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2015

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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Fungal Melanin: What Do We Know About Structure?, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall Dec 2015

Fungal Melanin: What Do We Know About Structure?, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall

Publications and Research

The production of melanin significantly enhances the virulence of many important human pathogenic fungi. Despite fungal melanin’s importance in human disease, as well as melanin’s contribution to the ability of fungi to survive in diverse hostile environments, the structure of melanin remains unsolved. Nevertheless, ongoing research efforts have progressively revealed several notable structural characteristics of this enigmatic pigment, which will be the focus of this review. These compositional and organizational insights could further our ability to develop novel therapeutic approaches to combat fungal disease and enhance our understanding of how melanin is inserted into the cell wall.


Mechanisms Of Adaptation In The Newly Invasive Species Brachypodium Sylvaticum (Hudson) Beauv., Gina Lola Marchini Dec 2015

Mechanisms Of Adaptation In The Newly Invasive Species Brachypodium Sylvaticum (Hudson) Beauv., Gina Lola Marchini

Dissertations and Theses

It is common knowledge that invasive species cause worldwide ecological and economic damage, and are nearly impossible to eradicate. However, upon introduction to a novel environment, alien species should be the underdogs: They are present in small numbers, possess low genetic diversity, and have not adapted to the climate and competitors present in the new habitat. So, how are alien species able to invade an environment occupied by native species that have already adapted to the local environment? To discover some answers to this apparent paradox I conducted four ecological genetic studies that utilized the invasive species Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson) …


Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard Dec 2015

Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 ushered in a new era of fiscal accountability for healthcare organizations. Healthcare organizations and providers are now jointly held responsible for the improved quality of patient care and sustained reductions in patient care events termed healthcare-acquired conditions. To ensure compliance with this newly enacted legislation, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began penalizing hospitals for targeted conditions leading to 30-day readmissions beginning in October 2012. Annually, CMS has focused attention on conditions that endanger patient health and welfare while secondarily attempting to reduce the excessive financial expenditures in …


Changes In Gut And Plasma Microbiome Following Exercise Challenge In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Me/Cfs), Sanjay K. Shukla, Dane B. Cook, Jacob Meyer, Suzanne D. Vernon, Thảo Lê, Derek Clevidence, Charles E. Robertson, Steven J. Schrodi, Steven Yale, Daniel N. Frank Dec 2015

Changes In Gut And Plasma Microbiome Following Exercise Challenge In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Me/Cfs), Sanjay K. Shukla, Dane B. Cook, Jacob Meyer, Suzanne D. Vernon, Thảo Lê, Derek Clevidence, Charles E. Robertson, Steven J. Schrodi, Steven Yale, Daniel N. Frank

Jacob Meyer

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by intense and debilitating fatigue not due to physical activity that has persisted for at least 6 months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, and accompanied by a number of secondary symptoms, including sore throat, memory and concentration impairment, headache, and muscle/joint pain. In patients with post-exertional malaise, significant worsening of symptoms occurs following physical exertion and exercise challenge serves as a useful method for identifying biomarkers for exertion intolerance. . Evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis and systemic responses to gut microorganisms may play a role in the symptomology of ME/CFS. As such, …


How The Rat Turned White, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

How The Rat Turned White, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

This is the first in a three-part series on the use of animals in psychological research. In it, I describe how animals got into laboratories in the first place, and their purpose and life there. In the second, I will describe animal model research, the strategy whereby psychologists' develop nonhuman animal models to study human psychopathology. In the concluding piece, I will present a critique of this enterprise, using original data I gathered. The three articles are based on a forthcoming book, Animal Models of Human Psychology: Science, Ethics, and Policy.


A Rodent For Your Thoughts: The Animal Model Strategy In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

A Rodent For Your Thoughts: The Animal Model Strategy In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

In this second of three essays, I describe how the early modern psychologists adopted the strategy of further transforming rats and other species into models of human thought, feeling, and behavior, and, particularly, of disorders of these - in effect taking "a rodent for your thoughts." In the third essay I will provide a critique and empirically-based evaluation of animal model research. Here I indicate what the model strategy in the biomedical sciences, properly understand, is intended to achieve and how, by contrast, particular models are presented to the public and funding agencies. Finally, I describe how they are utilized …


Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

In this chapter, I present a psychology primer for the uninitiated, with special emphasis on psychology's uses of animals. After sketching the scope of the field generally, I review available data on present numbers and species of animals used in psychological research, level of suffering induced and current trends. I also provide several concrete examples of psychological research involving animals. Finally, the chapter concludes with a presentation of attitudes of psychologists toward animals and these practices.


Evaluation Of Animal Model Research, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Animal Model Research, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

It is argued that a concept of evaluation of animal models that is broader and more useful than validation is available. Productive generativity refers to the degree to which a model furthers understanding and leads to more-effective treatment interventions. Results of the application of this novel evaluative frame to several animal models of eating disorders show that this animal-based research has not been productive. The question of the relation between clinic and animal laboratory is discussed.


The Ingrown World Of Animal Model Research In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

The Ingrown World Of Animal Model Research In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

In the previous essay, I described the proper function of models in science as heuristic, as a way of generating hypotheses about the actual object of study. Turning to animal models in psychology, I offered a general characterization of that enterprise using sham feeding, an animal model of the eating disorder called bulimia, as an example. In this final of three essays, I offer an evaluation of this animal model strategy that largely employs the tools of social science. I close with a recommendation and a prediction.


Understanding Dogs Through Kinesthetic Empathy, Social Construction, And History, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Understanding Dogs Through Kinesthetic Empathy, Social Construction, And History, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

The term, "come into animal presence," she takes from the title of a Denise Levertov poem. The poem, which reads, in part, "What joy when the insouciant armadillo glances at us and doesn't quicken his trotting across the track into the palm bush. What is this joy?" This joy is the possibility of our being in the presence of animals for "(t)he armadillo has some intention to pursue in the palm forest." This joy, to which I invite you here, consists in dwelling in that presence, in inhabiting that intention, that armored but guileless world of the armadillo. I will …


Use Morality As Basis For Animal Treatment, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Use Morality As Basis For Animal Treatment, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

No abstract provided.


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe Dec 2015

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they achieve …


Olfactory Enrichment In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus), Mystera M. Samuelson Dec 2015

Olfactory Enrichment In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus), Mystera M. Samuelson

Dissertations

In the wild, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide array of sensory information at all times. However, it is impossible for captive environments to provide this level of complexity. Therefore unique procedures and practices are necessary for the maintenance of physiological and psychological health in captive animals (Wells, 2009). This project aims to explore the behavioral effect of scent added to the environment, with the goal of improving the welfare of captive sea lions by introducing two scent types: 1.) Natural scents, found in their native environment, and 2.) Non-natural scents, not found in …


Genetic Control Of Survival And Weight Loss During Pneumonic Burkholderia Pseudomallei (Bp) Infection, Felicia D. Emery Dec 2015

Genetic Control Of Survival And Weight Loss During Pneumonic Burkholderia Pseudomallei (Bp) Infection, Felicia D. Emery

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is a saprophytic, gram-negative aerobe and the causative agent of the disease melioidosis. Melioidosis is an infectious disease that occurs in humans and animals and is prevalent in Southeast Asia, northern Australia and other tropical areas. Transmission occurs through direct contact with the organism via ingestion, inhalation, or through open wounds and skin abrasions. Clinical presentation is extremely variable and can range from acute septicemia with bacterial dissemination to distant sites, to an isolated pulmonary infection. Treatment of melioidosis can be problematic because it is often difficult to diagnose and Bp is resistant to a diverse group …


Development Of Oral Vaccines Against Lyme Disease, Rita Raquel Dos Anjos De Carvalho E Melo Dec 2015

Development Of Oral Vaccines Against Lyme Disease, Rita Raquel Dos Anjos De Carvalho E Melo

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Lyme Disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. If left untreated, it can lead to permanent damage to the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. In some cases, patients that receive the recommended antibiotic therapy develop a debilitating health condition associated with substantial health care costs. Despite current preventive measures, the incidence and the geographic distribution of Lyme Disease continues to increase. Recent estimates from CDC suggest that the true number of cases of Lyme Disease in the US is approximately 300,000 per year. Yet, there is currently no vaccine …


Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera Nov 2015

Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera

Zea E-Books Collection

Este libro es el producto del trabajo colegiado que han desarrollado los profesores, investigadores, y estudiantes que conforman la Red Temática de Calidad Ambiental y Desarrollo Sustentable, a través del macroproyecto “Evaluación del impacto ambiental por actividades antropogénicas: Alternativas de mitigación”. El cual fue apoyado con recursos financieros por parte del Programa para el Desarrollo Profesional Docente (PRODEP), de la Secretaria de Educación Pública (SEP) en México. Las instituciones de educación superior y cuerpos participantes en la red temática son la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Uso, Manejo y Conservación de la Biodiversidad UAEHCA- 10; Ciencias Ambientales UAEH-CA-59); Universidad …


Characterization Of The Reconstituted And Native Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Type Iii Secretion System Translocon, Kathryn R. Monopoli Nov 2015

Characterization Of The Reconstituted And Native Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Type Iii Secretion System Translocon, Kathryn R. Monopoli

Masters Theses

The Type III Secretion (T3S) system is a system utilized by many pathogenic bacteria to inject proteins into host cells during an infection. Effector proteins enter the host cell by passing through the proteinaceous T3S translocon, which forms a pore on the host cell membrane. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that utilizes the T3S system, and very little is known about how the P. aeruginosa translocon forms.

The proteins PopB and PopD are believed to assemble into the P. aeruginosa translocon. A pore-forming heterocomplex of PopB and PopD has been reconstituted in model membranes, however this heterocomplex has not …


Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley A. Bernhard, Melissa A. Lemke Nov 2015

Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley A. Bernhard, Melissa A. Lemke

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Neonatal death rate in the United States is 4/1,000 live births; infant death rate is 6/1,000. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) may be transmitted from a colonized mother (rates vary from 15% to 35%) to the newborn during a vaginal delivery, and may contribute to neonatal death.

Purpose: To explore the geographic distribution and associated risk factors for maternal GBS colonization and infant death prior to discharge in eastern Wisconsin births.

Methods: Retrospective study of institutional data from PeriData.net, a comprehensive birth registry, utilizing data from 2007 through 2013 at all Aurora medical centers. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square …


Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian Nov 2015

Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian

John Hadidian, PhD

Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in …


Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro Oct 2015

Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

By way of introducing Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PsyETA) to readers of the journal, I have been asked to make some comments about the organization and, from a personal point of view, to suggest some of my own positions and views.


The State Of Human-Animal Studies, Kenneth Shapiro, Margo Demello Oct 2015

The State Of Human-Animal Studies, Kenneth Shapiro, Margo Demello

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

The growth of human-animal studies (HAS) over the past twenty years can be seen in the explosion of new books, journals, conferences, organizations, college programs, listserves, and courses, both in the United States and throughout Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. We look as well at trends in the field, including the increasing popularity of animal-assisted therapy programs, the rise of new fields like trans-species psychology and critical animal studies, and the importance of animal welfare science. We also discuss the problems continuing to face the field, including the conservative culture of universities, the interdisciplinary nature of the field, the …


Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey Oct 2015

Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

Samples of numerous plant species were received from the southwestern part of the USA from Richard Spjut, and plant samples were collected here in Illinois. All were extracted with typical solvents, giving crude residues, some of which were subjected to counter-current or flash chromatographic methods. Some of the crude extracts and chromatographic fractions had anti-tuberculosis and/or antibacterial activity.

In a general way, bioactive natural products are dealt with very well by Liang & Fang, 2006. More specifically, the southwestern part of the United States has a large variety of indigenous plants, many of which have not been investigated for their …


A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe Oct 2015

A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The physical characteristics of bacteriophages establish them as viable candidates for downstream development of pathogen detection assays and biocontrol measures. To utilize phages for such purposes, a detailed knowledge of their host interaction mechanisms is a prerequisite. There is currently a wealth of knowledge available concerning Gram-negative phage-host interaction, but little by comparison for Gram-positive phages and Listeria phages in particular. In this research, the lytic spectrum of two recently isolated Listeria monocytogenes phages (vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293) was determined, and the genomic basis for their observed serotype 4b/4e host-specificity was investigated using comparative genomics. The late tail genes of these …


Investigating The Regulation Of A Fatty Acid Efflux Pump In Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, James Et Schneider Sep 2015

Investigating The Regulation Of A Fatty Acid Efflux Pump In Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, James Et Schneider

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA300 has rapidly achieved pandemic status in the community setting. To persist on human hosts, USA300 requires mechanisms to overcome innate immune defenses of the skin, which include antimicrobial unsaturated free fatty acids (uFFAs). This study evaluated efflux mediated mechanisms of resistance to uFFA. tet38 encoding an efflux pump that was previously implicated in resistance to palmitoleic acid, was found to have no role in resistance to uFFA. Conversely, the farE encoded efflux pump conferred resistance to linoleic and arachidonic acid, but not palmitoleic acid. farE expression was induced by uFFA, but …


Rapid Label-Free Detection Of E. Coli Using Antimicrobial Peptide Assisted Impedance Spectroscopy, Keren Jieng, Hashem Etayash, Sarfuddin Azmi, Selvaraj Naicker, Mahtab Hassanpourfard, Parmiss Mojir Shaibani, Garima Thakur, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat Aug 2015

Rapid Label-Free Detection Of E. Coli Using Antimicrobial Peptide Assisted Impedance Spectroscopy, Keren Jieng, Hashem Etayash, Sarfuddin Azmi, Selvaraj Naicker, Mahtab Hassanpourfard, Parmiss Mojir Shaibani, Garima Thakur, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

There is an increasing demand for rapid detection of waterborne pathogens to monitor drinking water safety. We demonstrate a compact, label-free sensor array for rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in contaminated water samples using antimicrobial peptide assisted impedimetric sensor platform. Interdigitated electrode arrays immobilized with the antimicrobial peptide Colicin V (ColV) were used to screen the affinity towards different bacterial strains by monitoring impedance variations in real-time. This ColV assisted impedance biosensor exhibited high selectivity towards Gram-negative strains particularly towards E. coli strains. This selective detection of E. coli from other strains was observed at 10 …


Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi Aug 2015

Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose. Antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, allowing significant progress in healthcare and improvement in life expectancy. Development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a natural phenomenon; however, the rate of antibiotic resistance emergence is increasing at an alarming rate, due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics in healthcare, agriculture and even everyday products. Traditionally, antibiotic discovery has been conducted by screening extracts of microorganisms for antimicrobial activity. However, this conventional source has been over-used to such an extent that it poses the risk of “running out” of new antibiotics. Aiming to increase access to a greater diversity of microorganisms, …


Pain In Aquatic Animals, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Pain In Aquatic Animals, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a …


What Do Zebrafish Want? Impact Of Social Grouping, Dominance And Gender On Preference For Enrichment, Paul Schroeder, Soffia Jones, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

What Do Zebrafish Want? Impact Of Social Grouping, Dominance And Gender On Preference For Enrichment, Paul Schroeder, Soffia Jones, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Although environmental enrichment is known to improve laboratory rodent wellbeing and enhance scientific data collection, relatively little is known with regards to the type of enrichment that might be useful for zebrafish (Danio rerio). Therefore, this study explored if zebrafish displayed preferences for a range of enrichments, including substrates, artificial plants, combinations thereof and airstones. Tanks divided into two compartments containing different enrichment cues were used to determine the preferences of zebrafish housed in pairs and groups of eight. When comparing time spent in enriched versus barren compartments, dominant individuals in a pair displayed a preference for substrate and behaviourally …


Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan C. Reilly, Anja Kipar, David J. Hughes, John P. Quinn, Andrew R. Cossins, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan C. Reilly, Anja Kipar, David J. Hughes, John P. Quinn, Andrew R. Cossins, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The Van Gogh-like 2 (vangl2) gene is typically associated with planar cell polarity pathways, which is essential for correct orientation of epithelial cells during development. The encoded protein of this gene is a transmembrane protein and is highly conserved through evolution. Van Gogh-like 2 was selected for further study on the basis of consistent regulation after a nociceptive stimulus in adult common carp and rainbow trout in a microarray study. An in situ hybridisation was conducted in the brain of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio), 1.5 and 3 h after a nociceptive stimulus comprising of an acetic acid injection to …


Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fish vaccine testing; and c) to discuss the way forward and set out how the Three Rs may be implemented without jeopardizing the quality of the vaccines. The workshop participants -- experts from academia, regulatory authorities, a scientific animal welfare organization, and the fish vaccine …