant removed multiple times to isolate any parasites residing within the duck’s organs and tissues. Any parasites found in dissected diving ducks organ wash were …


Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans Nov 2019

Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans

Symposium of Student Scholars

White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is responsible for the extensive mortality of bats in the United States. In an effort to develop tools to reduce bat mortality attributed to WNS, an in vitro experiment was conducted to quantify the inhibitory effects of select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as explore potential synergistic activities. The experiment involved exposing mycelial plugs of P. destructans to various concentrations of B23 as well as B23 and decanal together at equimolar ratios. Measurements of the plugs were taken over the course of the 13 day experiment allowing …


Using Empirical And Theoretical Approaches To Control Outbreaks Of An Emerging Disease (Swimmer’S Itch) In The Midwest Of The U.S.A., Gregory J. Sandland, James Peirce Oct 2019

Using Empirical And Theoretical Approaches To Control Outbreaks Of An Emerging Disease (Swimmer’S Itch) In The Midwest Of The U.S.A., Gregory J. Sandland, James Peirce

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Phylogenetic Estimates Of Hiv-1 Gp120 Indel Rates Across The Group M Subtypes, John Palmer, Art Poon Jun 2019

Phylogenetic Estimates Of Hiv-1 Gp120 Indel Rates Across The Group M Subtypes, John Palmer, Art Poon

Western Research Forum

Insertions and deletions (indels) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 play a significant role in the evolution of HIV pathogenesis and transmission fitness. While substitution rates in HIV-1 are well characterized by phylogenetic models, there is a lack of quantitative measures of indel rates in HIV-1. Here we use a dated-tip phylogenetic analysis of gp120 sequences to estimate indel rates for 7 subtypes and CRFs of HIV-1 group M.

We obtained and processed 26,359 HIV-1 gp120 sequences from the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV Sequence database. After filtering these sequences, we extracted the conserved and variable regions from the remaining …


Network Analyses Of Glomerular Capillaries, Jason Cory Brunson, Justin Sardi, Mark Terasaki May 2019

Network Analyses Of Glomerular Capillaries, Jason Cory Brunson, Justin Sardi, Mark Terasaki

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Amphotercin Washout Of Fungal Peritonitis In Liver Transplant Recipient: A Novel Approach, Ann Thompson Do, Mara Piltin Do, Alyssa Imperatore Do, Ely Sebastian Md, Sandra Paluzzi Md May 2019

Amphotercin Washout Of Fungal Peritonitis In Liver Transplant Recipient: A Novel Approach, Ann Thompson Do, Mara Piltin Do, Alyssa Imperatore Do, Ely Sebastian Md, Sandra Paluzzi Md

Stratford Campus Research Day

Invasive fungal infection has a significant prevalence among organ transplant patients and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Fungal infection is difficult to identify early and subsequently difficult to effectively treat. In this case presentation we have a 45 y/o orthotopic liver transplant recipient who was profoundly sick from fungal peritonitis and due to the appearance of her abdomen and intestines, with the help of infectious disease, decided to proceed with direct amphotercin washout of the abdomen in the operating room. The patient had complete resolution of her fungal peritonitis and is doing well.


Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen Apr 2019

Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Ultramicrobacteria (UMB) are a largely uncultured, globally abundant, and metabolically active group of bacteria. UMB have cell diameters ≤0.3μm, cell volumes ≤0.1 μm3, and small streamlined genomes. Recent findings indicate that UMB aid in bioremediation and nutrient cycling, but future investigations and comprehension of current findings are skewed by highly variable nomenclature and a lack of databases for functional, genomic, geochemical, or spatial data specific to candidate UMB. We aim to develop a user-friendly open-access database of various UMB candidates linked to an open-access online map where researchers can gather genomic, spatial, and geochemical data. Our comprehensive review of literature …


Comparison Of Immunohistochemistry Methods For Visualization Of Middle Eastern Respiratory Viral Antigen, Elena Carlos Apr 2019

Comparison Of Immunohistochemistry Methods For Visualization Of Middle Eastern Respiratory Viral Antigen, Elena Carlos

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Although there have been less than 2,400 cases reported, the case fatality rate is 35%. Dromedary camels are the known host animal for the virus. However, they are difficult to manage experimental animals. In a recent study, alpacas proved to be a suitable experimental animal to further characterize MERS-CoV infection. Our work is part of a wider project focused on studying the efficacy of MERS-CoV antigen and RNA labeling in infected alpaca tissues, when these tissues are preserved in novel modular alcohol fixatives …


An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey Mar 2019

An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stimulants are a class of drugs that have a variety of effects on the brain, including changes in receptor activity in the brain areas responsible for- memory, attention, emotion, motor control, and the reward pathway. Stimulants may be generally classified by their availability. For example, prescription stimulants, which include drugs such as methylphenidate (Concerta™, Ritalin™) and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall™), must be prescribed by medical professionals. Another regulated stimulant, albeit one available without a prescription, is nicotine; a highly addictive chemical that is age-restricted by the U.S. federal government. Nicotine is found in tobacco products, and in tobacco-free alternatives including …


Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust Oct 2018

Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah Apr 2018

Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Introduction:

Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram negative ubiquitous bacteria commonly isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, fruits and animal/human feces usually introduced to human by ingestion of infected fruits/vegetables, thorn pricks and gastrointestinal translocation in lack of stomach acidity. However, the pathogen can also cause opportunistic human infection especially when the immune system is impaired. The aim of this case report is to investigate clinical features in a patient with P. agglomerans bacteremia and bring attention the opportunistic infection by this rare bacteria.

Case presentation:

We present a case of 57 year old caucasian lady with past medical history …