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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak Aug 2022

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these …


Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai Jul 2022

Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Precise enteric fever disease burden data are needed to inform prevention and control measures, including the use of newly available typhoid vaccines. We established the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) to inform these strategies.
Methods: From September, 2016, to September, 2019, we conducted prospective clinical surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and Paratyphi (S Paratyphi) A, B, and C at health facilities in predetermined catchment areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok, Nepal; and Karachi, Pakistan. Patients eligible for inclusion were outpatients with 3 or more consecutive days of fever in the last 7 …


Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta May 2022

Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: The application of molecular diagnostics has identified enteric group adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41 as important causes of diarrhea in children. However, many aspects of the epidemiology of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea have not been described.
Methods: We used data from the 8-site Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project birth cohort study to describe site- and age-specific incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and seasonality.
Results: The incidence of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea was substantially higher by quantitative polymerase chain reaction than enzyme immunoassay and peaked at ∼30 episodes …


Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino Apr 2022

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = …


Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani Apr 2022

Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Results: When tested on the baseline of isolated tissues, Tfg.Cr was devoid of any activity (stimulant or relaxant) till 10 mg/ml. This is an interesting finding, keeping in mind that the fenugreek seeds are used to alleviate constipation and diarrhoea. When Tfg.Cr was tried for any potential AChE inhibitory activity, it did show an inhibitory effect in increasing concentrations (47-380 μg/ml). This inhibitory effect was comparable to the effect produced by a standard AChE inhibitor physostigmine. One of the known fenugreek constituents, diosgenin, was also tested, and it also showed an AChE inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner (11-190 …


Healthcare Simulation: A Key To The Future Of Medical Education - A Review, Omair Ayaz, Faisal Wasim Ismail Apr 2022

Healthcare Simulation: A Key To The Future Of Medical Education - A Review, Omair Ayaz, Faisal Wasim Ismail

Medical College Documents

Aim: Simulation originates from its application in the military and aviation. It is implemented at various levels of healthcare education and certification today. However, its use remains unevenly distributed across the globe due to misconception regarding its cost and complexity and to lack of evidence for its consistency and validity. Implementation may also be hindered by an array of factors unique to the locale and its norms. Resource-poor settings may benefit from diverting external funds for short-term simulation projects towards collaboration with local experts and local material sourcing to reduce the overall cost and achieve long-term benefits. The recent shift …


A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor Apr 2022

A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pneumococcal serotype 35B is an important non-conjugate vaccine (non-PCV) serotype. Its continued emergence, post-PCV7 in the USA, was associated with expansion of a pre-existing 35B clone (clonal complex [CC] 558) along with post-PCV13 emergence of a non-35B clone previously associated with PCV serotypes (CC156). This study describes lineages circulating among 35B isolates in South Africa before and after PCV introduction. We also compared 35B isolates belonging to a predominant 35B lineage in South Africa (GPSC5), with isolates belonging to the same lineage in other parts of the world. Serotype 35B isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa in …


Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo Mar 2022

Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan Feb 2022

A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan

Medical College Documents

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), representing a new entity in the spectrum of manifestations of COVID-19, bears symptomatic resemblance with Kawasaki Disease (KD). This review explores the possible associations between KD and the human coronaviruses and discusses the pathophysiological similarities between KD and MIS-C and proposes implications for the pathogenesis of MIS-C in COVID-19. Since 2005, when a case-control study demonstrated the association of a strain of human coronavirus with KD, several studies have provided evidence regarding the association of different strains of the human coronaviruses with KD. Thus, the emergence of the KD-like disease MIS-C in COVID-19 may …


Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy Jan 2022

Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy

MSU Graduate Theses

Peritonitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the mesothelial cells that line the peritoneal cavity and is commonly induced by bowel perforations. This medical emergency is treated through antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention followed by tissue irrigation (lavage). Acute treatments aim to remove the bacterial burden, however recurring peritoneal infections occur at high rates and contribute to patient morbidity. These recurring infections are likely due to the inability of lavage solutions to remove the entire massive intra-abdominal bacterial load due to intestinal perforation. Numerous antiseptic solutions and antibiotic additives have been evaluated in their ability to improve source control by abdominal …


Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates Apr 2021

Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates

Ramaley Celebration

Many different diving ducks in the Midwest are hosts to parasites like cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. These parasites often live in the ducks gastrointestinal tract and use the ducks chyme and intestinal tissues to thrive. For this research, local hunters volunteered to donate diving duck carcasses they harvested. Ducks donated were cut open on the ventral side from esophagus to cloaca. Major organs were separated into bottles containing 0.85% saline, shaken, settled, and then the supernatant removed multiple times to isolate any parasites residing within the duck’s organs and tissues. Any parasites found in dissected diving ducks organ wash were …


Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena Jan 2021

Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Mammalian system consists of stress-sensing molecules that regulates their cellular response against damage, injury and oncogenic stress. During vertebrate regeneration, cells responding to injury re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate to form new tissue. Cell cycle re-entry or arrest is at least partly regulated by cellular senescence which negatively impacts the proliferative pool of cells during regeneration. What remains unclear is whether cells in regenerating systems possess an increased propensity to proliferate and are refractory to signals that induce senescence. My thesis work has focused on how fibroblasts from the ear pinna differentially regulate healing in highly regenerative mammals (e.g., …


Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr Dec 2020

Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr

Honors College Theses

Inteins (intervening proteins) invade genes at the DNA level and splice out at the protein level. Once thought of as only a parasitic type of a mobile genetic element, recent work suggests a mutualistic relationship has formed in some cases within bacterial and archaeal hosts. After translation, a precursor protein is formed with the intein between two exteins. The intein is catalytic and can excise itself out through protein splicing. Intein insertion is biased towards the active site of the protein and is thought to cause inactivation of the host protein prior to splicing. Intein splicing is responsive to a …


Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar Jul 2020

Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ethoxyresorufin (ER)-O-deethylation (EROD) activity has been widely used to assess cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity. The kinetics of CYP1A activity have been well characterized in the liver microsomes. However, studies in kidney microsomes are limited due to the much lower EROD activity in this organ. Here, we developed and validated a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the characterization of the EROD activity in the rat kidney microsomes. In a 50 µL reaction mixture, rat kidney microsomes (0.25 mg/mL) were incubated with ER (0.1–5 µM) and NADPH (1 mM) for 10 min. Acidic solvents, such as trichloroacetic acid or formic …


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl Apr 2020

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ. To …


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal Jan 2020

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows Dec 2019

Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Adipose tissue can be characterized as either being a white (energy storing) depot or a brown (energy expending) depot and both have been found to contain dense networks of neural innervation. This adipose nerve supply regulates numerous metabolic functions and likely plays an important role in the function of adipose blood vessels. Recently our lab has shown in the C57BL/6 mouse model that peripheral neuropathy, or the dying back and dysfunction of the nerves in the superficial tissues such as the skin, can extend into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in conditions commonly associated with the neuropathic phenotype (i.e. diabetes, obesity, …


Evaluation Of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Sleep-Deprived Menopausal- Induced Rats And The Impact On Bone Health, Nicole Ellsworth, Dwight Curry Iii, Cj Deleon, Frank Frisch Dec 2019

Evaluation Of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Sleep-Deprived Menopausal- Induced Rats And The Impact On Bone Health, Nicole Ellsworth, Dwight Curry Iii, Cj Deleon, Frank Frisch

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Post-menopausal osteoporosis as a consequence of estrogen depletion is a growing concern for women in the United States. As more women take on executive positions and experience sleep deprivation, there is the potential for up regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha. It follows that the homeostatic imbalance of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity leads to a greater risk of disease. Bisphosphonates generally, and Zolendronate specifically works by decreasing the number of osteoclasts. This current study investigated the impact of Zolendronate on the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha-type (TNFɑ) in 32 ovariectomized Wistar rats. Throughout a five …


Bone Strength And Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness In Sleep Deprived Ovariectomized Rats Treated With Zoledronate, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch Dec 2019

Bone Strength And Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness In Sleep Deprived Ovariectomized Rats Treated With Zoledronate, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Osteoporosis is a disease that causes the density and quality of bone to be decreased, which can increase the risk of fracture by 40%. 1 in 3 women over the age of 50 will be affected by osteoporosis. This study aimed to show how bone strength and distal femur trabecular thickness might be affected by Zoledronate and sleep-deprivation in estrogen-deficient rats. Wistar female rats were ovariectomized to contrive postmenopausal estrogen-deficiency. The rats were separated into 4 groups. The control group (C, n=4) was given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 0.45 mL of 0.9% saline, were housed in standard conditions permitting …


Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang Jul 2019

Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates …


Network Analyses Of Glomerular Capillaries, Jason Cory Brunson, Justin Sardi, Mark Terasaki May 2019

Network Analyses Of Glomerular Capillaries, Jason Cory Brunson, Justin Sardi, Mark Terasaki

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Human Gut Microbiome, Enrico José Aveiro Johannsen, Mandy Peak Apr 2019

Human Gut Microbiome, Enrico José Aveiro Johannsen, Mandy Peak

Posters

The human gut microbiome has been an area of interest for researchers due to its established link with human metabolism, nutrition, physiology, and immune functions. The research presented further investigates the microbiome to better understand it. Stools from two healthy young African males and a French obese individual were analyzed using MALDI-TOF MS and the enrichment culture technique. For the identification of bacterial species metagenomics, genomics, and culturomics were used. The results showed a much broader biodiversity in the human gut than previously predicted, as well as better results when using culturomics for measuring biodiversity in large-scale isolation.


Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe Jan 2019

Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic amoeba and the causative agent of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), was utilized to determine the presence or absence of classically conserved Golgi molecules featured in the expression of a Golgi apparatus. Previous studies concluded no Golgi expression via light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, but a recent report on Naegleria gruberi indicated the presence of dispersed Golgi tubules. Non-pathogenic species of the Naegleria genus such as Naegleria gruberi 30540 and Naegleria lovaniensis 30569 were utilized in Western immunoblot analysis compared to reduced whole-cell lysate proteins of two strains of N. fowleri and …


Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar Nov 2018

Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to compare the enzymatic kinetics and distribution of cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) among different rat brain subcellular fractions.

Rat brains were used to prepare total membrane, crude mitochondrial, purified mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, in addition to total homogenate. Michaelis–Menten kinetics of the brain CYP2D activity was estimated based on the conversion of dextromethorphan (DXM) to dextrorphan using UPLC-MS/MS. Protein levels of CYP2D and subcellular markers were determined by Western blot.

Microsomal CYP2D exhibited high affinity and low capacity, compared with the mitochondrial CYP2D that had a much lower (∼50-fold) affinity but a higher (∼six-fold) …


Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo Jun 2018

Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Virus particles protect genomes from hostile environments within and outside the host, eventually delivering these genomes to target tissues to initiate infection. Complex processes requiring significant energy and time are necessary to assemble these virus particles, but only a small portion of released virus will successfully infect new target cells (Fig 1A). While the science of virology has developed based on the isolation and purification of viral particles, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cell-to-cell transmission of viruses and/or viral components is also highly relevant [1,2].

Direct cell-to-cell spread of infections has several advantages. The first is efficiency: genomic …


Central Nervous System Histoplasmosis: Multicenter Retrospective Study On Clinical Features, Diagnostic Approach And Outcome Of Treatment, Joseph Wheat, Thein Myint, Ying Guo, Phebe Kemmer, Chadi A. Hage, Colin Terry, Marwan M. Azar, James Riddell, Peter Ender, Sharon Chen, Kareem Shehab, Kerry Cleveland, Eden Esguerra, James Johnson, Patty Wright, Vanja Douglas, Pascalis Vergidis, Winnie Ooi, John Baddley, David Bamberger, Raed N. Khairy, Holenarasipur R. Vikram, Elizabeth Jenny-Avital, Geetha Sivasubramanian, Karen Bowlware, Barbara Pahud, Juan Sarria, Townson Tsai, Maha Assi, Satish Mocherla Mar 2018

Central Nervous System Histoplasmosis: Multicenter Retrospective Study On Clinical Features, Diagnostic Approach And Outcome Of Treatment, Joseph Wheat, Thein Myint, Ying Guo, Phebe Kemmer, Chadi A. Hage, Colin Terry, Marwan M. Azar, James Riddell, Peter Ender, Sharon Chen, Kareem Shehab, Kerry Cleveland, Eden Esguerra, James Johnson, Patty Wright, Vanja Douglas, Pascalis Vergidis, Winnie Ooi, John Baddley, David Bamberger, Raed N. Khairy, Holenarasipur R. Vikram, Elizabeth Jenny-Avital, Geetha Sivasubramanian, Karen Bowlware, Barbara Pahud, Juan Sarria, Townson Tsai, Maha Assi, Satish Mocherla

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in 5 to 10% of individuals with disseminated histoplasmosis. Most experience has been derived from small single center case series, or case report literature reviews. Therefore, a larger study of central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is needed in order to guide the approach to diagnosis, and treatment.

A convenience sample of 77 patients with histoplasmosis infection of the CNS was evaluated. Data was collected that focused on recognition of infection, diagnostic techniques, and outcomes of treatment.

Twenty nine percent of patients were not immunosuppressed. Histoplasma antigen, or anti-Histoplasma antibodies were detected in the …


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo Dec 2017

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli Oct 2017

Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field. …


Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi Oct 2017

Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ependymal cilia protrude into the central canal of the brain ventricles and spinal cord to circulate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cilia dysfunction can hinder the movement of CSF leading to an abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain known as hydrocephalus. Although the etiology of hydrocephalus was studied before, the effects of ethanol ingestion on ependymal cilia function have not been investigated in vivo. Here, we report three distinct types of ependymal cilia, type-I, type-II and type-III classified based upon their beating frequency, their beating angle, and their distinct localization within the mouse brain-lateral ventricle. Our studies …


Characterization Of Transmembrane Protein 35 Expression: Considerations Of Sex And Ovarian Hormones, Amanda M. Vanderplow Jul 2017

Characterization Of Transmembrane Protein 35 Expression: Considerations Of Sex And Ovarian Hormones, Amanda M. Vanderplow

All NMU Master's Theses

The recently discovered novel neuropeptide transmembrane protein 35 (TMEM35), is believed to modulate chemical signaling within the nervous system. Notably, the TMEM35 protein is detectable in humans, non-human primates and rodents, suggesting a conserved and critical function. Despite this, the functions of TMEM35 are ill-defined in the nervous system and insufficiently studied (currently only three publications). Previous work has identified high expression of TMEM35 in both the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and the limbic circuit of the mouse brain. Due to the known functions of these two regions, this pattern of expression indicates possible roles of this neuropeptide in social behavior …