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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Microplastic Accumulation In The Marsh Periwinkle (Littoraria Irrorata), Sarah Keaton, Hannah Lukhard, Eli Windy, Manar Hasan Jul 2024

Microplastic Accumulation In The Marsh Periwinkle (Littoraria Irrorata), Sarah Keaton, Hannah Lukhard, Eli Windy, Manar Hasan

DePaul Discoveries

Contamination of oceans by microplastics (mm) currently poses a major threat to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Recent attention towards this issue has raised questions about the extent to which microplastics have accumulated in the environment, and has led to an increase in studies on the effects of microplastics in various organisms. However, levels of contamination in protected natural areas are still largely unexplored, yet can offer an important empirical perspective on the issue. In addition, little is known about the potential effects of microplastics on behavior in the field. This research was conducted within the protected ACE Basin National …


Gut Microbiota Changes After Cholecystectomy: Unraveling The Microbial Mysteries - A Systematic Review, Maftuna Kurbonnazarova, Arthi Rameshkumar, Olivia R. Siciliano, Samrat Gollapudi, Katarina Rusinak, Alissa Brotman O’Neill May 2024

Gut Microbiota Changes After Cholecystectomy: Unraveling The Microbial Mysteries - A Systematic Review, Maftuna Kurbonnazarova, Arthi Rameshkumar, Olivia R. Siciliano, Samrat Gollapudi, Katarina Rusinak, Alissa Brotman O’Neill

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Aims: This review aims to expand upon previous research examining change in gastrointestinal microbiota before and after cholecystectomy.

Methods: A systematic review, combined with a pooled analysis, was conducted to assess gut microbiota dysbiosis post-cholecystectomy, utilizing 71 articles retrieved from 3 databases, with 13 undergoing full-text appraisal. The publication dates ranged from 2018 to 2023.

Results: Results suggested a greater degree of microbiota alteration in symptomatic post-cholecystectomy patients, characterized by a decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus, alongside increased levels of harmful microbiota such as Prevotella, Sutterella, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Blautia obeum, and Veillonella species. Interestingly, an increase in …


The Pam-1 Aminopeptidase Protects Against Neurodegeneration In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Caleb Coil May 2024

The Pam-1 Aminopeptidase Protects Against Neurodegeneration In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Caleb Coil

Honors College Theses

The deteriorating effects of neurodegenerative conditions seem inescapable for many as they age. The experimental exploration of the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for neurodegeneration is aided using animal models. For instance, genetic screens have identified the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) as a novel effector of neurodegeneration, as mutations in PSA in fruit flies result in perturbations of neuron anatomy and an accelerated onset of neuron death. We have tested the hypothesis that PAM-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of PSA, plays a similar role in governing neurodegeneration in nematodes. Genetic strains were created that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in …


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori Jan 2024

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are increasing in incidence and have led to higher rates of hospitalization. In this study, we measured MRSA inactivation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), a promising new cell ablation technology. Our results show that treatment with 120 pulses of 600 ns duration (28 kV/cm, 1 Hz), caused modest inactivation, indicating cellular damage. We anticipated that the perturbation created by nsPEF could increase antibiotic efficacy if nsPEF were applied as a co-treatment. To test this …


Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones Nov 2023

Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. As global incidences of UTIs caused by multidrug resistant bacteria continue to increase, so too does the demand for novel antimicrobial therapies.

Due to its relatively understudied nature, the urinary microbiome represents a niche with an untapped source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted these potential alternative treatments and control strategies to target antibiotic resistant uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

METHODS: Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine samples. Urinary isolates …


Characterization Of Epithelial Growth Factor Transcripts Identified In Crotalus Atrox Venom, Ivan Lopez, Ying Jia Sep 2023

Characterization Of Epithelial Growth Factor Transcripts Identified In Crotalus Atrox Venom, Ivan Lopez, Ying Jia

Research Symposium

Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF) is the primary source in regeneration and stimulation of essential fibroblasts cells commonly found in epithelium. Studies have shown that snake venom components are becoming a growing factor in treating illnesses such as cancer, muscular dystrophy, chronic pain, blood pressure, blood clotting, etc. EGF in human cells contains a promising quaternary structure that can bind to snake venom metalloproteinases, proposing a means of activating biochemical responses through protein-protein interactions to regulate unwanted cellular functions. This supports promising research in achieving a greater understanding of regulation along cellular pathways through ligands, increasing the likelihood of targeting unwanted …


Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke Aug 2023

Analyzing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa With Bacteriophage Tags Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jennifer C. Schinke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The number of daily bacterial infections is climbing and the CDC explains that this is due to the antibiotic-resistant threat in the United States. Finding a faster way of bacterial identification is necessary as it currently takes 1-4 days for a medical lab to culture and identify bacteria. Photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) can be used as an alternative method resulting in swift identification within an hour (Edgar, 2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell line PA01, will be coated in up to a few hundred red dyed phages making it detectible by the photoacoustic flow cytometry system. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that …


The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon May 2023

The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon

Journal of Pharmacology & Nutritional Sciences

The "psilocybiome" represents the mutually beneficial relationship between ourselves, our bacteria, and psychedelic drugs. This short review briefly discusses the benefits and limitations surrounding the potential for psychedelic therapy to synergize with gut bacteria to help regulate and maintain proper balance in the immune system, diet, and stress levels. Psychedelic therapy is a novel treatment strategy that has the potential to improve patient mental health, and, by identifying the types of gut bacteria present in patients, it can aid in personalizing medicine by determining how well their "psilocybiome" may respond.


Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker May 2023

Sexual Dimorphism Of Glomerular Capillary Morphology In Rats, Zackarias Coker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses faster in males than females; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Sex differences in glomerular capillary morphology has been hypothesized to contribute, in part, to the increased susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury and CKD progression in males, but this has not been investigated. The goal of the present study was to assess glomerular capillary morphology in male vs. female rats with intact kidneys and after uninephrectomy (UNX). We hypothesized that glomerular capillary radii (RCAP) and length (LCAP) would be greater in male rats.

Male (n=4) and female (n=4) with intact …


Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang Apr 2023

Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blasts posing serious threats to food security worldwide. During infection, M. oryzae utilizes several transmembrane receptor proteins that sense cell surface cues to induce highly specialized infectious structures called appressoria. However, little is known about the mechanisms of intracellular receptor tracking and their function. Here, we described that disrupting the coat protein complex II (COPII) cargo protein MoErv14 severely affects appressorium formation and pathogenicity as the ΔMoerv14 mutant is defective not only in cAMP production but also in the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MoPmk1. Studies also showed that either externally supplementing cAMP or …


Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue Feb 2023

Endogenous Mirna-Based Innate-Immunity Against Sars-Cov-2 Invasion Of The Brain, Walter J. Lukiw, Aileen I. Pogue

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, possesses an unusually large positive-sense, single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) genome of about ~29,903 nucleotides (nt). In many respects, this ssvRNA resembles a very large, polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing a 5′-methyl cap (m7GpppN), a 3′- and 5′-untranslated region (3′-UTR, 5′-UTR), and a poly-adenylated (poly-A+) tail. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA is susceptible to targeting by small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) and/or microRNA (miRNA), as well as neutralization and/or inhibition of its infectivity via the human body’s natural complement of about ~2650 miRNA species. Depending on host cell and tissue …


Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh Jan 2023

Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh

Undergraduate Research Posters

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cell lymphocytes in humans, leading to the development of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) if left untreated. While current treatment methods, including antiretroviral combination treatments, effectively limit HIV replication, HIV can evade these treatments due to its high mutation rate. Long-term antiretroviral treatment can also be toxic to patients, meaning patients would benefit from a new mechanism of HIV treatment. RNA interference (RNAi) is an antiviral pathway found in mammals, plants, and insects that involves a small-interfering RNA that is incorporated into a protein complex called the RNA-induced Silencing Complex …


Expansion On The Use Of The Novel Compound, Elp-004, Using A Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Experimentation Model, Kendyl Marie Berry Jan 2023

Expansion On The Use Of The Novel Compound, Elp-004, Using A Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Experimentation Model, Kendyl Marie Berry

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Osteoarticular tuberculosis (OAT) is a bone degenerative disease that results in bone erosion, joint effusion, joint swelling, and sometimes, nerve compression. OAT occurs from the hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli spreading from the primary site of infection to the bones and joints; the primary site of infection tends to be the lungs as pulmonary tuberculosis infections are the most common. OAT can occur as the result of an active or latent infection. Latent infections result in OAT when bacilli are able to escape granulomas. The incidence of OAT is not as high as pulmonary infections, making up about …


Amphisbaenian Head Movement And Burrowing Forces In Damp Granular Media, Jacob Newell Jan 2023

Amphisbaenian Head Movement And Burrowing Forces In Damp Granular Media, Jacob Newell

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Damp granular media is a difficult environment to study because it is both practically complex and it lacks equations which fully describe its behavior. In this study, an oscillatory lateral head movement and its effects while penetrating damp granular media were tested using a robophysical model. This experimental research was inspired by the burrowing behavior of the clade Amphisbaenia, a group of usually limbless squamates that employ a variety of different burrowing behaviors, but it can apply to a wide range of burrowers. This research could help with both human burrowing technologies and the further investigation of animal behaviors.


Impact Of Alcohol On Bone Health In People Living With Hiv: Integrating Clinical Data From Serum Bone Markers With Morphometric Analysis In A Non-Human Primate Model, Alexandra Denys, Allison Norman, Daniel S. Perrien, Larry J. Suva, Liz Simon, Lee S. Mcdaniel, Tekeda Ferguson, Kim Pedersen, David Welsh, Patricia E. Molina, Martin J.J. Ronis Nov 2022

Impact Of Alcohol On Bone Health In People Living With Hiv: Integrating Clinical Data From Serum Bone Markers With Morphometric Analysis In A Non-Human Primate Model, Alexandra Denys, Allison Norman, Daniel S. Perrien, Larry J. Suva, Liz Simon, Lee S. Mcdaniel, Tekeda Ferguson, Kim Pedersen, David Welsh, Patricia E. Molina, Martin J.J. Ronis

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

People living with HIV (PLWH) represent a vulnerable population to adverse musculoskeletal outcomes due to HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and at-risk alcohol use. Developing measures to prevent skeletal degeneration in this group requires a grasp of the relationship between alcohol use and low bone mass in both the PLWH population and its constituents as defined by sex, age, and race. We examined the association of alcohol use with serum biochemical markers of bone health in a diverse cohort of PLWH enrolled in the New Orleans Alcohol Use in HIV (NOAH) study. To explore the effects of alcohol on bone …


Emergence Of A Multidrug-Resistant And Virulent Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Mediates Serotype Replacement After Pcv13: An International Whole-Genome Sequencing Study, Stephanie W. Lo, Kate Mellor, Robert Cohen, Alba Redin Alonso, Sophie Belman, Narender Kumar, Paulina A. Hawkins, Rebecca A. Gladstone, Sadia Shakoor, Muhammad Imran Nisar Oct 2022

Emergence Of A Multidrug-Resistant And Virulent Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Mediates Serotype Replacement After Pcv13: An International Whole-Genome Sequencing Study, Stephanie W. Lo, Kate Mellor, Robert Cohen, Alba Redin Alonso, Sophie Belman, Narender Kumar, Paulina A. Hawkins, Rebecca A. Gladstone, Sadia Shakoor, Muhammad Imran Nisar

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Serotype 24F is one of the emerging pneumococcal serotypes after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aimed to identify lineages driving the increase of serotype 24F in France and place these findings into a global context.
Methods: Whole-genome sequencing was performed on a collection of serotype 24F pneumococci from asymptomatic colonisation (n=229) and invasive disease (n=190) isolates among individuals younger than 18 years in France, from 2003 to 2018. To provide a global context, we included an additional collection of 24F isolates in the Global Pneumococcal Sequencing (GPS) project database for analysis. A Global Pneumococcal Sequence Cluster …


Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak Aug 2022

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these …


Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai Jul 2022

Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Precise enteric fever disease burden data are needed to inform prevention and control measures, including the use of newly available typhoid vaccines. We established the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) to inform these strategies.
Methods: From September, 2016, to September, 2019, we conducted prospective clinical surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and Paratyphi (S Paratyphi) A, B, and C at health facilities in predetermined catchment areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok, Nepal; and Karachi, Pakistan. Patients eligible for inclusion were outpatients with 3 or more consecutive days of fever in the last 7 …


Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta May 2022

Burden, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, And Seasonality Of Adenovirus 40/41 Diarrhea In Children In Eight Low-Resource Settings, Godfrey Guga, Sarah Elwood, Caroline Kimathi, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N. Kosek, Aldo A M Lima, Pascal O. Bessong, Amidou Samie, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: The application of molecular diagnostics has identified enteric group adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41 as important causes of diarrhea in children. However, many aspects of the epidemiology of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea have not been described.
Methods: We used data from the 8-site Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project birth cohort study to describe site- and age-specific incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and seasonality.
Results: The incidence of adenovirus 40/41 diarrhea was substantially higher by quantitative polymerase chain reaction than enzyme immunoassay and peaked at ∼30 episodes …


Dental Morphology In A Juvenile Mammal From The Late Cretaceous Of South America: Tooth Eruption And Development., Kayla E Newton May 2022

Dental Morphology In A Juvenile Mammal From The Late Cretaceous Of South America: Tooth Eruption And Development., Kayla E Newton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Meridiolestids are a diverse and distinct clade of Cretaceous–Miocene South American dryolestoid mammals ranging in size from small shrew-sized insectivores to large dog- sized omnivores. Cronopio dentiacutus from the Cenomanian La Buitrera locality, Rio Negro Province, Argentina (Candeleros Fm.) is the oldest and best known of them, represented by skull material and associated jaws. A juvenile skull as attributed to Cronopio dentiacutus, based on tooth size and morphology, was collected from the type locality. The specimen includes the skull and both articulated lower jaws. The fossil is poorly ossified and partially flattened; CT scanning reveals most of the dentition …


Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino Apr 2022

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = …


Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani Apr 2022

Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Results: When tested on the baseline of isolated tissues, Tfg.Cr was devoid of any activity (stimulant or relaxant) till 10 mg/ml. This is an interesting finding, keeping in mind that the fenugreek seeds are used to alleviate constipation and diarrhoea. When Tfg.Cr was tried for any potential AChE inhibitory activity, it did show an inhibitory effect in increasing concentrations (47-380 μg/ml). This inhibitory effect was comparable to the effect produced by a standard AChE inhibitor physostigmine. One of the known fenugreek constituents, diosgenin, was also tested, and it also showed an AChE inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner (11-190 …


Healthcare Simulation: A Key To The Future Of Medical Education - A Review, Omair Ayaz, Faisal Wasim Ismail Apr 2022

Healthcare Simulation: A Key To The Future Of Medical Education - A Review, Omair Ayaz, Faisal Wasim Ismail

Medical College Documents

Aim: Simulation originates from its application in the military and aviation. It is implemented at various levels of healthcare education and certification today. However, its use remains unevenly distributed across the globe due to misconception regarding its cost and complexity and to lack of evidence for its consistency and validity. Implementation may also be hindered by an array of factors unique to the locale and its norms. Resource-poor settings may benefit from diverting external funds for short-term simulation projects towards collaboration with local experts and local material sourcing to reduce the overall cost and achieve long-term benefits. The recent shift …


A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor Apr 2022

A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pneumococcal serotype 35B is an important non-conjugate vaccine (non-PCV) serotype. Its continued emergence, post-PCV7 in the USA, was associated with expansion of a pre-existing 35B clone (clonal complex [CC] 558) along with post-PCV13 emergence of a non-35B clone previously associated with PCV serotypes (CC156). This study describes lineages circulating among 35B isolates in South Africa before and after PCV introduction. We also compared 35B isolates belonging to a predominant 35B lineage in South Africa (GPSC5), with isolates belonging to the same lineage in other parts of the world. Serotype 35B isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa in …


Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo Mar 2022

Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan Feb 2022

A Review Of Coronaviruses Associated With Kawasaki Disease: Possible Implications For Pathogenesis Of The Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Covid-19, Fatima Farrukh Shahbaz, Russell Seth Martins, Abdullah Umair, Ronika Devi Ukrani, Kauser Jabeen, M Rizwan Sohail, Erum Khan

Medical College Documents

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), representing a new entity in the spectrum of manifestations of COVID-19, bears symptomatic resemblance with Kawasaki Disease (KD). This review explores the possible associations between KD and the human coronaviruses and discusses the pathophysiological similarities between KD and MIS-C and proposes implications for the pathogenesis of MIS-C in COVID-19. Since 2005, when a case-control study demonstrated the association of a strain of human coronavirus with KD, several studies have provided evidence regarding the association of different strains of the human coronaviruses with KD. Thus, the emergence of the KD-like disease MIS-C in COVID-19 may …


Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy Jan 2022

Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy

MSU Graduate Theses

Peritonitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the mesothelial cells that line the peritoneal cavity and is commonly induced by bowel perforations. This medical emergency is treated through antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention followed by tissue irrigation (lavage). Acute treatments aim to remove the bacterial burden, however recurring peritoneal infections occur at high rates and contribute to patient morbidity. These recurring infections are likely due to the inability of lavage solutions to remove the entire massive intra-abdominal bacterial load due to intestinal perforation. Numerous antiseptic solutions and antibiotic additives have been evaluated in their ability to improve source control by abdominal …


Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena Jan 2021

Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Mammalian system consists of stress-sensing molecules that regulates their cellular response against damage, injury and oncogenic stress. During vertebrate regeneration, cells responding to injury re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate to form new tissue. Cell cycle re-entry or arrest is at least partly regulated by cellular senescence which negatively impacts the proliferative pool of cells during regeneration. What remains unclear is whether cells in regenerating systems possess an increased propensity to proliferate and are refractory to signals that induce senescence. My thesis work has focused on how fibroblasts from the ear pinna differentially regulate healing in highly regenerative mammals (e.g., …


Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr Dec 2020

Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr

Honors College Theses

Inteins (intervening proteins) invade genes at the DNA level and splice out at the protein level. Once thought of as only a parasitic type of a mobile genetic element, recent work suggests a mutualistic relationship has formed in some cases within bacterial and archaeal hosts. After translation, a precursor protein is formed with the intein between two exteins. The intein is catalytic and can excise itself out through protein splicing. Intein insertion is biased towards the active site of the protein and is thought to cause inactivation of the host protein prior to splicing. Intein splicing is responsive to a …


Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar Jul 2020

Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ethoxyresorufin (ER)-O-deethylation (EROD) activity has been widely used to assess cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity. The kinetics of CYP1A activity have been well characterized in the liver microsomes. However, studies in kidney microsomes are limited due to the much lower EROD activity in this organ. Here, we developed and validated a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the characterization of the EROD activity in the rat kidney microsomes. In a 50 µL reaction mixture, rat kidney microsomes (0.25 mg/mL) were incubated with ER (0.1–5 µM) and NADPH (1 mM) for 10 min. Acidic solvents, such as trichloroacetic acid or formic …